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Metabolic Syndrome

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43361. The apolipoprotein B/AI ratio and the metabolic syndrome independently predict risk for myocardial infarction in middle-aged men. (PubMed)

The apolipoprotein B/AI ratio and the metabolic syndrome independently predict risk for myocardial infarction in middle-aged men. Both the metabolic syndrome and an increased apolipoprotein B/AI (apoB/AI) ratio are powerful risk factors for cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that the apoB/AI ratio well-characterizes the dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and investigated those relations and if the apoB/AI ratio and the metabolic syndrome independently (...) predicted subsequent myocardial infarction (MI).A community-based sample of 1826 men aged 50 was investigated at baseline and again at age 70. ApoB/AI ratio and the metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program definition) were evaluated, and the incidence of fatal and nonfatal MI was followed for a median of 26.8 years from the age 50 baseline. ApoB/AI ratio was significantly higher in men with versus without the metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001), and increased with the number of components

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2006 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

43362. The metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and leukocyte count: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (PubMed)

The metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and leukocyte count: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. To examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and leukocyte count, the author did a cross-sectional analysis of data from 8570 participants aged >/=20 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). The metabolic syndrome was defined using criteria established (...) by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. The age-adjusted prevalence of having an elevated C-reactive protein concentration was 29.0% (S.E.: 1.6%) for participants with the metabolic syndrome and 12.1% (S.E.: 0.6%) for participants without the metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.36, 3.33). Compared with participants who had no abnormalities

2003 Atherosclerosis

43363. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in a middle-aged Swedish population - Mainly a function of overweight? (PubMed)

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in a middle-aged Swedish population - Mainly a function of overweight? The prevalence of obesity, one risk factor for developing the metabolic syndrome (MS), has increased during the last decades. It has therefore been assumed that the prevalence of MS would also increase.The aim was to analyse the prevalence of MS and its risk factors in a middle-aged Swedish population.Data were obtained between 2003 and 2004 from a random (...) , followed by high blood pressure, high triglycerides, high glucose and HDL cholesterol (38% and 47% respectively).The prevalence of MS was 15%, increasing with age only among women. Overweight was a dominant characteristic, and only half of the individuals with MS had glucose/HDL cholesterol levels beyond defined cut points of the syndrome.

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2007 European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing

43364. A new transgenic rat model of hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

A new transgenic rat model of hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver is extremely common in insulin-resistant patients with either obesity or lipodystrophy and it has been proposed that hepatic steatosis be considered an additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. Although insulin resistance can promote fatty liver, excessive hepatic accumulation of fat can also promote insulin resistance and could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. We sought (...) to create a new nonobese rat model with hypertension, hepatic steatosis, and the metabolic syndrome by transgenic overexpression of a sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1a) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SREBPs are transcription factors that activate the expression of multiple genes involved in the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fatty acids. The new transgenic strain of SHR overexpressing a dominant-positive form of human SREBP-1a under control

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2005 Hypertension

43365. Elevated C-reactive protein augments increased arterial stiffness in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Elevated C-reactive protein augments increased arterial stiffness in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. We examined whether the presence of an increasing number of metabolic syndrome "disorders" was associated with an increasing pulse wave velocity, which is recognized as a marker of cardiovascular risk, and evaluated whether an elevated plasma C-reactive protein level augments this increasing pulse wave velocity. Using a cross-sectional study design, C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome (...) of pulse wave velocity (R-square=0.38). The presence of an increasing number of metabolic "disorders" in the subjects was associated with an increasing pulse wave velocity (no disorders 1228+/-139 cm/s > or =3 disorders 1437+/-250 cm/s; P<0.01). Among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, pulse wave velocity was higher in cases with (1508+/-278 cm/s) than in those without an elevated C-reactive protein (1427+/-243 cm/s; P<0.01). In conclusion, an increase in arterial stiffness may constitute

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2005 Hypertension

43366. Metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertension. (PubMed)

Metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertension. Metabolic syndrome is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease in hypertension, and large-artery stiffness is increasingly recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor. We hypothesized that the adverse prognostic significance of the metabolic syndrome in hypertension might be explained in part by its association with aortic stiffness. A total of 169 newly diagnosed, never treated, nondiabetic (...) patients with essential hypertension (men 55%, 48+/-11 years) were classified by the presence (n=45) or absence (n=124) of the metabolic syndrome. All patients underwent aortic and upper limb pulse wave velocity determination by means of an applanation tonometry-based method. Aortic pulse wave velocity had a direct correlation with office and 24-hour systolic pressure (r=0.42 and 0.31, respectively), as well as with waist circumference (r=0.35, all P<0.001), but not with body mass index (r=0.10, P

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2005 Hypertension

43367. Sympathetic neural activation in nondiabetic metabolic syndrome and its further augmentation by hypertension. (PubMed)

Sympathetic neural activation in nondiabetic metabolic syndrome and its further augmentation by hypertension. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor in the metabolic syndrome (MS) in which the presence of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, abnormal lipoprotein metabolism, and central obesity all confer an increased risk. Because essential hypertension (EHT), insulinemia, and visceral fat are associated with sympathetic hyperactivity, which is itself known to increase (...) . The degree of sympathetic hyperactivity seen in this study could be argued at least partly to contribute to the higher cardiovascular risk and metabolic abnormalities seen in MS+EHT patients.

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2004 Hypertension

43368. Components of the metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis: role of elevated blood pressure. (PubMed)

Components of the metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis: role of elevated blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is among the factors that contribute to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is not known whether subjects with MetS and elevated blood pressure are at the same cardiovascular risk as subjects with MetS but without elevated blood pressure. To clarify this point, we have evaluated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with MetS with or without elevated blood (...) atherosclerosis (logistic model), whereas age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and SBP were associated with the extent of atherosclerosis (linear model). When comparing subjects with an equal number of MetS components, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in subjects with elevated blood pressure than in those without. No difference in carotid atherosclerosis prevalence was found in subjects bearing or not bearing components of the syndrome other than elevated blood pressure

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2005 Hypertension

43369. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. We sought to study relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.Recent studies have shown an association between the metabolic syndrome and chronic subclinical inflammation, as determined by elevated CRP. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and improved insulin (...) metabolic abnormalities, and subjects with the metabolic syndrome (all p metabolic syndrome. The adjusted mean CRP in subjects in the upper and lower fitness quartiles was 1.48 versus 0.93 mg/dl in subjects without metabolic abnormalities, 2.40 versus 1.66 mg/dl in subjects with one or two metabolic abnormalities, and 4.62 versus 2.20 mg/l in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.049 for the interaction between

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2004 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

43370. Ten-year risk of cardiovascular incidence related to diabetes, prediabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Ten-year risk of cardiovascular incidence related to diabetes, prediabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. The relative contributions of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and dysglycemia on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been dissected. We aimed to compare MetS with dysglycemia in their association with the 10-year incidence risk of CVD.A total of 30,378 subjects were recruited from 11 provinces in the CMCS and followed-up for new coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events (...) (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke) for 10 years. Incidence rates and HRs were estimated by the presence or absence of MetS, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, and by the various traits of MetS.Among the subjects, 18.2% were defined as having MetS; 21.1% had IFG, and 6.8% had diabetes. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in IFG and diabetes was 38.1% and 48.7%, respectively, and the prevalence of IFG and diabetes in MetS was 44.1% and 18.3%, respectively. After adjusting for nonmetabolic risk

2007 American Heart Journal

43371. Weight loss improves heart rate recovery in overweight and obese men with features of the metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Weight loss improves heart rate recovery in overweight and obese men with features of the metabolic syndrome. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, but whether it is modifiable and can improve with weight loss is unclear. We sought to determine the effects of weight loss on HRR and its association with traditional CVD risk markers.Heart rate recovery (defined as the decrease in heart rate from peak heart rate to that measured 1 (...) minute after a standardized graded treadmill test) and a range of established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 42 overweight and obese men (body mass index 33.8 +/- 0.6 kg/m2, mean age 46.5 +/- 1.3 years) who had no symptoms of CVD but had components of the metabolic syndrome before and after 12 weeks of weight loss.There was a 9% weight reduction (P < .001), with losses of 6.3 +/- 0.6 kg of fat mass (P < .001) and 3.1 +/- 0.6 kg of non-bone fat-free mass (P < .001). There were

2006 American Heart Journal

43372. Obstructive sleep apnoea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Obstructive sleep apnoea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although it was previously assumed that this was due to its relation with obesity, recent data suggest that OSA is independently associated with the cardiovascular risk factors that comprise metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (...) , and dyslipidaemia. However, as previous studies have only considered these variables individually, it has not been possible to determine the overall association of OSA with this syndrome.We recruited 61 male subjects with OSA and 43 controls. Glucose, insulin, lipids, and blood pressure (BP) were measured following an overnight fast. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria

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2004 European Heart Journal

43373. The metabolic syndrome is associated with advanced vascular damage in patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm. (PubMed)

The metabolic syndrome is associated with advanced vascular damage in patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients without a cardiovascular history. We investigated whether the metabolic syndrome is related to the extent of vascular damage in patients with various manifestations of vascular disease.The study population of this cross (...) -sectional survey consisted of 502 patients recently diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD), 236 with stroke, 218 with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and 89 with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT), Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) and albuminuria were used as non-invasive markers of vascular damage and adjusted for age and sex if appropriate. The prevalence of the metabolic

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2004 European Heart Journal

43374. Metabolic syndrome best defines the multivariate distribution of blood variables in postinfarction patients. (PubMed)

Metabolic syndrome best defines the multivariate distribution of blood variables in postinfarction patients. The hypothesis was tested that metabolic syndrome (MS) plays a leading role in approximating the multivariate distribution of thrombogenic and metabolic blood variables in a population of postinfarction patients. The multivariate statistical technique of factor analysis was used to determine blood variable clustering 2 months after myocardial infarction. Five clusters resulted in two (...) separate independent factors, dyslipidemia and metabolic, reflecting MS and the remaining interpreted as cholesterol-lipoprotein, vascular-inflammatory, and coagulation. All five factors accounted for 55% of total variance with MS-associated factors accounting for 20% and individual factor contributions as follows: 11.6, 8.6, 12.9, 11.9, and 9.6%, respectively. There were no interactions of metabolic variables with thrombogenic variables or CRP in any factor. Results of subgroup analysis in males

2003 Atherosclerosis

43375. Hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemic rabbit exhibits insulin resistance and central obesity: a novel model of metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemic rabbit exhibits insulin resistance and central obesity: a novel model of metabolic syndrome. We have established a hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemic (PHT) rabbit. The present study was designed to define whether this rabbit model represents both insulin resistance and central obesity.Body weight, abdominal circumference, visceral fat weight, and glucose tolerance were compared between PHT and Japanese white (JW) rabbit. Plasma levels (...) , plasma insulin levels were elevated in PHT rabbit. Glucose tolerance tests indicated that plasma insulin levels in PHT rabbit were consistently higher than in JW rabbit. A positive correlation was observed between plasma insulin levels and visceral fat weight in PHT rabbit.PHT rabbit shows insulin resistance along with central obesity. PHT rabbit will serve as a model for elucidating genetic predisposition and pathophysiology in metabolic syndrome.

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2006 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

43376. Abnormal capillary permeability and endothelial dysfunction in hypertension with comorbid Metabolic Syndrome. (PubMed)

Abnormal capillary permeability and endothelial dysfunction in hypertension with comorbid Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome as defined by ATP III criteria, a constellation of risk factors associated with insulin resistance, predisposes to premature atherosclerosis and early coronary events. Whether that negative risk profile is associated with endothelial dysfunction remains to be established.Transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), a measure of capillary permeability and integrity (...) of systemic capillary endothelium, and forearm vasodilation to intra-arterial acetylcholine (ACH), an index of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasomotor dysfunction, were assessed in 24 non-diabetic, uncomplicated hypertensive men with Metabolic Syndrome according to ATP III criteria (hypertension with at least two additional traits such as high triglycerides, low HDL, abdominal obesity, impaired fasting or post-load plasma glucose). Twelve age-matched lean normal hypertensive patients with normal lipid

2004 Atherosclerosis

43377. Association of lymphocyte sub-populations with clustered features of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese men. (PubMed)

Association of lymphocyte sub-populations with clustered features of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese men. To examine the relationship between altered cellular immune status and clustered features of the metabolic syndrome, we measured body mass index (BMI), serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and blood pressure levels as well as differential leukocyte counts and lymphocyte sub-populations among 439 apparently healthy (...) Japanese men aged 35-60 years. The components of the metabolic syndrome were defined based on the following criteria: BMI >/=25.0 kg/m(2), fasting plasma glucose >/=6.11 mmol/l, systolic blood pressure >/=130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >/=85 mmHg, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l, and fasting triglyceride >/=1.69 mmol/l. Counts of total leukocyte, total lymphocyte, CD3 + T cell, CD4 + T cell, and CD4 + CD45RO + T cell significantly correlated with the number

2004 Atherosclerosis

43378. The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. (PubMed)

The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. The prospective associations between the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP/ATP III) expert panel and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes has not been extensively examined. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study (1976 (...) -1992), the author examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease among 2431 US adults aged 30-75 years. The NCEP/ATP III criteria were modified to substitute body mass index >/=25 kg/m(2) for waist circumference for women and >/=30 kg/m(2) for men. After multiple-adjustment, the hazard ratios for participants with the metabolic syndrome were 1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.85) for mortality from cardiovascular disease

2004 Atherosclerosis

43379. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm. (PubMed)

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in various asymptomatic populations has been well documented, however, limited information is available about the prevalence in manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease patients (...) . The aim of this study is to determine the overall and gender-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in these patients. This cross-sectional survey of 1117 patients, aged 18-80 years, mean age 60+/-10 years, comprised patients with coronary heart disease (n=527), cerebrovascular disease (n=258), peripheral arterial disease (n=232) or abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=100). Metabolic syndrome was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome

2004 Atherosclerosis

43380. Hypertension among HIV patients: prevalence and relationships to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

Hypertension among HIV patients: prevalence and relationships to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, related to insulin resistance. In HIV patients insulin resistance and several metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome have been described, but few and conflicting studies have investigated the behaviour of blood pressure. The aims of the present study were (...) to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a large group of HIV-patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to investigate the relationship between hypertension, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.Case control study.We enrolled 287 HIV-positive patients on HAART (mean age 41.1 +/- 7.5 years) and 287 age- and sex-matched controls. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model insulin resistance assessment (HOMA) index. Metabolic syndrome was defined according

2003 Journal of Hypertension

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