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Midbrain

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1. Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. (PubMed)

Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss. Age-related deficits in speech-in-noise understanding pose a significant problem for older adults. Despite the vast number of studies conducted to investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for these communication difficulties, the role of central auditory deficits, beyond peripheral hearing loss, remains unclear. The current study builds upon our previous work that investigated the effect of aging (...) on normal-hearing individuals and aims to estimate the effect of peripheral hearing loss on the representation of speech in noise in two critical regions of the aging auditory pathway: the midbrain and cortex. Data from 14 hearing-impaired older adults were added to a previously published dataset of 17 normal-hearing younger adults and 15 normal-hearing older adults. The midbrain response, measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), and the cortical response, measured

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough (PubMed)

Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease.A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination (...) in the ventral midbrain communicating with the cerebral aqueduct, consistent with keyhole aqueduct syndrome. Her nystagmus and diplopia improved with oral acetazolamide treatment, at high doses of 2500-3000 mg per day.We report the first case of midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome with ocular motor and other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations associated with severe cough. Although her cough was effectively treated and intracranial pressure measurement was normal, her ophthalmic symptoms continued to progress

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2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

3. Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy (PubMed)

Isolated Spontaneous Midbrain Hemorrhage in a 14-Year-Old Boy Isolated spontaneous midbrain hemorrhages are rare because they are usually secondary to hemorrhages from inferior structures such as the pons and cerebellum, or superior structures such as the thalamus and putamen. While the etiologies are largely unidentified, the most common ones are vascular malformations and bleeding diathesis with hypertension being relatively uncommon. We report midbrain hemorrhage in a 14-year-old boy (...) with a long-standing history of frequent migraine headaches and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurologic examinations, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested that the lesion likely affected the dorsal part of the midbrain. The neurologic symptoms improved following endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with the placement of external ventricular drains (EVDs). In this report, anatomical correlations to the case are discussed

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2017 Journal of neurological surgery reports

4. Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. (PubMed)

Binaural unmasking of the accuracy of envelope-signal representation in rat auditory cortex but not auditory midbrain. Accurate neural representations of acoustic signals under noisy conditions are critical for animals' survival. Detecting signal against background noise can be improved by binaural hearing particularly when an interaural-time-difference (ITD) disparity is introduced between the signal and the noise, a phenomenon known as binaural unmasking. Previous studies have mainly focused

2019 Hearing Research

5. Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. (PubMed)

Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo. Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons (...) , although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found

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2017 PLoS ONE

6. Comments on “Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury” (PubMed)

Comments on “Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury” 29941773 2018 07 04 2018 12 02 1998-3689 66 7 2018 07 Indian journal of ophthalmology Indian J Ophthalmol Comments on "Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury". 1049-1050 10.4103/ijo.IJO_184_18 Pandey Pramod Kumar PK Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Center and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. Joon Annu

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

7. Target‐specific forebrain projections and appropriate synaptic inputs of hESC‐derived dopamine neurons grafted to the midbrain of parkinsonian rats (PubMed)

Target‐specific forebrain projections and appropriate synaptic inputs of hESC‐derived dopamine neurons grafted to the midbrain of parkinsonian rats Dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of studies have demonstrated functionality of DA neurons originating from hESCs when grafted to the striatum of rodent and non-human primate models of PD. However (...) , several questions remain in regard to their axonal outgrowth potential and capacity to integrate into host circuitry. Here, ventral midbrain (VM) patterned hESC-derived progenitors were grafted into the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, and analyzed at 6, 18, and 24 weeks for a time-course evaluation of specificity and extent of graft-derived fiber outgrowth as well as potential for functional recovery. To investigate synaptic integration of the transplanted cells, we used rabies-based

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2018 The Journal of comparative neurology

8. Auditory midbrain coding of statistical learning that results from discontinuous sensory stimulation (PubMed)

Auditory midbrain coding of statistical learning that results from discontinuous sensory stimulation Detecting regular patterns in the environment, a process known as statistical learning, is essential for survival. Neuronal adaptation is a key mechanism in the detection of patterns that are continuously repeated across short (seconds to minutes) temporal windows. Here, we found in mice that a subcortical structure in the auditory midbrain was sensitive to patterns that were repeated (...) in accuracy and overlap was paralleled at the behavioral level in an increase in generalization in the absence of diminished discrimination. Gain modulation was accompanied by changes in gene and protein expression, indicative of long-term plasticity. Physiological changes were largely independent of corticofugal feedback, and no changes were seen in upstream cochlear nucleus responses, suggesting a key role of the auditory midbrain in sensory gating. Subsequent behavior demonstrated learning

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2018 PLoS biology

9. Spatial frequency sensitivity in macaque midbrain (PubMed)

Spatial frequency sensitivity in macaque midbrain Visual brain areas exhibit tuning characteristics well suited for image statistics present in our natural environment. However, visual sensation is an active process, and if there are any brain areas that ought to be particularly in tune with natural scene statistics, it would be sensory-motor areas critical for guiding behavior. Here we found that the rhesus macaque superior colliculus, a structure instrumental for rapid visual exploration

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2018 Nature communications

10. Impaired reward prediction error encoding and striatal-midbrain connectivity in depression. (PubMed)

Impaired reward prediction error encoding and striatal-midbrain connectivity in depression. Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral

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2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

11. Antero posterior elongation of midbrain in traumatic brain injury- significant sign yet a mistaken entity. (PubMed)

Antero posterior elongation of midbrain in traumatic brain injury- significant sign yet a mistaken entity. Antero posterior elongation of the midbrain is observed occasionally in severe traumatic brain injury and generally implies a bad outcome. The objective of the study was to document midbrain elongation and identify the implications of this finding.This prospective study included 100 patients with traumatic intracranial haematoma of more than 20 cc in volume. Key measurements were taken (...) in the midbrain and pontine regions and the status of perimesencephalic basal cisterns was noted. All the predictors were analyzed for the outcome.In twenty-nine patients the distorted midbrain appeared to be elongated in the antero posterior direction on visual inspection of CT head images. However, on statistical analysis, it was made out that there is no demonstrable anteroposterior lengthening of the midbrain. The factors influencing the appearance and outcome were discussed.Although not a true sign

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

12. An Anatomic Characterization of the Midbrain Near Response Neurons in the Macaque Monkey. (PubMed)

An Anatomic Characterization of the Midbrain Near Response Neurons in the Macaque Monkey. These experiments were designed to reveal the location of the premotor neurons that have previously been designated physiologically as the midbrain near response cells controlling vergence, lens accommodation, and pupillary constriction in response to target distance.To identify this population, the fixed N2c strain of rabies virus was injected into the ciliary body of seven Macaca fascicularis monkeys (...) cells making up a continuous column within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. A population of premotor cells that likely represents the midbrain near response cells is located in the supraoculomotor area. These cells are bilaterally distributed relative to the eye they control, and are most numerous caudally.

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

13. Cellular diversity in the Drosophila midbrain revealed by single-cell transcriptomics (PubMed)

Cellular diversity in the Drosophila midbrain revealed by single-cell transcriptomics To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number

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2018 eLife

14. Wnt signal activation induces midbrain specification through direct binding of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex to the EN1 promoter in human pluripotent stem cells (PubMed)

Wnt signal activation induces midbrain specification through direct binding of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex to the EN1 promoter in human pluripotent stem cells The canonical Wnt signal pathway plays a pivotal role in anteroposterior patterning and midbrain specification during early neurogenesis. Activating Wnt signal has been a strategy for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of how the Wnt (...) signal drives posterior fate remained unclear. In this study, we found that activating the canonical Wnt signal significantly upregulated the expression of EN1, a midbrain-specific marker, in a fibroblast growth factor signal-dependent manner in human PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs). The EN1 promoter region contains a putative TCF4-binding site that directly interacts with the β-catenin/TCF complex upon Wnt signal activation. Once differentiated, NPCs treated with a Wnt signal agonist gave

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2018 Experimental & molecular medicine

15. Identity prediction errors in the human midbrain update reward-identity expectations in the orbitofrontal cortex (PubMed)

Identity prediction errors in the human midbrain update reward-identity expectations in the orbitofrontal cortex There is general consensus that dopaminergic midbrain neurons signal reward prediction errors, computed as the difference between expected and received reward value. However, recent work in rodents shows that these neurons also respond to errors related to inferred value and sensory features, indicating an expanded role for dopamine beyond learning cached values. Here we utilize (...) a transreinforcer reversal learning task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether prediction error signals in the human midbrain are evoked when the expected identity of an appetitive food odor reward is violated, while leaving value matched. We found that midbrain fMRI responses to identity and value errors are correlated, suggesting a common neural origin for these error signals. Moreover, changes in reward-identity expectations, encoded in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), are directly

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2018 Nature communications

16. Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury (PubMed)

Bilateral medial rectus palsy due to midbrain infarction following concussion head injury Here, we report a rare case of bilateral medial rectus palsy following closed head injury. An adult male had an accidental fall which rendered him unconscious. This was followed by diplopia and restricted ocular motility. He received supportive medical therapy. He was examined for systemic medical and ophthalmic findings. Routine laboratory tests and imaging techniques were employed as per the symptoms (...) . Diffusion-weighted imaging on magnetic resonance imaging proved it to be a rare presentation of small bilateral midbrain infarct. He recovered fully after 8 months.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

17. Unique case of midbrain tuberculoma presenting as isolated inferior rectus palsy with nystagmus (PubMed)

Unique case of midbrain tuberculoma presenting as isolated inferior rectus palsy with nystagmus Isolated brain stem tuberculoma constitutes about 5% of all intracranial tuberculomas. A case of isolated inferior rectus palsy with downbeat nystagmus due to presumed midbrain tuberculoma in an immunocompetent patient is described here. This report documents a rare entity of a combination of partial third nerve palsy with pupil involvement along with downbeat nystagmus.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

18. Development of the Mechanisms Governing Midbrain Multisensory Integration (PubMed)

Development of the Mechanisms Governing Midbrain Multisensory Integration The ability to integrate information across multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of crossmodal events (...) with crossmodal cues is acquired. Recent empirical findings suggest that the mechanisms supporting this development must be more complex than previously believed. The present work integrates these data with what is already known about the underlying circuit in the midbrain to create and test a mechanistic model of multisensory development. This model represents a novel and comprehensive framework that explains how midbrain circuits acquire multisensory experience and reveals how disruptions in this neurotypic

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2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

19. Dynamic representation of 3D auditory space in the midbrain of the free-flying echolocating bat (PubMed)

Dynamic representation of 3D auditory space in the midbrain of the free-flying echolocating bat Essential to spatial orientation in the natural environment is a dynamic representation of direction and distance to objects. Despite the importance of 3D spatial localization to parse objects in the environment and to guide movement, most neurophysiological investigations of sensory mapping have been limited to studies of restrained subjects, tested with 2D, artificial stimuli. Here, we show (...) for the first time that sensory neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the free-flying echolocating bat encode 3D egocentric space, and that the bat's inspection of objects in the physical environment sharpens tuning of single neurons, and shifts peak responses to represent closer distances. These findings emerged from wireless neural recordings in free-flying bats, in combination with an echo model that computes the animal's instantaneous stimulus space. Our research reveals dynamic 3D space

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2018 eLife

20. Midbrain circuits that set locomotor speed and gait selection (PubMed)

Midbrain circuits that set locomotor speed and gait selection Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed (...) and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). GlutNs in both of these regions contribute to the control of slower, alternating-gait locomotion, whereas only GlutNs in the CnF are able to elicit high-speed, synchronous-gait locomotion. Additionally, both the activation dynamics and the input and output connectivity matrices of GlutNs in the PPN and the CnF

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2018 Nature

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