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Midbrain

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3161. Lateral gaze synkinesis on downward saccade attempts with paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarct (Full text)

Lateral gaze synkinesis on downward saccade attempts with paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarct 10577040 1999 11 19 2017 11 14 0022-3050 67 5 1999 Nov Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Lateral gaze synkinesis on downward saccade attempts with paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarct. 696-7 Versino M M Simonetti F F Egitto M G MG Ceroni M M Cosi V V Beltrami G G eng Case Reports Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050

1999 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry PubMed

3162. Midbrain tegmental lesions affecting or sparing the pupillary fibres. (Full text)

Midbrain tegmental lesions affecting or sparing the pupillary fibres. Two patients with oculomotor palsy caused by midbrain infarction are reported. In the first, pupillary reaction was affected and in the second this reaction was spared. Because the lesions in the anterior part of the tegmentum were in the upper midbrain in the first patient and in the lower midbrain in the second, it is suggested that the pupillary components of the oculomotor nerve are located in the upper midbrain.

1996 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry PubMed

3163. TGF-beta superfamily members promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and protect them against MPP+ toxicity. (Full text)

TGF-beta superfamily members promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and protect them against MPP+ toxicity. The superfamily of transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Prominent members of this family include the TGF-beta s 1-5, activins, bone morphogenetic proteins and a recently discovered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present (...) study we demonstrate and compare the survival promoting and neuroprotective effects of TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3, activin A and GDNF for midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro. All proteins increase the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons isolated from the embryonic day (E) 14 rat mesencephalon floor to varying extents (TGF-beta s 2.5-fold, activin A and GDNF 1.6-fold). TGF-beta s, activin A and GDNF did not augment numbers of very rarely observed astroglial cells

1995 The EMBO journal PubMed

3164. Experience-dependent corticofugal adjustment of midbrain frequency map in bat auditory system (Full text)

Experience-dependent corticofugal adjustment of midbrain frequency map in bat auditory system Recent studies of corticofugal modulation of auditory information processing indicate that cortical neurons mediate both a highly focused positive feedback to subcortical neurons "matched" in tuning to a particular acoustic parameter and a widespread lateral inhibition to "unmatched" subcortical neurons. This cortical function for the adjustment and improvement of subcortical information processing

1998 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed

3165. Antagonism of the effects of (+)-PD 128907 on midbrain dopamine neurones in rat brain slices by a selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626. (Full text)

Antagonism of the effects of (+)-PD 128907 on midbrain dopamine neurones in rat brain slices by a selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626. 1. The ability of PD 128907 to activate dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra pars compacta, and striatum was investigated by use of in vitro electrophysiological recording and fast cyclic voltammetry. The affinity of a novel D2 selective antagonist L-741,626 for receptors activated by this agonist was measured to determine (...) = 5). The affinity of L-741,626 for these nerve terminal autoreceptors (pKB = 7.71 +/- 0.06; = 20 nM) was identical to that observed on midbrain dopamine neurones. 6. These data demonstrate that the D3 receptor ligand (+)-PD 128907 is a potent agonist on rat midbrain dopamine neurones. However, its lack of regional selectivity, and the high affinity of the selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 for receptors activated by (+)-PD 128907, was more consistent with an action on D2 autoreceptors

1996 British journal of pharmacology PubMed

3166. A novel receptor for diadenosine polyphosphates coupled to calcium increase in rat midbrain synaptosomes. (Full text)

A novel receptor for diadenosine polyphosphates coupled to calcium increase in rat midbrain synaptosomes. 1. Diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap4A and Ap5A, as well as ATP, alpha,beta-MeATP and ADP-beta-S, were able to elicit variable intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ increases in rat midbrain synaptic terminals. The origin of the Ca2+ increment was the extra synaptosomal space since the elimination of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the effect of all the agonists. 2. The P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin, did

1995 British journal of pharmacology PubMed

3167. Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat (Full text)

Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat 1. Extracellular single-unit recording and iontophoresis were used to examine the effects of different cholinoceptor agonists and antagonists on the firing rate and firing pattern of A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones in the anaesthetized rat. 2. Administration of low currents (1-5 nA) of the selective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine M (Oxo M (...) to influence the activity of the midbrain dopamine system greatly and may play a role in, and/or be a therapeutic target for, brain disorders in which dopamine is involved (e.g., Parkinson's disease, drug addiction and schizophrenia).

1998 British journal of pharmacology PubMed

3168. Modulation of the dinucleotide receptor present in rat midbrain synaptosomes by adenosine and ATP (Full text)

Modulation of the dinucleotide receptor present in rat midbrain synaptosomes by adenosine and ATP Diadenosine polyphosphates activate dinucleotide receptors in rat midbrain synaptic terminals. The agonist with highest affinity at this receptor, diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A), elicits Ca(2+) transients at concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-3) M with a single-phase curve and an EC(50) value of 56.21+/-1.82 microM. Treatment of synaptosomal preparations with alkaline phosphatase (AP

2000 British journal of pharmacology PubMed

3169. Representation of Waveform Periodicity in the Auditory Midbrain of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana (Full text)

Representation of Waveform Periodicity in the Auditory Midbrain of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana The period of complex signals is encoded in the bullfrog's eighth nerve by a synchrony code based on phase-locked responding. We examined how these arrays of phase-locked activity are represented in different subnuclei of the auditory midbrain, the torus semicircularis (TS). Recording sites in different areas of the TS differ in their ability to synchronize to the envelope of complex stimuli

2000 JARO: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology PubMed

3170. Corticofugal modulation of duration-tuned neurons in the midbrain auditory nucleus in bats (Full text)

Corticofugal modulation of duration-tuned neurons in the midbrain auditory nucleus in bats Animal sounds, as well as human speech sounds, are characterized by multiple parameters such as frequency, intensity, duration, etc. The central auditory system produces neurons tuned to particular durations and frequencies of sounds emitted by a species. In bats, "duration-tuned" neurons are mostly sensitive to short durations and high frequencies of sounds used for echolocation. They are scattered

2001 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed

3171. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure in awake humans (Full text)

Electrical stimulation of the midbrain increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure in awake humans Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, basal ganglia or pedunculopontine nucleus in decorticate animals results in locomotion and a cardiorespiratory response resembling that seen during exercise. This has led to the hypothesis that parallel activation of cardiorespiratory and locomotor systems from the midbrain could form part of the 'central command' mechanism of exercise. However (...) of any site did not affect cardiovascular variables or movement. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain in awake humans can cause a modest increase in cardiovascular variables that is not dependent on movement feedback from exercising muscles. The relationship between this type of response and that occurring during actual exercise is unclear, but it indicates that subcortical command could be involved in 'parallel activation' of the locomotor and cardiovascular systems and thus contribute

2002 The Journal of physiology PubMed

3172. Vim thalamotomy for Holmes' tremor secondary to midbrain tumour. (Full text)

Vim thalamotomy for Holmes' tremor secondary to midbrain tumour. Holmes' (rubral or midbrain) tremor is an unusual combination of 2 Hz to 5 Hz rest, postural, and kinetic tremors of an upper extremity. This tremor has been considered to result from the lesions in the vicinity of the red nucleus in the midbrain. There has been no systematic analysis of the surgical target in the Holmes' tremor so far of nucleus ventrointermedius (Vim) or globus pallidus interna. This 26 year old man gradually (...) developed a disabling midbrain tremor involving both the distal and proximal parts of the left upper arm. Additional neurological findings included oculomotor palsy and ataxia of the left arm. On the radiological studies, a mass lesion (germinoma) was found on the midbrain tegmentum, which was treated by conventional radiation therapy. Although there was improvement in the radiological imaging, his midbrain tremor became intolerable despite medical treatment. The authors performed MR guided stereotactic

2002 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry PubMed

3173. Differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease: contribution of striatal and midbrain MRI volumetry and multi-tracer PET imaging. (Full text)

Differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease: contribution of striatal and midbrain MRI volumetry and multi-tracer PET imaging. The differential diagnosis between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and the striatonigral variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) is often difficult because of the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms of parkinsonism, particularly at symptom onset. This study investigated striatal and midbrain findings in MSA-P and PD (...) ) were calculated on the basis of the individual MRI data. The PET data were transferred to the VOI datasets and subsequently analysed.MSA-P differed significantly from PD patients in terms of decreased putaminal volume, glucose metabolism, and postsynaptic D2 receptor density. The striatal FDOPA uptake was equally impaired in both conditions. Neither MRI volumetry nor PET imaging of the midbrain region further contributed to the differential diagnosis between PD and MSA-P.The extent and spatial

2002 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry PubMed

3174. Localizing value of torsional nystagmus in small midbrain lesions. (PubMed)

Localizing value of torsional nystagmus in small midbrain lesions. The topodiagnostic value and specificity of nystagmus in patients with mesencephalic lesions and its relation to tonic torsional deficits and vertical saccade deficits is controversial and anecdotal.The authors examined 11 patients with vascular MRI-identified mesencephalic lesions and clinical evidence of vertical-torsional nystagmus on gaze straight ahead, focusing on the three-dimensional nystagmus components recorded (...) and the subjective visual vertical were shifted to the contralesional side (n = 7). Torsional nystagmus to the ipsilesional side was uncommon (n = 3) and found in patients with midbrain lesions involving the iC, all of whom also had decreased time constants of the slow phases of gaze-evoked nystagmus.Contrary to previous proposals, contralesional torsional nystagmus was the most frequent direction and is probably not compensatory for contralesional tonic ocular torsion. Small amplitude vertical saccades

2002 Neurology

3175. Addition of noise enhances neural synchrony to amplitude-modulated sounds in the frog's midbrain. (PubMed)

Addition of noise enhances neural synchrony to amplitude-modulated sounds in the frog's midbrain. The ability of 109 single units in the midbrain acoustic centre of frogs (Rana ridibunda, Rana temporaria) to reproduce 10%, 20 Hz sinusoidal amplitude modulation of a long-duration characteristic frequency tone was studied. The sinusoidal modulation was presented either in isolation or summed with a low-frequency (0-50 Hz) noise. Recordings were obtained in the adapted state. The magnitude

2002 Hearing Research

3176. Accumulation of Acid-Fast Lipochrome Bodies in Glial Cells of the Midbrain Nigral Lesion in Parkinson’s Disease (Full text)

Accumulation of Acid-Fast Lipochrome Bodies in Glial Cells of the Midbrain Nigral Lesion in Parkinson’s Disease To confirm or refute the proposed link between nocardiae and Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated the presence of acid-fast spherical structures similar to filterable nocardiae at the midbrain nigral lesions of three patients with PD. Many clusters of acid-fast lipochrome bodies were dense around blood vessels in the two patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage II and III PD

1998 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology PubMed

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