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Medulla Oblongata

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1. Successful microvascular decompression surgery for dolichoectatic vertebral artery compression of medulla oblongata in a patient with hypersomnia disorder. (PubMed)

Successful microvascular decompression surgery for dolichoectatic vertebral artery compression of medulla oblongata in a patient with hypersomnia disorder. Hypersomnia is a condition in which a person has trouble staying awake during the day. There are several potential causes of it, including sleep apnea and sleep disorders.A 43 year old male was referred to our practice with complaints of hypersomnia, snoring, slurred speech and sleep apnea for more diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (...) . His brain MRI was significant for a vascular loop compression on medulla oblongata. The patient underwent microvascular decompression surgery subsequently and showed improvement in all of his symptoms.One of the rare causes of sleep apnea is medulla oblongata compression by a vascular loop. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia may cause this phenomenon probably and should be reviewed in imaging examinations more precisely. Microvascular decompression by using a synthetic Teflon patch may be helpful

2019 British Journal of Neurosurgery

2. Clinical Value of Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Involvement Detected with Conventional MRI for Prediction of Outcome in Children with Enterovirus 71-related Brainstem Encephalitis. (PubMed)

Clinical Value of Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Involvement Detected with Conventional MRI for Prediction of Outcome in Children with Enterovirus 71-related Brainstem Encephalitis. Brainstem encephalitis is the most common neurologic complication after enterovirus 71 infection. The involvement of brainstem, especially the dorsal medulla oblongata, can cause severe sequelae or death in children with enterovirus 71 infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement (...) in children with enterovirus 71-related brainstem encephalitis (EBE) by using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate the value of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in outcome prediction.Forty-six children with EBE were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 1.5 Tesla MRI examination of the brain. The disease distribution and clinical data were collected. Dichotomized outcomes (good vs. poor) at longer than 6 months were available for 28 patients. Logistic regression

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

3. Microsurgical Resection of Medulla Oblongata Hemangioblastoma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video (PubMed)

Microsurgical Resection of Medulla Oblongata Hemangioblastoma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video This video demonstrates the microsurgical resection of brainstem hemangioblastoma. The patient is a 32-yr-old woman with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome who presented with quadriparesis and inability to swallow. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neuroaxis revealed a brainstem cystic lesion with contrast-enhancing tumor nodule right along the posterior aspect of the lower part of medulla oblongata

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2018 Operative Neurosurgery

4. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report. (PubMed)

Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report. Medulla oblongata dysplasia is an extremely rare form of neurodevelopmental immaturity in premature infants. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants may be closely related to neurodevelopmental immaturity.We report a female premature infant who succumbed to intracranial hemorrhage caused by medulla oblongata dysplasia.The infant was born at 31 weeks gestation. The onset manifestation

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2018 Medicine

5. Sarcoidosis of the medulla oblongata causing intractable hiccoughs and numbness of extremities: A case report. (PubMed)

Sarcoidosis of the medulla oblongata causing intractable hiccoughs and numbness of extremities: A case report. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterized by noncaseating granulomas. The nervous system is involved in 5 to 16% of the patients. However, neurosarcoidosis in the medulla oblongata presenting as hiccough is remarkably rare.A 55-year-old female was admitted to our hospital suffering from intractable hiccough and progressive numbness of extremities.The MR imaging revealed (...) a circumscribed mass lesion located on the medulla oblongata. The mass was hyperintense on T2-weighted images and enhanced homogeneously with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a moderately elevated protein content and a significant lymphocytosis 86.5%. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed complete atrioventricular block. Bilateral supraclavicular, hilar, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy was diagnosed in a CT scan. Transbranchial needle aspiration biopsy revealed

2018 Medicine

6. Spontaneous Subclavian Artery Dissection Causing Ischemia of the Medulla Oblongata and Cerebellum. (PubMed)

Spontaneous Subclavian Artery Dissection Causing Ischemia of the Medulla Oblongata and Cerebellum. Spontaneous subclavian artery dissection is a rare etiology. Spontaneous artery dissection causing brain ischemia is rare in all ischemic strokes. However, in young to middle-aged patients with brain ischemia, spontaneous carotid or vertebral artery dissection causing ischemic stroke accounts for 10-25%.A 58-year-old man with a history of hypertension presented to the Emergency Department (...) with a sudden onset of left-arm paresthesia and numbness followed by symptoms of vertigo and vomiting. A neurological examination showed left-arm paresthesia, horizontal-rotational nystagmus, and left-side dysmetria according to a finger-to-nose test. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed left subclavian artery dissection. Diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrated hyperintensity in the left medulla oblongata and inferior part of the cerebellum. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE

2017 Journal of Emergency Medicine

7. CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata. (PubMed)

CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata. Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated

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2016 PLoS ONE

8. Mutated PET117 causes complex IV deficiency and is associated with neurodevelopmental regression and medulla oblongata lesions (PubMed)

Mutated PET117 causes complex IV deficiency and is associated with neurodevelopmental regression and medulla oblongata lesions The genetic basis of the many progressive, multi systemic, mitochondrial diseases that cause a lack of cellular ATP production is heterogeneous, with defects found both in the mitochondrial genome as well as in the nuclear genome. Many different mutations have been found in the genes encoding subunits of the enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (...) . In addition, mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the assembly of these complexes are known to cause mitochondrial disorders. Here we describe two sisters with a mitochondrial disease characterized by lesions in the medulla oblongata, as demonstrated by brain magnetic resonance imaging, and an isolated complex IV deficiency and reduced levels of individual complex IV subunits. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the gene

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2017 Human Genetics

9. Sublaminar wire migration into the medulla oblongata: a case report (PubMed)

Sublaminar wire migration into the medulla oblongata: a case report Atlantoaxial procedures have been developed in an effort to ensure solid C1-C2 fusion. However, techniques that involve sublaminar wiring have the potential for neural structure injury. We present the management of a patient who previously underwent Gallie fusion 10 years ago and is presenting with a dislodged titanium wire that has migrated into the medulla oblongata. A 52-year-old female patient known with rheumatoid (...) arthritis presented with truncal ataxia and food regurgitation 10 years after undergoing a C1-C2 Gallie fusion. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed that a wire from her Gallie fusion procedure migrated into the medulla oblongata. The patient underwent foramen magnum decompression with C1 bilateral laminectomy, instrumentation, and removal of a migrated wire. Six months later, a CT scan showed that all occipital screws were pulled out. In the revision surgery, new occipital screws were placed

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2017 Journal of Spine Surgery

10. The role of Gα O‐mediated signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in cardiovascular reflexes and control of cardiac ventricular excitability (PubMed)

The role of Gα O‐mediated signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in cardiovascular reflexes and control of cardiac ventricular excitability The heart is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the autonomic nervous system with inhibitory signaling mechanisms recruited in both limbs. The aim of this study was to determine the role of inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins in the central nervous mechanisms underlying autonomic control of the heart and its (...) potential role in arrhythmogenesis. Mice with conditional deletion of the inhibitory heterotrimeric G protein GαO in the presympathetic area of the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) were generated to determine the role of GαO-mediated signalling in autonomic control and electrophysiological properties of the heart. GαO deletion within the RVLM was not associated with changes in heart rate (HR) or the arterial blood pressure at rest (home cage, normal behavior). However, exposure to stressful

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2016 Physiological reports

11. Medulla oblongata damage and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. (PubMed)

Medulla oblongata damage and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. To characterize medulla oblongata damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Parkinson disease (PD) and correlate it with dysfunction of the cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance.Fifty-two patients with PD and 24 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical examination and 3T MRI using 3D T1-weighted imaging and DTI. DTI metrics were calculated within manually drawn regions (...) from slow-wave sleep to REM sleep in healthy controls were no longer detectable in patients with PD. There were significant increases in the mean (p = 0.006), axial (p = 0.006), and radial diffusivities (p = 0.005) in the medulla oblongata of patients with PD. In PD, diffusion changes were specifically correlated with a lower heart rate and respiratory frequency variability during REM sleep.This study provides evidence that medulla oblongata damage underlies cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance

2016 Neurology

12. Surgical Application of the Suboccipital Subtonsillar Approach to Reach the Inferior Half of Medulla Oblongata Tumors in Adult Patients (PubMed)

Surgical Application of the Suboccipital Subtonsillar Approach to Reach the Inferior Half of Medulla Oblongata Tumors in Adult Patients Medulla oblongata (MO) tumors are uncommon in adults. Controversies about their treatment arise regarding the need for histological diagnosis in this eloquent area of the brain, weighing benefits of a reliable diagnosis, and the potential disadvantages of invasive procedures. As a broader variety of pathological findings could be found in this localization (...) , the accurate histopathological definition could not only allow an adequate therapy but also can prevent the disastrous consequences of empiric treatments. There are few publications about their surgical management and all belongs to small retrospective cohorts. In this scenario, we are reporting two patients with exophytic or focal lesions in the inferior half of the medulla, who underwent surgery by suboccipital midline subtonsillar approach. This approach was not specifically described to reach MO before

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2016 Frontiers in surgery

13. Medulla Oblongata

Medulla Oblongata Medulla Oblongata Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Medulla Oblongata Medulla Oblongata Aka: Medulla (...) Oblongata , Medulla , Inferior Olivary Nucleus II. Anatomy: Superior (Rostral) Medulla Components Nucleii (organized in anterior-to-posterior bands) (most medial) : (motor, ) tovisceral nerves (Branchiomeric Nerves) ( , , swallow) : (Inferior tory nucleus) : (Dorsal motor nucleus ) ( , , ) (most lateral) : Sensory Nucleus 5 ( , , , ) Continued pain and sensation tracts from the spinal cord Continued tracts for transmitting UNCONSCIOUS proprioception sensation (e.g. walking) Remains ipsilateral

2018 FP Notebook

14. Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study (PubMed)

Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic (...) networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner's system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval ≤100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference

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2016 Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology

15. Germinoma of the medulla oblongata - A case report. (PubMed)

Germinoma of the medulla oblongata - A case report. We describe a case of primary intracranial medulla oblongata germinoma in a 23-year-old female who presented with deteriorating balance and mobility. Imaging demonstrated an exophytic lesion arising from the dorsal medulla oblongata and extending into the fourth ventricle. The tissue sample was obtained via suboccipital craniotomy and a diagnosis of a primary medullary germinoma was made. The patient underwent whole craniospinal axis

2015 British Journal of Neurosurgery

16. Surgical management of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas in one institution: an analysis of 62 cases (PubMed)

Surgical management of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas in one institution: an analysis of 62 cases Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system are highly vascularized benign tumors. When the tumors are located in the medulla oblongata, intraoperative bleeding can make the surgical procedure very difficult. Preoperative embolism has been performed in cases of hemangioblastoma in recent decades. However, the complications of the embolization can result in fatal consequences, especially (...) microsurgery resection of 67 medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas. The suspicious feeding arteries were identified preoperatively by CTA or DSA. During the operation, the suspicious feeding arteries were blocked selectively by motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring (SEP). Based on the retrospectively review of the clinical records and outpatient long-term follow-up visits, their clinical courses were analyzed. Functional outcomes were evaluated according

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2015 International journal of clinical and experimental medicine

17. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats (PubMed)

Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary (...) of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL), the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG), the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR), the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt), the Bötzinger complex (Böt), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5), and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb) bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL) showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic), and 70.87% of neurons with FLI

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2015 PloS one

18. [Clinical observation on medulla oblongata palsy after brainstem infarction treated with electroacupuncture at eight-neck-occiput points]. (PubMed)

[Clinical observation on medulla oblongata palsy after brainstem infarction treated with electroacupuncture at eight-neck-occiput points]. To compare the differences in the efficacy on speech and swallowing dysfunction of medulla oblongata palsy (MOP) after brainstem infarction between electroacupuncture at eight-neck-occiput points and routine acupoints.Seventy-two patients were randomized into a neck-occiput points group and a meridian points group, 36 cases in each one. In the neck-occiput

2014 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion

19. Characteristics of Intraoperative Abnormal Hemodynamics During Resection of an Intra-fourth Ventricular Tumor Located on the Dorsal Medulla Oblongata (PubMed)

Characteristics of Intraoperative Abnormal Hemodynamics During Resection of an Intra-fourth Ventricular Tumor Located on the Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Abnormal hemodynamics during extirpation of a para-medulla oblongata (MO) tumor is common and may be associated with direct vagal stimulation of the medullary circuit. However, resection of tumors on the dorsal MO may also induce hemodynamic instability without direct vagal stimulus. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics

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2013 Neurologia medico-chirurgica

20. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions (PubMed)

Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood. Determining the variations in the transcriptome in the early phases of the disease might clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of the prion-induced pathology and allow for the development of new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. This study is the first to focus (...) on the identification of genes regulated during the preclinical phases of natural scrapie in the ovine medulla oblongata (MO) and the association of these genes with prion deposition, astrocytosis and spongiosis.A custom microarray platform revealed that 86 significant probes had expression changes greater than 2-fold. From these probes, we identified 32 genes with known function; the highest number of regulated genes was included in the phosphoprotein-encoding group. Genes encoding extracellular marker proteins

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2012 BMC genomics

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