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Midbrain

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181. Hypocretin-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Percheron artery infarction with or without midbrain involvement: A case series. (PubMed)

Hypocretin-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Percheron artery infarction with or without midbrain involvement: A case series. Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarctions (BPTIs) due to artery of Percheron occlusion are known to cause hypersomnia. However, the role of hypocretin-1, a wake-promoting peptide that is located at the lateral hypothalamus, in hypersomnia in these patients remains unclear.To clarify the role of hypocretin-1 in hypersomnia in patients with BPTIs (...) , hypocretin-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 6 patients with BPTIs: 2 with rostral midbrain involvement (BPT+RMI) and 4 without midbrain involvement (BPT-MI).CSF hypocretin-1 levels were decreased in 2 patients with BPT+RMI and were within normal ranges in 4 patients with BPT-MI. Hypersomnia was noted in all the patients. In one BPT+RMI patient, hypersomnia was improved within 2 weeks and decreased CSF hypocretin-1 levels were reversed (acute phase (on day 9), 109.2 pg/mL

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2016 Medicine

182. Midbrain Frequency Representation following Moderately Intense Neonatal Sound Exposure in a Precocious Animal Model (Chinchilla laniger) (PubMed)

Midbrain Frequency Representation following Moderately Intense Neonatal Sound Exposure in a Precocious Animal Model (Chinchilla laniger) Auditory brain areas undergo reorganization resulting from abnormal sensory input during early postnatal development. This is evident from studies at the cortical level but it remains unclear whether there is reorganization in the auditory midbrain in a species similar to the human, that is, with early hearing onset. We have explored midbrain plasticity (...) the exposure frequency at 8 kHz. In addition, we report a significant increase in low frequency representation (<1 kHz), again a change to tonotopic mapping distant to the 2 kHz region. Thus in a precocious species, tonotopic maps in auditory midbrain are altered following abnormal stimulation during development. However, these changes are more complex than the overrepresentation of exposure related frequency regions that are often reported.

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2016 Neural plasticity

183. Neural and Response Correlations to Complex Natural Sounds in the Auditory Midbrain (PubMed)

Neural and Response Correlations to Complex Natural Sounds in the Auditory Midbrain How natural communication sounds are spatially represented across the inferior colliculus, the main center of convergence for auditory information in the midbrain, is not known. The neural representation of the acoustic stimuli results from the interplay of locally differing input and the organization of spectral and temporal neural preferences that change gradually across the nucleus. This raises the question

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2016 Frontiers in neural circuits

184. Spatially precise visual gain control mediated by a cholinergic circuit in the midbrain attention network (PubMed)

Spatially precise visual gain control mediated by a cholinergic circuit in the midbrain attention network A primary function of the midbrain stimulus selection network is to compute the highest-priority location for attention and gaze. Here we report the contribution of a specific cholinergic circuit to this computation. We functionally disconnected the tegmental cholinergic nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc) from the optic tectum (OT) in barn owls by reversibly blocking excitatory

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2016 Nature communications

185. Ethanol-Seeking Behavior is Expressed Directly through an Extended Amygdala to Midbrain Neural Circuit (PubMed)

Ethanol-Seeking Behavior is Expressed Directly through an Extended Amygdala to Midbrain Neural Circuit Abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals experience an enduring sensitivity to cue-induced craving and relapse to drinking. There is considerable evidence indicating that structures within the midbrain and extended amygdala are involved in this process. Individually, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have been shown to modulate cue-induced

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2016 Neurobiology of learning and memory

186. Stathmin-like 4 is critical for the maintenance of neural progenitor cells in dorsal midbrain of zebrafish larvae (PubMed)

Stathmin-like 4 is critical for the maintenance of neural progenitor cells in dorsal midbrain of zebrafish larvae A delicate balance between proliferating and differentiating signals is necessary to ensure proper growth and neuronal specification. By studying the developing zebrafish brain, we observed a specific and dynamic expression of a microtubule destabilizer gene, stathmin-like 4 (stmn4), in the dorsal midbrain region. The expression of stmn4 was mutually exclusive to a pan-neuronal (...) marker, elavl3 that indicates its role in regulating neurogenesis. We showed the knockdown or overexpression of stmn4 resulted in premature neuronal differentiation in dorsal midbrain. We also generated stmn4 maternal-zygotic knockout zebrafish by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Unexpectedly, only less than 10% of stmn4 mutants showed similar phenotypes observed in that of stmn4 morphants. It might be due to the complementation of the increased stmn1b expression observed in stmn4 mutants. In addition, time

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2016 Scientific reports

187. Motherhood and infant contact regulate neuroplasticity in the serotonergic midbrain dorsal raphe (PubMed)

Motherhood and infant contact regulate neuroplasticity in the serotonergic midbrain dorsal raphe The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral (...) and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood. Specifically, BrdU analyses revealed that DR newborn cell survival (but not proliferation) was regulated by reproductive state, such that cells born

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2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology

188. Pilocytic Midbrain Astrocytoma Presenting with Fresh Bleed after Twenty-one-years Survival Following First Surgery: A Unique Case of Longest Brainstem Glioma Survival (PubMed)

Pilocytic Midbrain Astrocytoma Presenting with Fresh Bleed after Twenty-one-years Survival Following First Surgery: A Unique Case of Longest Brainstem Glioma Survival Brainstem glioma usually carries a poor prognosis and prolonged survival is very infrequent. In a detailed Pubmed, Medline search for prolonged survival, authors could got a longest survival only up to seventeen years, reported by Umehara et al, who was subjected to gamma knife therapy and got symptomatic, MRI brain reveled large (...) tumor growth during pregnancy necessitating emergency surgery and histopathological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma. Authors report an interesting case of midbrain glioma diagnosed 21 years back, who underwent gross resection in the year 1993, histopathology was pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I, and received gamma knife surgery for residual subsequently and he presented with sudden onset left sided hemiplegia on the current admission. The cranial MRI imaging revealed an infarct involving right

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2016 Journal of neurosciences in rural practice

189. Meta-adaptation in the auditory midbrain under cortical influence (PubMed)

Meta-adaptation in the auditory midbrain under cortical influence Neural adaptation is central to sensation. Neurons in auditory midbrain, for example, rapidly adapt their firing rates to enhance coding precision of common sound intensities. However, it remains unknown whether this adaptation is fixed, or dynamic and dependent on experience. Here, using guinea pigs as animal models, we report that adaptation accelerates when an environment is re-encountered-in response to a sound environment (...) that repeatedly switches between quiet and loud, midbrain neurons accrue experience to find an efficient code more rapidly. This phenomenon, which we term meta-adaptation, suggests a top-down influence on the midbrain. To test this, we inactivate auditory cortex and find acceleration of adaptation with experience is attenuated, indicating a role for cortex-and its little-understood projections to the midbrain-in modulating meta-adaptation. Given the prevalence of adaptation across organisms and senses, meta

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2016 Nature communications

190. Embryonic origin and lineage hierarchies of the neural progenitor subtypes building the zebrafish adult midbrain (PubMed)

Embryonic origin and lineage hierarchies of the neural progenitor subtypes building the zebrafish adult midbrain Neurogenesis in the post-embryonic vertebrate brain varies in extent and efficiency between species and brain territories. Distinct neurogenesis modes may account for this diversity, and several neural progenitor subtypes, radial glial cells (RG) and neuroepithelial progenitors (NE), have been identified in the adult zebrafish brain. The neurogenic sequences issued from (...) these progenitors, and their contribution to brain construction, remain incompletely understood. Here we use genetic tracing techniques based on conditional Cre recombination and Tet-On neuronal birthdating to unravel the neurogenic sequence operating from NE progenitors in the zebrafish post-embryonic optic tectum. We reveal that a subpopulation of her5-positive NE cells of the posterior midbrain layer stands at the top of a neurogenic hierarchy involving, in order, the amplification pool of the tectal

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2016 Developmental biology

191. Tongue somatosensory evoked potentials reflect midbrain involvement in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (PubMed)

Tongue somatosensory evoked potentials reflect midbrain involvement in patients with clinically isolated syndrome To test the hypothesis that tSSEP findings reflect clinical and MRI MS lesions, the aim of this study was to investigate tSSEP changes in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in relation to clinical and brainstem MRI findings. The second aim was to investigate whether the interpretation of the tSSEP results in the form of the tSSEP score enables better evaluation (...) =prolonged latency, 3=absent response) and the two values were summed.There was no difference in the absolute values of the tSSEP variables regarding the presence of clinical symptoms. No association was found between tSSEP abnormalities and clinical symptoms (P=0.544). Brainstem lesions (midbrain and pons) were associated with the absent tSSEP responses (P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively). tSSEP score was significantly higher in patients with brainstem lesions (P=0.01), especially midbrain (P=0.004

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2016 Croatian medical journal

192. Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations (PubMed)

Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote (...) infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems

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2016 Brain sciences

193. Reduced noradrenergic innervation of ventral midbrain dopaminergic cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys (PubMed)

Reduced noradrenergic innervation of ventral midbrain dopaminergic cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys There is anatomical and functional evidence that ventral midbrain dopaminergic (DA) cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) receive noradrenergic innervation in rodents, but much less is known about these interactions in primates. Degeneration of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) and related brainstem NE cell groups is a well-established (...) terminal-like varicosities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), retrorubral field (RRF) and STN of MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys. Our findings reveal that the NE innervation of the ventral midbrain and STN of normal monkeys is heterogeneously distributed being far more extensive in the VTA, RRF and dorsal tier of the SNC than in the ventral SNC and STN. In parkinsonian monkeys, all regions underwent a significant (~50-70%) decrease in NE innervation

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2016 Neurobiology of disease

194. eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the persistence of cocaine-induced LTP in midbrain dopamine neurons (PubMed)

eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the persistence of cocaine-induced LTP in midbrain dopamine neurons Recreational drug use leads to compulsive substance abuse in some individuals. Studies on animal models of drug addiction indicate that persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is a critical component of sustained drug seeking. However, little is known about the mechanism regulating

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2016 eLife

195. Speech Coding in the Midbrain: Effects of Sensorineural Hearing Loss (PubMed)

Speech Coding in the Midbrain: Effects of Sensorineural Hearing Loss In response to voiced speech sounds, auditory-nerve (AN) fibres phase-lock to harmonics near best frequency (BF) and to the fundamental frequency (F0) of voiced sounds. Due to nonlinearities in the healthy ear, phase-locking in each frequency channel is dominated either by a single harmonic, for channels tuned near formants, or by F0, for channels between formants. The alternating dominance of these factors sets up a robust (...) pattern of F0-synchronized rate across best frequency (BF). This profile of a temporally coded measure is transformed into a mean rate profile in the midbrain (inferior colliculus, IC), where neurons are sensitive to low-frequency fluctuations. In the impaired ear, the F0-synchronized rate profile is affected by several factors: Reduced synchrony capture decreases the dominance of a single harmonic near BF on the response. Elevated thresholds also reduce the effect of rate saturation, resulting

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2016 Advances in experimental medicine and biology

196. Socially induced serotonergic fluctuations in the male auditory midbrain correlate with female behavior during courtship (PubMed)

Socially induced serotonergic fluctuations in the male auditory midbrain correlate with female behavior during courtship Cues from social partners trigger the activation of socially responsive neuromodulatory systems, priming brain regions including sensory systems to process these cues appropriately. The fidelity with which neuromodulators reflect the qualities of ongoing social interactions in sensory regions is unclear. We addressed this issue by using voltammetry to monitor serotonergic (...) fluctuations in an auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), of male mice (Mus musculus) paired with females, and by concurrently measuring behaviors of both social partners. Serotonergic activity strongly increased in male mice as they courted females, relative to serotonergic activity in the same males during trials with no social partners. Across individual males, average changes in serotonergic activity were negatively correlated with behaviors exhibited by female partners, including

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2016 Journal of neurophysiology

197. α-Synuclein–induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models (PubMed)

α-Synuclein–induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn). A major barrier in treatment discovery for PD is the lack of identifiable therapeutic pathways capable of reducing aggregates in human neuronal model systems. Mutations in key components of protein (...) trafficking and cellular degradation machinery represent important risk factors for PD; however, their precise role in disease progression and interaction with α-syn remains unclear. Here, we find that α-syn accumulation reduced lysosomal degradation capacity in human midbrain dopamine models of synucleinopathies through disrupting hydrolase trafficking. Accumulation of α-syn at the cell body resulted in aberrant association with cis-Golgi-tethering factor GM130 and disrupted the endoplasmic reticulum

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2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

198. Transcriptional comparison of human induced and primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons (PubMed)

Transcriptional comparison of human induced and primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons Generation of induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons may provide a significant step forward towards cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). To study and compare transcriptional programs of induced cells versus primary DA neurons is a preliminary step towards characterizing human iDA neurons. We have optimized a protocol to efficiently generate iDA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs (...) ). We then sequenced the transcriptomes of iDA neurons derived from 6 different hPSC lines and compared them to that of primary midbrain (mDA) neurons. We identified a small subset of genes with altered expression in derived iDA neurons from patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). We also observed that iDA neurons differ significantly from primary mDA neurons in global gene expression, especially in genes related to neuron maturation level. Results suggest iDA neurons from patient iPSCs could

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2016 Scientific reports

199. Neural correlates of behavioral amplitude modulation sensitivity in the budgerigar midbrain (PubMed)

Neural correlates of behavioral amplitude modulation sensitivity in the budgerigar midbrain Amplitude modulation (AM) is a crucial feature of many communication signals, including speech. Whereas average discharge rates in the auditory midbrain correlate with behavioral AM sensitivity in rabbits, the neural bases of AM sensitivity in species with human-like behavioral acuity are unexplored. Here, we used parallel behavioral and neurophysiological experiments to explore the neural (midbrain (...) ) bases of AM perception in an avian speech mimic, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Behavioral AM sensitivity was quantified using operant conditioning procedures. Neural AM sensitivity was studied using chronically implanted microelectrodes in awake, unrestrained birds. Average discharge rates of multiunit recording sites in the budgerigar midbrain were insufficient to explain behavioral sensitivity to modulation frequencies <100 Hz for both tone- and noise-carrier stimuli, even with optimal

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2016 Journal of neurophysiology

200. Midbrain functional connectivity and ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptors: Link to impulsivity in methamphetamine users (PubMed)

Midbrain functional connectivity and ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptors: Link to impulsivity in methamphetamine users Stimulant use disorders are associated with deficits in striatal dopamine receptor availability, abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and impulsivity. In methamphetamine-dependent research participants, impulsivity is correlated negatively with striatal D2-type receptor availability, and mesocorticolimbic RSFC is stronger than (...) that in controls. The extent to which these features of methamphetamine dependence are interrelated, however, is unknown. This question was addressed in two studies. In Study 1, 19 methamphetamine-dependent and 26 healthy control subjects underwent [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography to measure ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability, indexed by binding potential (BPND), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess mesocorticolimbic RSFC, using a midbrain seed. In Study 2

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2016 Molecular psychiatry

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