How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

3,171 results for

Midbrain

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

181. Long-Lasting Sound-Evoked Afterdischarge in the Auditory Midbrain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-Lasting Sound-Evoked Afterdischarge in the Auditory Midbrain Different forms of plasticity are known to play a critical role in the processing of information about sound. Here, we report a novel neural plastic response in the inferior colliculus, an auditory center in the midbrain of the auditory pathway. A vigorous, long-lasting sound-evoked afterdischarge (LSA) is seen in a subpopulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus

2016 Scientific reports

182. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served

2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

183. Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain provide rich topographic innervation of the striatum and are central to learning and to generating actions. Despite the importance of this DA innervation, it remains unclear whether and how DA neurons are specialized on the basis of the location of their striatal target. Thus, we sought to compare the function of subpopulations of DA neurons that target

2016 Nature neuroscience

184. Cholinergic Mesopontine Signals Govern Locomotion and Reward Through Dissociable Midbrain Pathways Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cholinergic Mesopontine Signals Govern Locomotion and Reward Through Dissociable Midbrain Pathways The mesopontine tegmentum, including the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (PPN and LDT), provides major cholinergic inputs to midbrain and regulates locomotion and reward. To delineate the underlying projection-specific circuit mechanisms, we employed optogenetics to control mesopontine cholinergic neurons at somata and at divergent projections within distinct midbrain areas

2016 Neuron

185. Effects of Electrical Stimulation in the Inferior Colliculus on Frequency Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys and Implications for the Auditory Midbrain Implant Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Electrical Stimulation in the Inferior Colliculus on Frequency Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys and Implications for the Auditory Midbrain Implant Understanding the relationship between the auditory selectivity of neurons and their contribution to perception is critical to the design of effective auditory brain prosthetics. These prosthetics seek to mimic natural activity patterns to achieve desired perceptual outcomes. We measured the contribution of inferior colliculus (IC) sites (...) for the auditory midbrain implant suggested by our findings is to increase the number and spatial extent of electrodes, to increase the size of the region that can be electrically activated, and to provide a greater range of evoked percepts.Patients with hearing loss stemming from causes that interrupt the auditory pathway after the cochlea need a brain prosthetic to restore hearing. Recently, prosthetic stimulation in the human inferior colliculus (IC) was evaluated in a clinical trial. Thus far, speech

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

186. Commissural Gain Control Enhances the Midbrain Representation of Sound Location Full Text available with Trip Pro

Commissural Gain Control Enhances the Midbrain Representation of Sound Location Accurate localization of sound sources is essential for survival behavior in many species. The inferior colliculi (ICs) are the first point in the auditory pathway where cues used to locate sounds, ie, interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and pinna spectral cues, are all represented in the same location. These cues are first extracted separately on each side of the midline (...) operates across localization cues. Our findings reveal a novel dependence of sound localization on commissural processing.Sound localization, a fundamental process in hearing, is dependent on bilateral computations in the brainstem. How this information is transmitted from the brainstem to the auditory cortex, through several stages of processing, without loss of signal fidelity, is not clear. We show that the ability of neurons in the auditory midbrain to encode azimuthal sound location is dependent

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

187. FolR1: a novel cell surface marker for isolating midbrain dopamine neural progenitors and nascent dopamine neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

FolR1: a novel cell surface marker for isolating midbrain dopamine neural progenitors and nascent dopamine neurons Cell type-specific surface markers offer a powerful tool for purifying defined cell types for restorative therapies and drug screenings. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mesDA) are the nerve cells preferentially lost in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. Clinical trials of transplantation of fetal neural precursors suggest that cell therapy may offer a cure

2016 Scientific reports

188. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans Recent evidence indicates the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult rodent hypothalamus and midbrain is regulated by environmental cues, including photoperiod, and that this occurs via up- or down-regulation of expression of genes and proteins that are important for dopamine (DA) synthesis in extant neurons ('DA neurotransmitter switching'). If the same occurs in humans, it may have (...) implications for neurological symptoms associated with DA imbalances. Here we tested whether there are differences in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) and DA transporter (DAT) immunoreactive neurons in the midbrain of people who died in summer (long-day photoperiod, n = 5) versus winter (short-day photoperiod, n = 5). TH and DAT immunoreactivity in neurons and their processes was qualitatively higher in summer compared with winter. The density of TH

2016 PloS one

189. eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the persistence of cocaine-induced LTP in midbrain dopamine neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the persistence of cocaine-induced LTP in midbrain dopamine neurons Recreational drug use leads to compulsive substance abuse in some individuals. Studies on animal models of drug addiction indicate that persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is a critical component of sustained drug seeking. However, little is known about the mechanism regulating

2016 eLife

190. Ethanol-Seeking Behavior is Expressed Directly through an Extended Amygdala to Midbrain Neural Circuit Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ethanol-Seeking Behavior is Expressed Directly through an Extended Amygdala to Midbrain Neural Circuit Abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals experience an enduring sensitivity to cue-induced craving and relapse to drinking. There is considerable evidence indicating that structures within the midbrain and extended amygdala are involved in this process. Individually, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have been shown to modulate cue-induced

2016 Neurobiology of learning and memory

191. Evidence of degraded representation of speech in noise, in the aging midbrain and cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence of degraded representation of speech in noise, in the aging midbrain and cortex Humans have a remarkable ability to track and understand speech in unfavorable conditions, such as in background noise, but speech understanding in noise does deteriorate with age. Results from several studies have shown that in younger adults, low-frequency auditory cortical activity reliably synchronizes to the speech envelope, even when the background noise is considerably louder than the speech signal (...) . However, cortical speech processing may be limited by age-related decreases in the precision of neural synchronization in the midbrain. To understand better the neural mechanisms contributing to impaired speech perception in older adults, we investigated how aging affects midbrain and cortical encoding of speech when presented in quiet and in the presence of a single-competing talker. Our results suggest that central auditory temporal processing deficits in older adults manifest in both the midbrain

2016 Journal of neurophysiology

192. One more factor joins the plot: Pbx1 regulates differentiation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

One more factor joins the plot: Pbx1 regulates differentiation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons 27534772 2018 01 08 2018 12 02 1460-2075 35 18 2016 09 15 The EMBO journal EMBO J. One more factor joins the plot: Pbx1 regulates differentiation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 1957-9 10.15252/embj.201695353 Castro Diogo S DS 0000-0001-8178-9565 Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal. eng Journal Article Comment 2016 08 17

2016 The EMBO journal

193. Synchrony, connectivity, and functional similarity in auditory midbrain local circuits Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synchrony, connectivity, and functional similarity in auditory midbrain local circuits The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) contains a laminar structure that functions as an organizing substrate of ascending inputs and local processing. While topographic distributions of ICC response parameters within and across laminae have been reported, the functional micro-organization of the ICC is less well understood. For pairs of neighboring ICC neurons, we examined the nature

2016 Neuroscience

194. Reduced noradrenergic innervation of ventral midbrain dopaminergic cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reduced noradrenergic innervation of ventral midbrain dopaminergic cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys There is anatomical and functional evidence that ventral midbrain dopaminergic (DA) cell groups and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) receive noradrenergic innervation in rodents, but much less is known about these interactions in primates. Degeneration of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) and related brainstem NE cell groups is a well-established (...) terminal-like varicosities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), retrorubral field (RRF) and STN of MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys. Our findings reveal that the NE innervation of the ventral midbrain and STN of normal monkeys is heterogeneously distributed being far more extensive in the VTA, RRF and dorsal tier of the SNC than in the ventral SNC and STN. In parkinsonian monkeys, all regions underwent a significant (~50-70%) decrease in NE innervation

2016 Neurobiology of disease

195. Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote (...) infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems

2016 Brain sciences

196. Spatially precise visual gain control mediated by a cholinergic circuit in the midbrain attention network Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spatially precise visual gain control mediated by a cholinergic circuit in the midbrain attention network A primary function of the midbrain stimulus selection network is to compute the highest-priority location for attention and gaze. Here we report the contribution of a specific cholinergic circuit to this computation. We functionally disconnected the tegmental cholinergic nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc) from the optic tectum (OT) in barn owls by reversibly blocking excitatory

2016 Nature communications

197. Motherhood and infant contact regulate neuroplasticity in the serotonergic midbrain dorsal raphe Full Text available with Trip Pro

Motherhood and infant contact regulate neuroplasticity in the serotonergic midbrain dorsal raphe The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral (...) and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood. Specifically, BrdU analyses revealed that DR newborn cell survival (but not proliferation) was regulated by reproductive state, such that cells born

2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology

198. Meta-adaptation in the auditory midbrain under cortical influence Full Text available with Trip Pro

Meta-adaptation in the auditory midbrain under cortical influence Neural adaptation is central to sensation. Neurons in auditory midbrain, for example, rapidly adapt their firing rates to enhance coding precision of common sound intensities. However, it remains unknown whether this adaptation is fixed, or dynamic and dependent on experience. Here, using guinea pigs as animal models, we report that adaptation accelerates when an environment is re-encountered-in response to a sound environment (...) that repeatedly switches between quiet and loud, midbrain neurons accrue experience to find an efficient code more rapidly. This phenomenon, which we term meta-adaptation, suggests a top-down influence on the midbrain. To test this, we inactivate auditory cortex and find acceleration of adaptation with experience is attenuated, indicating a role for cortex-and its little-understood projections to the midbrain-in modulating meta-adaptation. Given the prevalence of adaptation across organisms and senses, meta

2016 Nature communications

199. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study

2016 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

200. Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons' responses to reward and punishment. When

2016 eLife

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>