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Medication Causes of Headache

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8201. Neuropsychological Evaluation (Diagnosis)

: Evaluation of the cognitive effects of various medical disorders and associated interventions Assessment of tests for diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and clinical drug trials Assessment of CNS lesions and/or seizure disorders before and after surgical interventions, including corpus callosotomy, focal resection (eg, topectomy, lobectomy), and multiple subpial transection (...) Validity Testing Personality assessment Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Rorschach Test Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Thematic Apperception Test for Children or Adults Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Atif B Malik, MD Director of Pain Management, Orthopedic Wellness Atif B Malik, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Abdullah Shuaib

2014 eMedicine.com

8202. Neurological Sequelae of Infectious Endocarditis (Diagnosis)

exists that they have concurrent staphylococcal endocarditis. Spinal epidural abscess is also an important complication to recognize in infective endocarditis, and it most commonly presents with motor deficits or back pain. One study found that infective endocarditis was the cause in 10 out of 48 patients admitted with spinal epidural abscess (only slightly behind intravenous drug use as a leading cause). [ ] Seizures Seizures were part of the presenting complex in 5 of 218 patients (...) , University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Florian P Thomas, MD, PhD, MA, MS Chair, Neuroscience Institute and Department of Neurology, Director, Multiple Sclerosis Center and Hereditary Neuropathy Centers, Hackensack University Medical Center; Founding Chair and Professor, Department of Neurology, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University; Professor

2014 eMedicine.com

8203. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Diagnosis)

, FAHA is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Amar Anand, MD Resident Physician, Department of Neurology, Palmetto Health, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine Amar Anand, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor Helmi L Lutsep, MD Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine; Associate Director, OHSU (...) Stroke Center Helmi L Lutsep, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , Disclosure: Medscape Neurology Editorial Advisory Board for: Stroke Adjudication Committee, CREST2; Executive Committee for the NINDS-funded DEFUSE3 Trial; Physician Advisory Board for Coherex Medical. Acknowledgements Draga Jichici, MD, FRCP, FAHA Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Neurology and Critical Care Medicine, McMaster University School of Medicine, Canada Draga Jichici, MD, FRCP, FAHA is a member

2014 eMedicine.com

8204. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (Diagnosis)

experience with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. Ann Oncol . 2011 Jul. 22(7):1608-13. . . Bilora F, Pietrogrande F, Campagnolo E, et al. Are Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin patients at a greater risk of atherosclerosis? A follow-up of 3 years. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) . 2009 Aug 26. . FDA approves CAR-T cell therapy to treat adults with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Available (...) elevated LDH and calcium levels, abnormal liver function tests Serum beta2-microglobulin level: May be elevated HIV serology: Especially in patients with diffuse large cell immunoblastic or small noncleaved histologies Human T-cell lymphotropic virus–1 serology: For patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma Hepatitis B testing: In patients in whom rituximab therapy is planned because reactivation has been reported Other tests that may be helpful in evaluating suspected NHL include the following

2014 eMedicine.com

8205. Lysosomal Storage Disease (Diagnosis)

activity in cultures of amniotic cells and samples of chorionic villus. The differential diagnosis includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophy of the limb girdle dystrophy, and polymyositis. Management Conventional treatment for cardiorespiratory problems is indicated. Definitive therapy is not currently available. Enzyme therapy, gene replacement, or both are theoretically feasible, and research in these treatments is in progress. (rhGAA) has recently been designated an orphan drug by the US Food (...) recommendations for early detection and laboratory diagnosis. Mol Genet Metab . Sept 2016. 119 (1-2):160-7. . ACMG Work Group on the management of Pompe Disease. Kishnani PS et al. Pompe Disease diagnosis and management guideline. Genetics in Medicine . May 2006. 8:267-288. Andersson H, Kaplan P, Kacena K, Yee J. Eight-year clinical outcomes of long-term enzyme replacement therapy for 884 children withGaucher disease type 1. Pediatrics . 2008 Dec. 6:1182-90. . Angelini C. Recent advances and current clinical

2014 eMedicine.com

8206. Lymphoma, High-Grade Malignant Immunoblastic (Diagnosis)

societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Chief Editor Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical (...) -94. . Media Gallery Lymph node biopsy (hematoxylin and eosin stain) showing diffuse involvement with loss of architecture in a patient with immunoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). of 1 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Asher A Chanan-Khan, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Lymphoma and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, State University of New York at Buffalo Asher A Chanan-Khan, MD is a member of the following medical

2014 eMedicine.com

8207. Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) (Diagnosis)

, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Charles V Sanders, MD Edgar Hull Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Professor of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine at New Orleans; Medical Director, Medicine Hospital Center, Charity Hospital and Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans; Consulting Staff, Ochsner Medical Center Charles V Sanders, MD is a member of the following (...) Earhart, MD Deputy Head, Disease Surveillance Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit #3 Kenneth C Earhart, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Alexandre F Migala, DO Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Denton Regional Medical Center Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. What would you like to print? What would you like to print? Sections Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) Find Us On About Membership WebMD Network Editions All

2014 eMedicine.com

8208. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (Diagnosis)

the autonomic nervous system, various sensory modalities, and cranial nerves. Rarely, the virus can cause long-term neurologic sequelae, including chronic headache, , deafness, transverse myelitis, and syndrome. [ ] Other organs, especially the testes, heart, and joints, may be involved. is usually unilateral and develops 1-3 weeks after illness onset. Cardiac involvement can occur in the form of viral or . The metacarpophalangeal joint and the proximal interphalangeal joint are the most common sites (...) , University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Medicine and Infectious Disease Service, Cambridge Health Alliance John L Brusch, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor Burke A Cunha, MD Professor

2014 eMedicine.com

8209. Lymphangioma (Diagnosis)

. A 16-year-old obese boy with large unilateral verrucous lymphangioma. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing (...) lymphangioma are also uncommon and usually arise during infancy. The most common sites are the head and neck areas and, less frequently, the extremities. These lesions are seated deep in the dermis, forming a painless swelling or thickening of the skin, mucous membranes, and subcutaneous tissue. Unlike lymphangioma circumscriptum, the overlying skin usually is uninvolved. Occasionally, patients report pain when the involved area is pressed. The affected area may be 1 cm, it may be as large as several

2014 eMedicine.com

8210. Lymphangiectasia (Diagnosis)

and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Geover Fernandez, MD, FAAD Staff Physician, Department of Dermatology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Geover Fernandez, MD, FAAD is a member (...) therapy, or tumor mass compression. Lymphangiectasia may also result from abnormal dermal structure and function, possibly related to photoaging and steroid-related atrophy. [ , ] Previous Next: Etiology Acquired lymphangiomas can arise from a large number of external factors that cause structural damage to previously normal deep lymphatics. Lymphangiectases have been reported following radical mastectomy with or without radiation therapy [ ] ; irradiation alone for various malignancies

2014 eMedicine.com

8211. Lipodystrophy, Generalized (Diagnosis)

an investigational therapy. [ ] Insulin Because of their extreme insulin resistance, extremely high doses (eg, >1000 U/d) are often necessary in patients with various syndromes of lipoatrophy. [ ] The volume of injections is more difficult to tolerate for younger patients. Nevertheless, insulin remains the only approved medication for the treatment of children with diabetes. Insulin secretagogues The principal mechanism of action for this class of drugs is to promote insulin secretion by beta cells. [ ] Because (...) problems requiring treatment in lipoatrophy syndromes are diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Although several classes of antidiabetic drugs are marketed in the United States, achieving good glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin < 7.2%) is difficult for most patients with lipoatrophic diabetes. Leptin analogs In February 2014, the FDA approved metreleptin (Myalept), a recombinant leptin analog, as replacement therapy to treat the complications of leptin deficiency, in addition to diet, for congenital

2014 eMedicine.com

8212. Lipodystrophy, HIV (Diagnosis)

-associated lipodystrophy in a patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. of 1 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author David T Robles, MD, PhD Dermatologist, Chaparral Medical Group David T Robles, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Jacquiline Habashy, DO, MSc Resident Physician, Department of Dermatology, Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific Jacquiline Habashy, DO (...) , Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Acknowledgements Roy M Colven, MD Associate Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Adjunct Associate Professor of Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine; Section Head of Dermatology, Harborview Medical Center Roy M Colven, MD is a member of the following medical societies

2014 eMedicine.com

8213. Lichen Planus (Diagnosis)

Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Warren R Heymann, MD Head, Division of Dermatology, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Warren R Heymann, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department (...) of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Elsevier; WebMD. Additional Contributors Joshua A Zeichner, MD Assistant Professor, Director of Cosmetic and Clinical Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Chief of Dermatology, Institute for Family Health at North General Joshua A Zeichner, MD is a member of the following medical societies

2014 eMedicine.com

8214. Leukoplakia, Oral (Diagnosis)

Baltimore Medical Center; Private Practice in Oral Medicine/Oral Pathology; Professor (Ret) of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Professor of Pathology, Professor of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine James J Sciubba, DMD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , , , , International College of Dentists, Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Narendran Andrew Robinson, BDS, MS Adjunct Senior Lecturer, Discipline of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National (...) . for: Medscape. Warren R Heymann, MD Head, Division of Dermatology, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Warren R Heymann, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies

2014 eMedicine.com

8215. Leptospirosis (Diagnosis)

. Russell W Steele, MD Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Ochsner Children's Health Center; Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , , , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary (...) , University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Chief Editor Michael Stuart Bronze, MD David Ross Boyd Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Stewart G Wolf Endowed Chair in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center; Master of the American College of Physicians; Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America; Fellow

2014 eMedicine.com

8216. Leishmaniasis (Diagnosis)

: Craig G Stark, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Leishmaniasis Overview Practice Essentials Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite (genus Leishmania ) transmitted by the bite of a female phlebotomine sandfly. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis ranges from a self-resolving cutaneous ulcer to a mutilating mucocutaneous disease and even to a lethal systemic illness. Therapy has long been (...) the following: CBC count, coagulation studies, liver function tests, peripheral blood smear Measurements of lipase, amylase, gamma globulin, and albumin Leishmanin (Montenegro) skin testing (LST) (not FDA approved in the United States) See for more detail. Management Treatment is tailored to the individual, because leishmaniasis is caused by many species or subspecies of Leishmania . Pharmacologic therapies include the following: Pentavalent antimony (sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimonate): Used

2014 eMedicine.com

8217. LEOPARD Syndrome (Diagnosis)

, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Sergiusz Jozwiak, MD, PhD Professor and Head of Pediatric Neurology, Warsaw Medical University, Poland Sergiusz Jozwiak, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Disclosure (...) : Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology

2014 eMedicine.com

8218. Leishmaniasis (Diagnosis)

: Craig G Stark, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Leishmaniasis Overview Practice Essentials Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite (genus Leishmania ) transmitted by the bite of a female phlebotomine sandfly. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis ranges from a self-resolving cutaneous ulcer to a mutilating mucocutaneous disease and even to a lethal systemic illness. Therapy has long been (...) the following: CBC count, coagulation studies, liver function tests, peripheral blood smear Measurements of lipase, amylase, gamma globulin, and albumin Leishmanin (Montenegro) skin testing (LST) (not FDA approved in the United States) See for more detail. Management Treatment is tailored to the individual, because leishmaniasis is caused by many species or subspecies of Leishmania . Pharmacologic therapies include the following: Pentavalent antimony (sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimonate): Used

2014 eMedicine.com

8219. Leprosy (Diagnosis)

of Neuromuscular Diseases, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital Glenn Lopate, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Alnylam Pharmaceuticals
Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; GLG. Chief Editor Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Adjunct Associate (...) the ulnar nerve at the elbow, median nerve at the wrist, and common peroneal nerve at the fibular head. With respect to sensory modalities, thermal sensation is affected first, followed by pain and touch. Proprioception and vibration modalities are often preserved. Topographical distribution of sensory loss is variable. Graded sensory testing with standardized nylon microfilaments or computer-assisted sensory examination (CASE) may be helpful to detect early sensory loss. Deep tendon reflexes generally

2014 eMedicine.com

8220. Lead Nephropathy (Diagnosis)

, Director, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Program Director of Nephrology Fellowship, University of Oklahoma School of Community Medicine Pranay Kathuria, MD, FACP, FASN, FNKF is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape (...) for employment. for: Medscape. Eleanor Lederer, MD, FASN Professor of Medicine, Chief, Nephrology Division, Director, Nephrology Training Program, Director, Metabolic Stone Clinic, Kidney Disease Program, University of Louisville School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Louisville Veterans Affairs Hospital Eleanor Lederer, MD, FASN is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , , , , , , Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: American Society

2014 eMedicine.com

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