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Midbrain

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3181. Midbrain control of spinal nociception discriminates between responses evoked by myelinated and unmyelinated heat nociceptors in the rat. (Abstract)

Midbrain control of spinal nociception discriminates between responses evoked by myelinated and unmyelinated heat nociceptors in the rat. Descending control of spinal nociception is a major determinant of normal and chronic pain. Myelinated (A-fibre) and unmyelinated (C-fibre) nociceptors convey different qualities of the pain signal (first and second pain, respectively), and they play different roles in the development and maintenance of chronic pain states. It is of considerable importance

2006 Pain

3182. Stimulating the human midbrain to reveal the link between pain and blood pressure. (Abstract)

Stimulating the human midbrain to reveal the link between pain and blood pressure. The periaqueductal grey area (PAG) in the midbrain is an important area for both cardiovascular control and modulation of pain. However, the precise relationship between pain and blood pressure is unknown. We prospectively studied 16 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation of the rostral PAG for chronic pain. Pre-operatively, post-operatively, and at 1 year, pain scores were assessed using both visual analogue

2006 Pain

3183. Distraction modulates connectivity of the cingulo-frontal cortex and the midbrain during pain--an fMRI analysis. (Abstract)

Distraction modulates connectivity of the cingulo-frontal cortex and the midbrain during pain--an fMRI analysis. Neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have delineated a human pain network in vivo. Despite the recognition of cerebral structures engaged in pain transmission, the cerebral mechanisms involved in pain modulation are still not well understood. Here, we investigated healthy volunteers using fMRI during

2004 Pain

3184. Prostaglandin E2 in the midbrain periaqueductal gray produces hyperalgesia and activates pain-modulating circuitry in the rostral ventromedial medulla. (Abstract)

Prostaglandin E2 in the midbrain periaqueductal gray produces hyperalgesia and activates pain-modulating circuitry in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Recent years have seen significant advances in our understanding of the peripheral and spinal mechanisms through which prostaglandins contribute to nociceptive sensitization. By contrast, the possibility of a supraspinal contribution of these compounds to facilitated pain states has received relatively little attention. One possible mechanism (...) through which prostaglandins could act supraspinally to facilitate nociception would be by recruitment of descending facilitation from brainstem pain-modulating systems. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is now known to contribute to enhanced responding in a variety of inflammatory and nerve injury models. Its major supraspinal input, the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), expresses prostanoid receptors and synthetic enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether direct

2004 Pain

3185. Accumulation of Acid-Fast Lipochrome Bodies in Glial Cells of the Midbrain Nigral Lesion in Parkinson’s Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accumulation of Acid-Fast Lipochrome Bodies in Glial Cells of the Midbrain Nigral Lesion in Parkinson’s Disease To confirm or refute the proposed link between nocardiae and Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated the presence of acid-fast spherical structures similar to filterable nocardiae at the midbrain nigral lesions of three patients with PD. Many clusters of acid-fast lipochrome bodies were dense around blood vessels in the two patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage II and III PD

1998 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

3186. An ultrastructural study of the development of astrocytes in the midbrain of the lizard. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An ultrastructural study of the development of astrocytes in the midbrain of the lizard. Astrocyte development was investigated electron microscopically in the midbrain of the lizard Gallotia galloti from E32 to adult. At E32 only very immature (early) glioblasts were present in the midbrain and similar cells could be found until hatching. From E34 two other types of glioblast could be identified--dark glioblasts which had a slightly greater amount of cytoplasm than early glioblasts and light

1990 Journal of anatomy

3187. Pure sensory stroke due to midbrain haemorrhage limited to the spinothalamic pathway. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pure sensory stroke due to midbrain haemorrhage limited to the spinothalamic pathway. A 62 year old man suddenly presented with a pure left sensory deficit involving only pain and temperature sensations. CT scan and MRI showed a small haemorrhage in the dorsolateral part of the right midbrain. This suggested a lesion limited to the right dorsal spinothalamic tract.

1989 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3188. Paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarcts associated with palilalia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarcts associated with palilalia A patient with paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarcts developed palilalia.

1990 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3189. Respiratory-associated rhythmic firing of midbrain neurones in cats: relation to level of respiratory drive. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Respiratory-associated rhythmic firing of midbrain neurones in cats: relation to level of respiratory drive. 1. We recorded phrenic nerve activities and single unit firing of mesencephalic neurones in unanaesthetized supracollicularly decerebrated, paralysed and ventilated cats, in which vagi and carotid sinus nerves had been ablated. We made these measurements first at low levels of respiratory drive associated with normal PCO2 levels, then with increased respiratory drive and levels (...) and the independent ventilator-associated rhythm. 6. We interpret our findings to show that the respiratory-associated rhythmic firing of midbrain neurones is not primarily involved in generation or modulation of the motor function of the respiratory oscillator. We believe, instead, that these neurones are part of a sensory pathway conveying information about the magnitude of central neural respiratory drive, as well as spinally transmitted information from receptors in the chest wall, to thalamus and cortex. We

1991 The Journal of physiology

3190. Pure sensory stroke due to midbrain haemorrhage. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pure sensory stroke due to midbrain haemorrhage. 1955892 1991 12 31 2018 11 13 0022-3050 54 9 1991 Sep Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Pure sensory stroke due to midbrain haemorrhage. 843 Alvarez-Sabin J J Montalbán J J Tintoré M M Codina A A eng Case Reports Comment Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050 IM J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Dec;52(12):1427-8 2614441 Adult Brain Neoplasms complications diagnosis

1991 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3191. Vertical gaze palsy due to a resolving midbrain lesion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vertical gaze palsy due to a resolving midbrain lesion. 2213052 1990 11 19 2018 11 13 0022-3050 53 8 1990 Aug Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vertical gaze palsy due to a resolving midbrain lesion. 708-9 Trend P P Youl B D BD Sanders M D MD Kocen R S RS McDonald W I WI eng Case Reports Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050 IM Adult Chickenpox complications Encephalitis complications Female Follow-Up Studies Humans

1990 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3192. On the inhibitory actions of baclofen and gamma-aminobutyric acid in rat ventral midbrain culture. Full Text available with Trip Pro

On the inhibitory actions of baclofen and gamma-aminobutyric acid in rat ventral midbrain culture. 1. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were used to study the effects of (-)-baclofen and of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neurones cultured from the ventral midbrain of embryonic rats. 2. Baclofen induced an outward current (IBac) at a holding potential of -60 mV. The maximal current was 80 pA, and half-maximal current was evoked by 5 microM-baclofen. The proportion of cells affected (...) by baclofen. The effectiveness of baclofen was greater on cells that had been longer in culture. 8. It is concluded that activation of GABAB receptors has two main effects on neurones cultured from rat ventral midbrain. These are potassium conductance increase, and inhibition of the spontaneous release of GABA and excitatory amino acids; both effects can be observed in tetrodotoxin and cadmium.

1992 The Journal of physiology

3193. Effects of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists on rat midbrain dopaminergic neurones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists on rat midbrain dopaminergic neurones. 1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nifedepine and nimodipine (300 nM-30 microM) were tested in vitro on intracellularly recorded dopaminergic neurones in the rat ventral mesencephalon. 2. Bath applied nifedipine and nimodipine inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the spontaneous firing discharge of the action potentials, whereas, the dihydropyridine calcium channel

1994 British journal of pharmacology

3194. Facilitation of the arterial baroreflex by the ventrolateral part of the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter in rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Facilitation of the arterial baroreflex by the ventrolateral part of the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter in rats. 1. The effects of stimulation of the ventrolateral part of the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) on the arterial baroreflex were investigated in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Both electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral PAG provoked hypotension, vagal bradycardia and marked facilitation of baroreflex vagal

1994 The Journal of physiology

3195. TGF-beta superfamily members promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and protect them against MPP+ toxicity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

TGF-beta superfamily members promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and protect them against MPP+ toxicity. The superfamily of transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Prominent members of this family include the TGF-beta s 1-5, activins, bone morphogenetic proteins and a recently discovered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present (...) study we demonstrate and compare the survival promoting and neuroprotective effects of TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3, activin A and GDNF for midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro. All proteins increase the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons isolated from the embryonic day (E) 14 rat mesencephalon floor to varying extents (TGF-beta s 2.5-fold, activin A and GDNF 1.6-fold). TGF-beta s, activin A and GDNF did not augment numbers of very rarely observed astroglial cells

1995 The EMBO journal

3196. A novel receptor for diadenosine polyphosphates coupled to calcium increase in rat midbrain synaptosomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A novel receptor for diadenosine polyphosphates coupled to calcium increase in rat midbrain synaptosomes. 1. Diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap4A and Ap5A, as well as ATP, alpha,beta-MeATP and ADP-beta-S, were able to elicit variable intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ increases in rat midbrain synaptic terminals. The origin of the Ca2+ increment was the extra synaptosomal space since the elimination of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the effect of all the agonists. 2. The P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin, did

1995 British journal of pharmacology

3197. Midbrain tegmental lesions affecting or sparing the pupillary fibres. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain tegmental lesions affecting or sparing the pupillary fibres. Two patients with oculomotor palsy caused by midbrain infarction are reported. In the first, pupillary reaction was affected and in the second this reaction was spared. Because the lesions in the anterior part of the tegmentum were in the upper midbrain in the first patient and in the lower midbrain in the second, it is suggested that the pupillary components of the oculomotor nerve are located in the upper midbrain.

1996 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3198. Antagonism of the effects of (+)-PD 128907 on midbrain dopamine neurones in rat brain slices by a selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antagonism of the effects of (+)-PD 128907 on midbrain dopamine neurones in rat brain slices by a selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626. 1. The ability of PD 128907 to activate dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra pars compacta, and striatum was investigated by use of in vitro electrophysiological recording and fast cyclic voltammetry. The affinity of a novel D2 selective antagonist L-741,626 for receptors activated by this agonist was measured to determine (...) = 5). The affinity of L-741,626 for these nerve terminal autoreceptors (pKB = 7.71 +/- 0.06; = 20 nM) was identical to that observed on midbrain dopamine neurones. 6. These data demonstrate that the D3 receptor ligand (+)-PD 128907 is a potent agonist on rat midbrain dopamine neurones. However, its lack of regional selectivity, and the high affinity of the selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 for receptors activated by (+)-PD 128907, was more consistent with an action on D2 autoreceptors

1996 British journal of pharmacology

3199. Midbrain locked-in state with oculomotor subnucleus lesion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain locked-in state with oculomotor subnucleus lesion. 4045492 1985 11 12 2018 11 13 0022-3050 48 9 1985 Sep Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Midbrain locked-in state with oculomotor subnucleus lesion. 952-3 Uematsu D D Suematsu M M Fukuuchi Y Y Ebihara S S Gotoh F F eng Case Reports Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050 IM Brain Diseases diagnosis Humans Male Mesencephalon Middle Aged Quadriplegia diagnosis 1985

1985 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

3200. Tectal Tissue Grafted to the Midbrain of Newborn Rats: Effect of Donor Age on the Survival, Growth and Connectivity of Transplants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tectal Tissue Grafted to the Midbrain of Newborn Rats: Effect of Donor Age on the Survival, Growth and Connectivity of Transplants Tectal tissue was removed from rats at embryonic ages (E) E15, E18, E20 and postnatal day 0 (P0) and grafted onto the midbrain of newborn host rats. Six to 24 weeks after transplantation we examined 1) the growth characteristics of the grafts, 2) their morphology and 3) the pattern of retinal innervation of the grafted tissue. Graft survival was markedly affected

1989 Journal of Neural Transplantation

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