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Metabolic Syndrome

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43361. Multiple lipolysis defects in the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome. (PubMed)

Multiple lipolysis defects in the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome. Bearing in mind the importance of upper-body obesity for the insulin resistance (or metabolic) syndrome and the abnormalities in free fatty acid metabolism associated with this disorder, the regulation of lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes was investigated in 13 72-yr old upper-body obese men with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and in 10 healthy 72-yr-old men. There was a marked resistance (...) to the lipolytic effect of noradrenaline in the metabolic syndrome due to defects at two different levels in the lipolytic cascade. First, an 80-fold decrease in sensitivity to the beta 2-selective agonist terbutaline (P < 0.001) which could be ascribed to a 50% reduced number of beta 2-receptors (P < 0.005) as determined with radioligand binding. The groups did not differ as regards dobutamine (beta 1) or clonidine (alpha-2) sensitivity, nor beta 1-receptor number. The mRNA levels for beta 1- and beta 2

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1994 Journal of Clinical Investigation

43362. Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study (PubMed)

Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study 9685277 1998 09 03 2018 11 13 0959-8138 317 7154 1998 Aug 01 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study. 319 Vanhala M M Pieksämäki District Health Centre, PO Box 65, 76101 Pieksämäki, Finland. Mauno.Vanhala@pp.inet.fi Vanhala P P Kumpusalo E E Halonen P P Takala J J eng Journal Article Research (...) Support, Non-U.S. Gov't England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM Adult Age Factors Body Mass Index Child Female Finland epidemiology Humans Hyperlipidemias complications epidemiology Hypertension complications epidemiology Hypertriglyceridemia complications epidemiology Insulin Resistance Male Metabolic Diseases complications epidemiology Middle Aged Obesity complications epidemiology Risk Factors Syndrome 1998 7 31 1998 7 31 0 1 1998 7 31 0 0 ppublish 9685277 PMC28624 Diabetes. 1988 Dec;37(12):1595-607

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1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43363. Is metabolic syndrome a discrete entity in the general population? Evidence from the Caerphilly and Speedwell population studies (PubMed)

Is metabolic syndrome a discrete entity in the general population? Evidence from the Caerphilly and Speedwell population studies To examine the clinical and epidemiological utility of the concepts of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance syndrome in two prospective cohort studies of white men.Men aged 45-63 years were screened for evidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) between 1979 and 1982 and followed up at regular intervals thereafter. Non-fatal coronary events were validated from (...) hospital records and fatal coronary events from death certificates.Analysis of serum insulin concentrations in non-diabetic individuals measured at entry to the study showed no independent contribution to the prediction of subsequent IHD at 10 year follow up. Blood glucose concentrations, however, showed a small independent contribution in the combined cohort in the upper fifth of the distribution. Three different models of metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic individuals were defined based

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1998 Heart

43364. Obesity from childhood to adulthood may lead to the metabolic syndrome (PubMed)

Obesity from childhood to adulthood may lead to the metabolic syndrome 9685309 1998 08 13 1756-1833 317 7154 1998 Aug 01 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Obesity from childhood to adulthood may lead to the metabolic syndrome C eng Journal Article England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 1998 7 31 2 6 1998 7 31 2 6 1998 7 31 2 6 ppublish 9685309 PMC1113620

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1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43365. Assignment of the locus for a new lethal neonatal metabolic syndrome to 2q33-37. (PubMed)

Assignment of the locus for a new lethal neonatal metabolic syndrome to 2q33-37. A new neonatal syndrome characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, lactic acidosis, aminoaciduria, liver hemosiderosis, and early death was recently described. The pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive, and so far only 17 cases have been reported in 12 Finnish families. Here we report the assignment of the locus for this new disease to a restricted region

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1998 American Journal of Human Genetics

43366. RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: mutations and metabolic morphogenesis. (PubMed)

RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: mutations and metabolic morphogenesis. 9683618 1998 12 24 2013 11 21 0002-9297 63 2 1998 Aug American journal of human genetics Am. J. Hum. Genet. RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: mutations and metabolic morphogenesis. 322-6 Kelley R I RI eng Comment Editorial Review United States Am J Hum Genet 0370475 0002-9297 97C5T2UQ7J Cholesterol EC 1.- Oxidoreductases EC 1.3.- Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors EC 1.3.1.21 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase IM Am J (...) Hum Genet. 1998 Aug;63(2):329-38 9683613 Animals Cholesterol metabolism Humans Morphogenesis Oxidoreductases genetics Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome enzymology genetics 41 1998 7 31 2 4 2000 3 21 9 0 1998 7 31 2 4 ppublish 9683618 S0002-9297(07)61474-8 10.1086/301987 PMC1377327

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1998 American Journal of Human Genetics

43367. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: a treatable inherited error of metabolism causing mental retardation (PubMed)

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: a treatable inherited error of metabolism causing mental retardation Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a syndrome of multiple malformations and mental retardation that for years was relegated to the atlases of genetic esoterica, was recently found to be a relatively common inborn error of metabolism. The underlying defect is absent or deficient activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol- delta 7-reductase, the enzyme catalysing the final step of cholesterol synthesis. The discovery (...) of the biochemical defect causing Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome has resulted in the development of a diagnostic test and a potentially beneficial treatment (dietary cholesterol supplementation). Infants and young children with the syndrome have shown marked improvement in growth, behaviour and general health after receiving cholesterol therapy; older children and adults have shown some improvement in development and intellectual functioning. Despite the excitement these developments have elicited among geneticists

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

43368. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome (PubMed)

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome Down syndrome is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction). Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary study (...) suggested that abnormal folate metabolism and the 677C-->T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may be maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. The present study was undertaken with a larger sample size to determine whether the MTHFR 677C-->T polymorphism was associated with increased risk of having a child with Down syndrome. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is another enzyme essential for normal folate metabolism. A common polymorphism in this gene was recently

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2000 American Journal of Human Genetics

43369. Energy Metabolism of Infants and Children with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis (PubMed)

Energy Metabolism of Infants and Children with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis To evaluate whether critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis have altered resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization.Studies in adults with sepsis have shown increased energy expenditure and mobilization of endogenous fat. In infants and children, energy metabolism and substrate utilization during sepsis have not been (...) was not different from that of controls. Similarly, there were no differences in carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption. Resting energy metabolism was not different between patients with SIRS and patients with sepsis. In addition, the presence of low platelet count or inotropic support did not affect resting energy metabolism. The median respiratory quotient of patients with SIRS or sepsis was 0.88 (range 0.75-1.12), indicating mixed utilization of fat and carbohydrate; this was not significantly

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2001 Annals of Surgery

43370. Homocysteine Metabolism in Children with Down Syndrome: In Vitro Modulation (PubMed)

Homocysteine Metabolism in Children with Down Syndrome: In Vitro Modulation The gene for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is located on chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in children with Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21. The dual purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of overexpression of the CBS gene on homocysteine metabolism in children with DS and to determine whether the supplementation of trisomy 21 lymphoblasts in vitro with selected nutrients would shift (...) the genetically induced metabolic imbalance. Plasma samples were obtained from 42 children with karyotypically confirmed full trisomy 21 and from 36 normal siblings (mean age 7.4 years). Metabolites involved in homocysteine metabolism were measured and compared to those of normal siblings used as controls. Lymphocyte DNA methylation status was determined as a functional endpoint. The results indicated that plasma levels of homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and S-adenosylmethionine were all

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2001 American Journal of Human Genetics

43371. Genetics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Americans

Genetics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Americans Genetics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Americans - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Genetics of the Metabolic Syndrome (...) by: University of Washington Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To investigate the genetic influence of candidate gene polymorphisms on risk factors for the metabolic insulin resistance syndrome in Japanese American sibships and kindreds. The original grant in 1994 had as its objective to understand the genetic epidemiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in Japanese- American families with probands living in Seattle, Washington. Condition or disease Cardiovascular Diseases

2000 Clinical Trials

43372. Vitamin D Metabolism and the Williams Syndrome

Vitamin D Metabolism and the Williams Syndrome Vitamin D Metabolism and the Williams Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Vitamin D Metabolism and the Williams Syndrome The safety (...) Summary: The Williams syndrome is a disease in which supravalvular aortic stenosis, an elfin facies, mental retardation and other congenital defects are sometimes associated with abnormal vitamin D and calcium metabolism. Whereas some patients have been reported to show increased sensitivity to vitamin D or an exaggerated response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D {25(OH)D} to administration of vitamin D and to have hypercalcemia caused by increased circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{1,25(OH)2D

2001 Clinical Trials

43373. Improved carbohydrate metabolism after physical training and dietary intervention in individuals with the "atherothrombogenic syndrome'. Oslo Diet and Exercise Study (ODES). A randomized trial. (PubMed)

Improved carbohydrate metabolism after physical training and dietary intervention in individuals with the "atherothrombogenic syndrome'. Oslo Diet and Exercise Study (ODES). A randomized trial. To compare the single and joint effect of 1-year diet and exercise intervention on carbohydrate metabolism and associated coronary risk variables.Unmasked, randomized, 2 x 2 factorial intervention trial with 1-year duration for each participant.The participants were recruited from a screening examination (...) and in particular the combination of the two, were effective in improving carbohydrate metabolism. Associated risk factors were also affected in a beneficial direction.

1996 Journal of internal medicine

43374. A population study of plasma neuropeptide Y: correlations with components of the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

A population study of plasma neuropeptide Y: correlations with components of the metabolic syndrome. To study the relations between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and age, gender, blood pressure (BP) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the renin angiotensin system, we performed a population-based study through random selection of 220 subjects (49% men). Subjects on antihypertensive therapy were excluded and participation rate was 67%. Venous blood was drawn at 08.00 h in the fasting state (...) correlation between LDL-cholesterol and NPY in women, independent of age, and components of the metabolic syndrome, makes it a possible gender-specific cardiovascular riskmarker.

1996 Blood pressure

43375. The insulin-sensitizing agent troglitazone improves metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome. (PubMed)

The insulin-sensitizing agent troglitazone improves metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome. We performed this study to investigate the hypothesis that insulin resistance plays a role in the pathogenesis of reproductive abnormalities in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-five women with PCOS were enrolled in a double-blind randomized 3-month trial of two doses of the insulin-sensitizing agent, troglitazone, 21 of whom completed the study

1996 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

43376. Leptin in overweight postmenopausal women: no relationship with metabolic syndrome X or effect of exercise in addition to diet. (PubMed)

Leptin in overweight postmenopausal women: no relationship with metabolic syndrome X or effect of exercise in addition to diet. To examine the effect of diet with exercise on serum leptin and whether leptin is associated with the metabolic syndrome X in a high risk population such as overweight postmenopausal women.121 healthy overweight, postmenopausal women (aged 49-58y, body mass index (BMI) 25-42 kg/m2) were randomized to: A low-energy-diet, 4.2 MJ/d (n = 51), low-energy-diet + standardized (...) physical exercise (n=49) or no intervention (control: n=21) for 12 weeks, followed by 6 months follow-up without intervention.S-leptin was measured by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA), body composition and fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and anthropometry. Factors associated with the metabolic syndrome X and sex hormones were measured.S-leptin was two-fold higher than in normal-weight postmenopausal women and S-leptin was normalized after weight loss induced by the 12-week low

1998 International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

43377. Glucose metabolism in Ullrich Turner syndrome: long-term effects of therapy with human growth hormone. German Lilly UTS Study Group. (PubMed)

Glucose metabolism in Ullrich Turner syndrome: long-term effects of therapy with human growth hormone. German Lilly UTS Study Group. The effects of GH therapy on glucose metabolism in 72 Turner patients treated with human GH (HGH) 2, 3 or 4 IU/m2/day for 2 years are reported. OGTTs were performed at 0, 3, 12 and 24 months. The overall frequency of glucose intolerance was 9.7% before therapy and did not change under HGH. No change in HbA1c and fasting glucose values occurred. Integrated blood

1993 Hormone research

43378. Metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles, and insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, followed by open, long-term clinical evaluation. (PubMed)

Metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles, and insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, followed by open, long-term clinical evaluation. In the last few years some studies assessed the effects of attenuation of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, obtained by insulin sensitizing agents, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting potential scope for these drugs in treating (...) the whole spectrum of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities found in such subjects. However, the results of these studies, mostly uncontrolled and short-term, are still inconclusive, and there is no long-term follow-up. In the present study, 23 PCOS subjects [mean (+/- SE) body mass index 30.0+/-1.1 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with metformin (500 mg tid) or placebo for 6 months, while maintaining their usual eating habits. Before and after treatment, menstrual

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2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

43379. Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone. (PubMed)

Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone. To assess possible side-effects of GH treatment with supraphysiological doses on carbohydrate (CH) metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment, the results of oral glucose tolerance tests (...) yr of age or older started with 5 microg/kg BW-day 17beta-estradiol for induction of puberty. To assess the effects of long term high dose GH treatment on CH metabolism, the 7-yr data from the oral glucose tolerance tests in 9 girls of group C were evaluated (group C1). To determine whether the changes in CH metabolism during GH treatment would persist after discontinuation of GH treatment, the data for 28 girls who had reached adult height (group A, n = 9; group B, n = 10; group C, n = 9) were

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2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

43380. Endocrine and metabolic effects of metformin versus ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study. (PubMed)

Endocrine and metabolic effects of metformin versus ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study. Metformin, a biguanide antihyperglycemic drug, has been shown to improve ovarian function and glucose metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but results concerning its effects on insulin sensitivity are controversial. Oral contraceptive pills are commonly used in the treatment of PCOS; but, like metformin

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2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

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