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Melasma

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121. Interventions for melasma. (Abstract)

Interventions for melasma. Melasma is an acquired symmetrical pigmentary disorder where confluent grey-brown patches typically appear on the face. Available treatments for melasma are unsatisfactory.To assess interventions used in the management of all types of melasma: epidermal, dermal, and mixed.In May 2010 we searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO (...) a different set of interventions. They can be grouped into those including a bleaching agent such as hydroquinone, triple-combination creams (hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide), and combination therapies (hydroquinone cream and glycolic acid peels), as well as less conventional therapies including rucinol, vitamin C iontophoresis, and skin-lightening complexes like Thiospot and Gigawhite.Triple-combination cream was significantly more effective at lightening melasma than hydroquinone

2010 Cochrane

122. A review of melasma treatment focusing on laser and light devices. (Abstract)

A review of melasma treatment focusing on laser and light devices. Melasma is a pigmentary disorder of unclear etiology with numerous treatment options and high recurrence rates. Laser and light therapies may be utilized cautiously as second- or third-line options for recalcitrant melasma, but low-energy settings are preferred due to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma stimulation. Commonly used lasers include the low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium

2016 Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

123. Clinical and Histopathologic Assessment of Facial Melasma After Low-Fluence QS Nd: YAG Laser. (Abstract)

Clinical and Histopathologic Assessment of Facial Melasma After Low-Fluence QS Nd: YAG Laser. Melasma is a frequent and difficult to treat skin disorder. Results of laser therapy are inconsistent.To determine the safety and efficacy of low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser for melasma treatment and assess recurrence rates and histopathologic findings before and after treatment.Twenty patients were treated with 10 weekly sessions of low-fluence 1064-nm (...) QS Nd:YAG laser at 1-week intervals. The modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score was evaluated at baseline; 1 week; and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Epidermal melanin quantification was performed on 10 biopsy samples and compared before and after treatment.All patients showed improvement by mMASI scores, range (21%-75%) compared with that at baseline. No permanent side effects occurred. The recurrence rate was 81%. By histopathology, a slight, nonsignificant (p = .305

2016 Dermatologic Surgery

124. Comparison between Intralesional Triamcinolone and Kligman's Formula in Treatment of Melasma. (Abstract)

Comparison between Intralesional Triamcinolone and Kligman's Formula in Treatment of Melasma. Melasma is a common acquired skin disorder. While different treatments are currently being used, in many cases it is refractory to treatment. According to the effects of topical steroids in decreasing skin pigmentation, we studied the efficacy of this new method for treatment of melasma. A total of 42 women with facial melasma, admitted to the department of dermatology of Hamadan, were enrolled (...) in the study. They were divided randomly into two groups (A and B), group A (case) received subepidermal triamcinolone injections with a dose of 4 mg per cc and 5 mm intervals until complete blanching of melasma lesions, and group B (control) received Kligman's formula (hydroquinone 5%, tretinoin 0.1%, and dexamethasone 0.1%). At the first visit, we completed the MASI score papers, and we repeated that at weeks 4 and 8 of the study. We followed them for two months, every two weeks. At each visit, side

2016 Acta medica Iranica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of topical tranexamic acid in melasma. (Abstract)

Efficacy and possible mechanisms of topical tranexamic acid in melasma. Tranexamic acid (TA) has been suggested as an effective treatment for melasma.To investigate the effects and mechanism of action of topical TA in the treatment of melasma.In this study, 23 participants with melasma applied a 2% TA formulation to the whole face for 12 weeks. Clinical effects were evaluated using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) and a chromameter. Skin biopsies were obtained from 10 (...) participants to evaluate pigmentation, vascularity and the expression levels of possible paracrine factors contributing to the effect of TA.Most of the participants had mild melasma, with mMASI of < 5. The mMASI scores significantly improved in 22 of 23 participants after application. The L* values were increased and the a* values were decreased in both lesional and perilesional normal skin. Fontana-Masson staining showed a significant decrease in melanin content in the epidermis. The number of CD31

2016 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

126. Oral tranexamic acid lightens refractory melasma. (Abstract)

Oral tranexamic acid lightens refractory melasma. Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentary disorder, particularly among Asians and Hispanics, but its exact pathomechanism is poorly understood. Tranexamic acid has been found to lighten melasma by interfering with the interaction of melanocytes and keratinocytes by inhibiting the plasminogen/plasmin system. The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oral tranexamic acid in the treatment of melasma refractory to topical skin-lightening (...) agents.This retrospective study analyses patients with melasma recruited from a tertiary dermatological centre in Singapore between 1 August 2009 and 31 March 2011. The patients chosen had refractory melasma treated with oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily in addition to pre-existing combination topical therapy. Objective assessment using the physician's global assessment and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores were performed based on a post-hoc analysis of photographic records by three

2016 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

127. Comparison of MITF and Melan-A Immunohistochemistry During Mohs Surgery for Lentigo Maligna-Type Melanoma In Situ and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma. (Abstract)

Comparison of MITF and Melan-A Immunohistochemistry During Mohs Surgery for Lentigo Maligna-Type Melanoma In Situ and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) with frozen section immunohistochemistry is a treatment option for malignant melanoma in situ (MMIS) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). Melan-A is a cytoplasmic melanocyte immunostain useful on frozen sections but may lack specificity. Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) is a more specific nuclear melanocyte (...) immunostain less frequently used in MMS.To quantify melanocyte density in chronic sun-damaged skin (CSDS), negative margin, and tumor from patients undergoing MMS for MMIS and LMM using MITF and melan-A.Sixteen patients with MMIS or LMM had frozen sections from CSDS, negative margin, and 12 tumor samples, stained with MITF and melan-A. Melanocyte counts were performed.Chronic sun-damaged skin mean melanocyte count (MMC) for MITF and melan-A was 9.8 and 13.7, respectively, (p < .001). Negative margin MMC

2016 Dermatologic Surgery

128. Combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against neurotropic species of melanized fungi causing primary cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against neurotropic species of melanized fungi causing primary cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis is a fatal fungal infection due mainly to the neurotropic melanized fungiCladophialophora bantiana,Rhinocladiella mackenziei, andExophiala dermatitidis.Despite the combination of surgery with antifungal treatment, the prognosis continues to be poor, with mortality rates ranging from 50 to 70%. Therefore (...) that amphotericin B, in combination with flucytosine, may have a role in the treatment of primary cerebral infections caused by melanized fungi belonging to the orderChaetothyriales Furtherin vivostudies and clinical investigations to elucidate and confirm these observations are warranted. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

129. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma. Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma.To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability (...) of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma.Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every

2016 Dermatologic Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

130. Randomized clinical trial of facial acupuncture with or without body acupuncture for treatment of melasma. (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial of facial acupuncture with or without body acupuncture for treatment of melasma. To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture treatments in treating facial melasma, contrasting treatments involving facial acupuncture with facial/body acupuncture.Women suffering with melasma were randomly assigned into: 1) facial acupuncture (n = 20); or 2) facial/body acupuncture (n = 21). Each group was given 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Melasma area and darkness of its pigmentation (...) were assessed using digital images.95.2% and 90% of participants in facial/body and facial acupuncture, respectively, had decreased melasma areas, with a mean reduction area being 2.6 cm(2) (95%CI 1.6-3.6 cm(2)) and 2.4 cm(2) (95%CI 1.6-3.3 cm(2)), respectively. 66.7% (facial/body acupuncture) and 80.0% (facial acupuncture) of participants had lighter melasma pigmentation compared to their baselines (p-value = 0.482).Facial acupuncture, with or without body acupuncture, was shown to be effective

2016 Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

131. [Clinical observation on treatment of chloasma with point embedding thread]. (Abstract)

[Clinical observation on treatment of chloasma with point embedding thread]. To observe therapeutic effect of point embedding thread on chloasma.Thirty cases of the treatment group were treated with embedding thread at body points for 6 times, points of the face for once, pricking blood therapy on ear points once each week; the 30 cases of the control group with body acupuncture and ear acupuncture, twice each week. After treatment of 4 months, their therapeutic effects on chloasma (...) and companied symptoms were evaluated.The effective rate on chloasma was 100.0% in the treatment group and 70.0% in the control group with a very significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). The effective rates on the companied symptoms were 100.0% in the two groups, but the cured and markedly effective rate in the treatment group was better than that in the control group (P < 0.01).The therapeutic effect of point embedding thread combined with ear point pricking blood therapy on chloasma

2016 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

132. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus salt-partitioned moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) in 60 cases of chloasma]. (Abstract)

[Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus salt-partitioned moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) in 60 cases of chloasma]. To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus salt-partitioned moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) on chloasma.A total 106 cases of chloasma were randomly divided into two groups, a treatment group (n = 60) treated by acupuncture plus salt-partitioned moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) and a control group (n = 40) by simple acupuncture. Their therapeutic effects were (...) observed after 3 therapeutic courses and 1-month break, respectively.The total effective rate was 100.0% in the treatment group and 89.1% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05).Acupuncture plus salt-partitioned moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) is a safe and convenient therapy with a remarkable effect for chloasma.

2016 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

133. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptomes among Bombyx mori Strains and Sexes Reveals the Genes Regulating Melanic Morph and the Related Phenotypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative Analysis of Transcriptomes among Bombyx mori Strains and Sexes Reveals the Genes Regulating Melanic Morph and the Related Phenotypes As a source of insect polymorphism, melanism plays an important role in ecological adaption and usually endows advantageous phenotypic-effects on insects. However, due to the mechanistic diversity, there are knowledge gaps in the molecular mechanisms underlying melanism and the related phenotypes. In silk moths, a recessive melanic mutant (sex (...) -controlled melanism, sml) strain exhibits extended adult longevity. We took a transcriptome approach to perform a comparative analysis between this sml strain and a wild-type strain (Dazao). Our analysis resulted in the identification of 59 unique differentially expressed genes in the melanic mutant. Two key genes (laccase2 and yellow) involved in melanin formation were significantly up-regulated in melanic individuals. The laccase2 B-type isoform (BGIBMGA006746) was found to likely participate

2016 PloS one

134. The Effect of Melasma on the Quality of Life in a Sample of Women Living in Singapore Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Melasma on the Quality of Life in a Sample of Women Living in Singapore Melasma is a common disorder of acquired hyperpigmentation characterized by irregular brown macules and patches that occur primarily on sun-exposed areas.This was a prospective cross-sectional study that recruited 49 women clinically diagnosed with melasma from a tertiary dermatology referral center in Singapore. Trained investigators assessed the melasma severity objectively using the chromameter (...) and mexameter and subjectively using the Melasma Area and Severity Index. The effect of melasma on the quality of life on the patients was assessed using the melasma quality of life scale and dermatology life quality index questionnaires.The mean ± SD Melasma Area and Severity Index score was 12.1±6.5 (median 10.8). The mean ± SD melasma quality of life scale score was 25.6±15.3 (median 24.0). Melasma quality of life scale scores are significantly correlated (Spearman's coefficient = 0.597, p-value <0.001

2016 The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology

135. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications Full Text available with Trip Pro

Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable (...) incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment.

2016 International journal of molecular sciences

136. Treatment of Melasma with the Photoacoustic Twin Pulse Mode of Low-Fluence 1,064 nm Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of Melasma with the Photoacoustic Twin Pulse Mode of Low-Fluence 1,064 nm Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Low-fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been widely used for the treatment of melasma. Although new Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers with photoacoustic twin pulse (PTP) mode have been recently developed for high-efficiency, there is limited information available for the new technique.This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects after few sessions of repeated (...) low fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with PTP mode in Asian women with melasma.Twenty-two Korean women were treated with a total of five sessions of low-fluence PTP mode Nd:YAG laser treatment (Pastelle®) at 2 weeks interval. Responses to treatments were evaluated by using Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scoring, colorimeter measurement, and the investigators' and patients' overall assessments. Adverse events were recorded at each visit.Investigators' and patients' overall

2016 Annals of dermatology

137. A Variable Genetic Architecture of Melanic Evolution in Drosophila melanogaster Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Variable Genetic Architecture of Melanic Evolution in Drosophila melanogaster Unraveling the genetic architecture of adaptive phenotypic divergence is a fundamental quest in evolutionary biology. In Drosophila melanogaster, high-altitude melanism has evolved in separate mountain ranges in sub-Saharan Africa, potentially as an adaptation to UV intensity. We investigated the genetic basis of this melanism in three populations using a new bulk segregant analysis mapping method. We identified 19 (...) distinct QTL regions from nine mapping crosses, with several QTL peaks overlapping between two or all populations, and yet different crosses involving the same melanic population commonly yielded distinct QTL. The strongest QTL often overlapped well-known pigmentation genes, but we typically did not find wide signals of genetic differentiation (FST) between lightly and darkly pigmented populations at these genes. Instead, we found small numbers of highly differentiated SNPs at the probable causative

2016 Genetics

138. Mutations in different pigmentation genes are associated with parallel melanism in island flycatchers Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutations in different pigmentation genes are associated with parallel melanism in island flycatchers The independent evolution of similar traits across multiple taxa provides some of the most compelling evidence of natural selection. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of these convergent or parallel traits: are they mediated by identical or different mutations in the same genes, or unique mutations in different genes? Using a combination of candidate gene and reduced (...) representation genomic sequencing approaches, we explore the genetic basis of and the evolutionary processes that mediate similar plumage colour shared by isolated populations of the Monarcha castaneiventris flycatcher of the Solomon Islands. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) that explicitly controlled for population structure revealed that mutations in known pigmentation genes are the best predictors of parallel plumage colour. That is, entirely black or melanic birds from one small island share

2016 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

139. Potential for biocontrol of melanized fungi by actinobacteria isolated from intertidal region of Ilha Do Mel, Paraná, Brazil Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potential for biocontrol of melanized fungi by actinobacteria isolated from intertidal region of Ilha Do Mel, Paraná, Brazil Actinobacteria occur in many environments and have the capacity to produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic potential. Identification and taxonomy of actinobacteria that produce antimicrobial substances is essential for the screening of new compounds, and sequencing of the 16S region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which is conserved and present in all bacteria (...) , is an important method of identification. Melanized fungi are free-living organisms, which can also be pathogens of clinical importance. This work aimed to evaluate growth inhibition of melanized fungi by actinobacteria and to identify the latter to the species level. In this study, antimicrobial activity of 13 actinobacterial isolates from the genus Streptomyces was evaluated against seven melanized fungi of the genera Exophiala, Cladosporium, and Rhinocladiella. In all tests, all actinobacterial isolates

2016 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

140. Assessment of efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream: an Indian multicentric study on melasma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessment of efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream: an Indian multicentric study on melasma Melasma is one of the commonly reported pigmentory disorders in the Indian population. Numerous therapeutic modalities are available. However, very few have produced complete satisfactory response. 4-n-Butylresorcinol 0.3% cream has recently been introduced in India as a new hypopigmenting agent. It is a resorcinol derivative and acts by inhibiting both tyrosinase (...) and tyrosinase-related protein-1.The available published literatures are with 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream, and there is paucity of clinical studies with 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream. Furthermore, considering the fact that Indian skin is more prone to irritation with hypopigmenting agents, our study explores the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream in Indian subjects with melasma.Fifty-two subjects with melasma participated in this open-label, single arm, observational

2016 Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology

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