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Midbrain

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1. Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease.A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination (...) in the ventral midbrain communicating with the cerebral aqueduct, consistent with keyhole aqueduct syndrome. Her nystagmus and diplopia improved with oral acetazolamide treatment, at high doses of 2500-3000 mg per day.We report the first case of midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome with ocular motor and other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations associated with severe cough. Although her cough was effectively treated and intracranial pressure measurement was normal, her ophthalmic symptoms continued to progress

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

2. Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. Age-related deficits in speech-in-noise understanding pose a significant problem for older adults. Despite the vast number of studies conducted to investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for these communication difficulties, the role of central auditory deficits, beyond peripheral hearing loss, remains unclear. The current study builds upon our previous work that investigated the effect of aging (...) on normal-hearing individuals and aims to estimate the effect of peripheral hearing loss on the representation of speech in noise in two critical regions of the aging auditory pathway: the midbrain and cortex. Data from 14 hearing-impaired older adults were added to a previously published dataset of 17 normal-hearing younger adults and 15 normal-hearing older adults. The midbrain response, measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), and the cortical response, measured

2019 PLoS ONE

3. Midbrain MRI assessments in progressive supranuclear palsy subtypes. (Abstract)

Midbrain MRI assessments in progressive supranuclear palsy subtypes. To explore the role of the available midbrain-based MRI morphometric assessments in (1) differentiating among progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) subtypes (PSP Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP with predominant parkinsonism (PSP-P) and the other variant syndromes of PSP (vPSP)), and (2) supporting the diagnosis of PSP subtypes compared with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC).Seventy-eight patients with PSP (...) (38 PSP-RS, 21 PSP-P and 19 vPSP), 35 PD and 38 HC were included in the present analysis. Available midbrain-based MRI morphometric assessments were calculated for all participants.Current MRI midbrain-based assessments do not display an adequate sensitivity and specificity profile in differentiating PSP subtypes. On the other hand, we confirmed MR Parkinsonism Index (MRPI) and pons area to midbrain area ratio (P/M) have adequate diagnostic value to support PSP-RS clinical diagnosis compared

2020 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

4. Lower midbrain dopamine transporter availability in depressed patients: Report from high-resolution PET imaging. (Abstract)

Lower midbrain dopamine transporter availability in depressed patients: Report from high-resolution PET imaging. A reduced presynaptic dopamine neurotransmission has long been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, molecular imaging studies that assessed the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability have led to inconsistent results, partly due to methodological considerations, and to exclusive focus on the striatum, precluding findings in extra-striatal regions.Herein, we (...) leveraged our database of high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images acquired with a highly selective radiotracer, [11C]PE2I, to assess striatal and extra-striatal DAT availability in eight patients treated for depression compared to twenty-four healthy controls.Statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based analyses of PET images detected a significant lower DAT availability in depressed patients within the superior part of the midbrain (right, pFWE = 0.002; left, pFWE = 0.006), a region

2020 Journal of Affective Disorders

5. Human-Specific Transcriptome of Ventral and Dorsal Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human-Specific Transcriptome of Ventral and Dorsal Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in Parkinson disease (PD) is not uniform, as dopamine neurons from the ventral tier are lost more rapidly than those of the dorsal tier. Identifying the intrinsic differences that account for this differential vulnerability may provide a key for developing new treatments for PD.Here, we compared the RNA-sequenced transcriptomes of ~100 laser captured

2020 Annals of Neurology

6. Cross-modality modulation of auditory midbrain processing of intensity information. (Abstract)

Cross-modality modulation of auditory midbrain processing of intensity information. In nature, animals constantly receive a multitude of sensory stimuli, such as visual, auditory, and somatosensory. The integration across sensory modalities is advantageous for the precise processing of sensory inputs which is essential for animals to survival. Although some principles of cross-modality integration have been revealed by many studies, little insight has been gained into its functional potentials (...) . In this study, the functional influence of cross-modality modulation on auditory processing of intensity information was investigated via recording neuronal activity in the auditory midbrain (i.e., inferior colliculus, IC) under the conditions of visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimuli, respectively. Results demonstrated that combined audiovisual stimuli either enhanced or suppressed the responses of IC neurons compared to auditory stimuli alone, even though the same visual stimuli alone induced

2020 Hearing Research

7. Differences in Functional Connectivity Networks Related to the Midbrain Dopaminergic System-Related Area in Various Psychiatric Disorders. (Abstract)

Differences in Functional Connectivity Networks Related to the Midbrain Dopaminergic System-Related Area in Various Psychiatric Disorders. Disruptions in the dopamine system have been observed in psychiatric disorders. Since dopamine is mainly produced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), elucidating the differences in the VTA neural network across psychiatric disorders would facilitate a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. However, no study

2020 Schizophrenia bulletin

8. Deciphering midbrain mechanisms underlying prepulse inhibition of startle. (Abstract)

Deciphering midbrain mechanisms underlying prepulse inhibition of startle. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Deficits of PPI are a hallmark of schizophrenia and associated with several other psychiatric illnesses such as e.g. autism spectrum disorder, yet the mechanisms underlying PPI are still not fully understood. There is growing evidence contradicting the long-standing hypothesis that PPI is mediated by a short feed-forward midbrain circuitry (...) non-cholinergic midbrain neurons.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2020 Progress in Neurobiology

9. A Higher Grey Matter Density in the Amygdala and Midbrain Is Associated with Persistent Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty. (Abstract)

A Higher Grey Matter Density in the Amygdala and Midbrain Is Associated with Persistent Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty. The development of persistent pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is common, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. The goal of the study was to assess brain grey matter structure and its correlation with function of the nociceptive system in people with good and poor outcomes following TKA.Thirty-one people with LOW_PAIN (<3/10 on the numerical ratings

2020 Pain Medicine

10. Midbrain/pons area ratio and clinical features predict the prognosis of progressive Supranuclear palsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain/pons area ratio and clinical features predict the prognosis of progressive Supranuclear palsy. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder with poor prognosis. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the natural history of PSP and to find predictors of shorter survival and faster decline of activity of daily living.All patients recruited fulfilled the movement disorder society (MDS) clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP (MDS-PSP criteria) for probable

2020 BMC Neurology

11. Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy Isolated spontaneous midbrain hemorrhages are rare because they are usually secondary to hemorrhages from inferior structures such as the pons and cerebellum, or superior structures such as the thalamus and putamen. While the etiologies are largely unidentified, the most common ones are vascular malformations and bleeding diathesis with hypertension being relatively uncommon. We report midbrain hemorrhage in a 14-year-old boy (...) with a long-standing history of frequent migraine headaches and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurologic examinations, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested that the lesion likely affected the dorsal part of the midbrain. The neurologic symptoms improved following endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with the placement of external ventricular drains (EVDs). In this report, anatomical correlations to the case are discussed

2017 Journal of neurological surgery reports

12. Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. (Abstract)

Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. Accurate neural representations of acoustic signals under noisy conditions are critical for animals' survival. Detecting signal against background noise can be improved by binaural hearing particularly when an interaural-time-difference (ITD) disparity is introduced between the signal and the noise, a phenomenon known as binaural unmasking. Previous studies have mainly focused

2019 Hearing Research

13. Cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain volume alterations in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain volume alterations in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. The processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) remain elusive, but centrally mediated cardiovascular or respiratory collapse is suspected. Volume changes in brain areas mediating recovery from extreme cardiorespiratory challenges may indicate failure mechanisms and allow prospective identification of SUDEP risk.We retrospectively imaged SUDEP cases (n = 25), patients comparable (...) with parahippocampal volume. Volumes of the bilateral anterior insula and midbrain in SUDEP cases were larger the closer to SUDEP from magnetic resonance imaging.SUDEP victims show significant tissue loss in areas essential for cardiorespiratory recovery and enhanced volumes in areas that trigger hypotension or impede respiratory patterning. Those changes may shed light on SUDEP pathogenesis and prospectively detect patterns identifying those at risk.© 2019 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals

2019 Epilepsia

14. Modulation of midbrain neurocircuitry by intranasal insulin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of midbrain neurocircuitry by intranasal insulin. Insulin modulates dopamine neuron activity in midbrain and affects processes underlying food intake behaviour, including impulsivity and reward processing. Here, we used intranasal administration and task-free functional MRI in humans to assess time- and dose-dependent effects of insulin on functional connectivity of the dopaminergic midbrain - and how these effects varied depending on systemic insulin sensitivity as measured by HOMA (...) -IR. Specifically, we used a repeated-measures design with factors dose (placebo, 40 IU, 100 IU, 160 IU), time (7 time points during a 90 min post-intervention interval), and group (low vs. high HOMA-IR). A factorial analysis identified a three-way interaction (with whole-brain significance) with regard to functional connectivity between midbrain and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This interaction demonstrates that systemic insulin sensitivity modulates the temporal course and dose-dependent

2019 NeuroImage Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. (Abstract)

Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. The Chinese tree shrew (TS) has many unique advantages that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal model for human disease including moderate body size, low cost of feeding, short reproductive cycle and lifespan, and close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Our previous studies have shown that TS treated (...) showed that α-syn was expressed in numerous different brain regions in TS but was most abundant in the hippocampus and midbrain. The recombinant α-syn of TS displayed straight fibrils when incubated for 72 h in vitro, which is very similar to human α-syn. When exposed to primary neurons, the TS and human α-syn fibrils led to cytotoxicity and Lewy-like pathology. Our findings indicated that TS could be a potential animal model to study the pathology of α-synucleinopathies.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

2018 Experimental Gerontology

17. Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons (...) , although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found

2017 PLoS ONE

18. Impaired reward prediction error encoding and striatal-midbrain connectivity in depression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired reward prediction error encoding and striatal-midbrain connectivity in depression. Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral

2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

19. Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic effects in humans, but how these are mediated in the brain remains unclear.To investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the therapeutic effects of CBD in psychosis.In this parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at the South London and Maudsley NHS (...) ; IQR, -0.022 to 0.056; P < .001) and in the parahippocampal gyrus and midbrain during recall (placebo: median, 0.002; IQR, -0.016 to 0.010; control: median, 0.035; IQR, 0.015 to 0.039; P < .001). Within these 3 regions, activation in the CBD group was greater than in the placebo group but lower than in the control group (parahippocampal gyrus/midbrain: CBD: median, -0.013; IQR, -0.027 to 0.002; placebo: median, -0.007; IQR, -0.019 to 0.008; control: median, 0.034; IQR, 0.005 to 0.059); the level

2018 JAMA psychiatry (Chicago, Ill.) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

20. Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behavioral and and electrophysiological measures of nicotine sensitivity. A viral-mediated Cre/lox (...) approach allowed us to delete α4 from ventral midbrain (vMB) neurons. We used two behavioral assays commonly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs of abuse: home-cage oral self-administration, and place conditioning. Mice lacking α4 subunits in vMB consumed significantly more nicotine at the highest offered nicotine concentration (200 μg/mL) compared to control mice. Deletion of α4 subunits in vMB blocked nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting locomotor

2017 PLoS ONE

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