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Midbrain

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1. Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease.A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination (...) in the ventral midbrain communicating with the cerebral aqueduct, consistent with keyhole aqueduct syndrome. Her nystagmus and diplopia improved with oral acetazolamide treatment, at high doses of 2500-3000 mg per day.We report the first case of midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome with ocular motor and other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations associated with severe cough. Although her cough was effectively treated and intracranial pressure measurement was normal, her ophthalmic symptoms continued to progress

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

2. Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. Age-related deficits in speech-in-noise understanding pose a significant problem for older adults. Despite the vast number of studies conducted to investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for these communication difficulties, the role of central auditory deficits, beyond peripheral hearing loss, remains unclear. The current study builds upon our previous work that investigated the effect of aging (...) on normal-hearing individuals and aims to estimate the effect of peripheral hearing loss on the representation of speech in noise in two critical regions of the aging auditory pathway: the midbrain and cortex. Data from 14 hearing-impaired older adults were added to a previously published dataset of 17 normal-hearing younger adults and 15 normal-hearing older adults. The midbrain response, measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), and the cortical response, measured

2019 PLoS ONE

3. Differences in Functional Connectivity Networks Related to the Midbrain Dopaminergic System-Related Area in Various Psychiatric Disorders. (Abstract)

Differences in Functional Connectivity Networks Related to the Midbrain Dopaminergic System-Related Area in Various Psychiatric Disorders. Disruptions in the dopamine system have been observed in psychiatric disorders. Since dopamine is mainly produced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), elucidating the differences in the VTA neural network across psychiatric disorders would facilitate a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. However, no study

2020 Schizophrenia bulletin

4. Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy Isolated spontaneous midbrain hemorrhages are rare because they are usually secondary to hemorrhages from inferior structures such as the pons and cerebellum, or superior structures such as the thalamus and putamen. While the etiologies are largely unidentified, the most common ones are vascular malformations and bleeding diathesis with hypertension being relatively uncommon. We report midbrain hemorrhage in a 14-year-old boy (...) with a long-standing history of frequent migraine headaches and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurologic examinations, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested that the lesion likely affected the dorsal part of the midbrain. The neurologic symptoms improved following endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with the placement of external ventricular drains (EVDs). In this report, anatomical correlations to the case are discussed

2017 Journal of neurological surgery reports

5. Modulation of midbrain neurocircuitry by intranasal insulin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of midbrain neurocircuitry by intranasal insulin. Insulin modulates dopamine neuron activity in midbrain and affects processes underlying food intake behaviour, including impulsivity and reward processing. Here, we used intranasal administration and task-free functional MRI in humans to assess time- and dose-dependent effects of insulin on functional connectivity of the dopaminergic midbrain - and how these effects varied depending on systemic insulin sensitivity as measured by HOMA (...) -IR. Specifically, we used a repeated-measures design with factors dose (placebo, 40 IU, 100 IU, 160 IU), time (7 time points during a 90 min post-intervention interval), and group (low vs. high HOMA-IR). A factorial analysis identified a three-way interaction (with whole-brain significance) with regard to functional connectivity between midbrain and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This interaction demonstrates that systemic insulin sensitivity modulates the temporal course and dose-dependent

2019 NeuroImage Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. Cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain volume alterations in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain volume alterations in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. The processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) remain elusive, but centrally mediated cardiovascular or respiratory collapse is suspected. Volume changes in brain areas mediating recovery from extreme cardiorespiratory challenges may indicate failure mechanisms and allow prospective identification of SUDEP risk.We retrospectively imaged SUDEP cases (n = 25), patients comparable (...) with parahippocampal volume. Volumes of the bilateral anterior insula and midbrain in SUDEP cases were larger the closer to SUDEP from magnetic resonance imaging.SUDEP victims show significant tissue loss in areas essential for cardiorespiratory recovery and enhanced volumes in areas that trigger hypotension or impede respiratory patterning. Those changes may shed light on SUDEP pathogenesis and prospectively detect patterns identifying those at risk.© 2019 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals

2019 Epilepsia

7. Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. (Abstract)

Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. Accurate neural representations of acoustic signals under noisy conditions are critical for animals' survival. Detecting signal against background noise can be improved by binaural hearing particularly when an interaural-time-difference (ITD) disparity is introduced between the signal and the noise, a phenomenon known as binaural unmasking. Previous studies have mainly focused

2019 Hearing Research

8. Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons (...) , although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found

2017 PLoS ONE

9. Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. (Abstract)

Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. The Chinese tree shrew (TS) has many unique advantages that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal model for human disease including moderate body size, low cost of feeding, short reproductive cycle and lifespan, and close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Our previous studies have shown that TS treated (...) showed that α-syn was expressed in numerous different brain regions in TS but was most abundant in the hippocampus and midbrain. The recombinant α-syn of TS displayed straight fibrils when incubated for 72 h in vitro, which is very similar to human α-syn. When exposed to primary neurons, the TS and human α-syn fibrils led to cytotoxicity and Lewy-like pathology. Our findings indicated that TS could be a potential animal model to study the pathology of α-synucleinopathies.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

2018 Experimental Gerontology

10. Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic effects in humans, but how these are mediated in the brain remains unclear.To investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the therapeutic effects of CBD in psychosis.In this parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at the South London and Maudsley NHS (...) ; IQR, -0.022 to 0.056; P < .001) and in the parahippocampal gyrus and midbrain during recall (placebo: median, 0.002; IQR, -0.016 to 0.010; control: median, 0.035; IQR, 0.015 to 0.039; P < .001). Within these 3 regions, activation in the CBD group was greater than in the placebo group but lower than in the control group (parahippocampal gyrus/midbrain: CBD: median, -0.013; IQR, -0.027 to 0.002; placebo: median, -0.007; IQR, -0.019 to 0.008; control: median, 0.034; IQR, 0.005 to 0.059); the level

2018 JAMA psychiatry (Chicago, Ill.) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

11. Parrots have evolved a primate-like telencephalic-midbrain-cerebellar circuit Full Text available with Trip Pro

Parrots have evolved a primate-like telencephalic-midbrain-cerebellar circuit It is widely accepted that parrots show remarkable cognitive abilities. In mammals, the evolution of complex cognitive abilities is associated with increases in the size of the telencephalon and cerebellum as well as the pontine nuclei, which connect these two regions. Parrots have relatively large telencephalons that rival those of primates, but whether there are also evolutionary changes in their telencephalon

2018 Scientific reports

12. Changes to Neural Activation Patterns (c-fos Labeling) in Chinchilla Auditory Midbrain following Neonatal Exposure to an Enhanced Sound Environment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes to Neural Activation Patterns (c-fos Labeling) in Chinchilla Auditory Midbrain following Neonatal Exposure to an Enhanced Sound Environment Sensory brain regions show neuroplastic changes following deficits or experimental augmentation of peripheral input during a neonatal period. We have previously shown reorganization of cortical tonotopic maps after neonatal cochlear lesions or exposure to an enhanced acoustic environment. Such experiments probe the cortex and show reorganization (...) , but it is unclear if such changes are intrinsically cortical or reflect projections from modified subcortical regions. Here, we ask whether an enhanced neonatal acoustic environment can induce midbrain (inferior colliculus (IC)) changes. Neonatal chinchillas were chronically exposed to a 70 dB SPL narrowband (2 ± 0.25 kHz) sound stimulus for 4 weeks. In line with previous studies, we hypothesized that such exposure would induce widening of the 2 kHz tonotopic map region in IC. To probe c-fos expression in IC

2018 Neural plasticity

13. Comments on “Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury” Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comments on “Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury” 29941773 2018 07 04 2018 12 02 1998-3689 66 7 2018 07 Indian journal of ophthalmology Indian J Ophthalmol Comments on "Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury". 1049-1050 10.4103/ijo.IJO_184_18 Pandey Pramod Kumar PK Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Center and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. Joon Annu

2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

14. Identity prediction errors in the human midbrain update reward-identity expectations in the orbitofrontal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identity prediction errors in the human midbrain update reward-identity expectations in the orbitofrontal cortex There is general consensus that dopaminergic midbrain neurons signal reward prediction errors, computed as the difference between expected and received reward value. However, recent work in rodents shows that these neurons also respond to errors related to inferred value and sensory features, indicating an expanded role for dopamine beyond learning cached values. Here we utilize (...) a transreinforcer reversal learning task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether prediction error signals in the human midbrain are evoked when the expected identity of an appetitive food odor reward is violated, while leaving value matched. We found that midbrain fMRI responses to identity and value errors are correlated, suggesting a common neural origin for these error signals. Moreover, changes in reward-identity expectations, encoded in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), are directly

2018 Nature communications

15. Wnt signal activation induces midbrain specification through direct binding of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex to the EN1 promoter in human pluripotent stem cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Wnt signal activation induces midbrain specification through direct binding of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex to the EN1 promoter in human pluripotent stem cells The canonical Wnt signal pathway plays a pivotal role in anteroposterior patterning and midbrain specification during early neurogenesis. Activating Wnt signal has been a strategy for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of how the Wnt (...) signal drives posterior fate remained unclear. In this study, we found that activating the canonical Wnt signal significantly upregulated the expression of EN1, a midbrain-specific marker, in a fibroblast growth factor signal-dependent manner in human PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs). The EN1 promoter region contains a putative TCF4-binding site that directly interacts with the β-catenin/TCF complex upon Wnt signal activation. Once differentiated, NPCs treated with a Wnt signal agonist gave

2018 Experimental & molecular medicine

16. Dynamic representation of 3D auditory space in the midbrain of the free-flying echolocating bat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamic representation of 3D auditory space in the midbrain of the free-flying echolocating bat Essential to spatial orientation in the natural environment is a dynamic representation of direction and distance to objects. Despite the importance of 3D spatial localization to parse objects in the environment and to guide movement, most neurophysiological investigations of sensory mapping have been limited to studies of restrained subjects, tested with 2D, artificial stimuli. Here, we show (...) for the first time that sensory neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the free-flying echolocating bat encode 3D egocentric space, and that the bat's inspection of objects in the physical environment sharpens tuning of single neurons, and shifts peak responses to represent closer distances. These findings emerged from wireless neural recordings in free-flying bats, in combination with an echo model that computes the animal's instantaneous stimulus space. Our research reveals dynamic 3D space

2018 eLife

17. Cellular diversity in the Drosophila midbrain revealed by single-cell transcriptomics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cellular diversity in the Drosophila midbrain revealed by single-cell transcriptomics To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number

2018 eLife

18. Activation of the P2X7 receptor in midbrain periaqueductal gray participates in the analgesic effect of tramadol in bone cancer pain rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activation of the P2X7 receptor in midbrain periaqueductal gray participates in the analgesic effect of tramadol in bone cancer pain rats Background Cancer pain is a well-known serious complication in metastatic or terminal cancer patients. Current pain management remains unsatisfactory. The activation of spinal and supraspinal P2X7 receptors plays a crucial role in the induction and maintenance mechanisms of various kinds of acute or chronic pain. The midbrain periaqueductal gray is a vital

2018 Molecular pain

19. Neurotransmitter identity and electrophysiological phenotype are genetically coupled in midbrain dopaminergic neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurotransmitter identity and electrophysiological phenotype are genetically coupled in midbrain dopaminergic neurons Most neuronal types have a well-identified electrical phenotype. It is now admitted that a same phenotype can be produced using multiple biophysical solutions defined by ion channel expression levels. This argues that systems-level approaches are necessary to understand electrical phenotype genesis and stability. Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, although quite heterogeneous (...) , exhibit a characteristic electrical phenotype. However, the quantitative genetic principles underlying this conserved phenotype remain unknown. Here we investigated the quantitative relationships between ion channels' gene expression levels in midbrain DA neurons using single-cell microfluidic qPCR. Using multivariate mutual information analysis to decipher high-dimensional statistical dependences, we unravel co-varying gene modules that link neurotransmitter identity and electrical phenotype. We also

2018 Scientific reports

20. Auditory midbrain coding of statistical learning that results from discontinuous sensory stimulation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Auditory midbrain coding of statistical learning that results from discontinuous sensory stimulation Detecting regular patterns in the environment, a process known as statistical learning, is essential for survival. Neuronal adaptation is a key mechanism in the detection of patterns that are continuously repeated across short (seconds to minutes) temporal windows. Here, we found in mice that a subcortical structure in the auditory midbrain was sensitive to patterns that were repeated (...) in accuracy and overlap was paralleled at the behavioral level in an increase in generalization in the absence of diminished discrimination. Gain modulation was accompanied by changes in gene and protein expression, indicative of long-term plasticity. Physiological changes were largely independent of corticofugal feedback, and no changes were seen in upstream cochlear nucleus responses, suggesting a key role of the auditory midbrain in sensory gating. Subsequent behavior demonstrated learning

2018 PLoS biology

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