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Medication Causes of Dyspepsia

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61. Gastritis

Gastritis Gastritis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Gastritis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Helicobacter pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or alcohol are the most common causes. Other causes include stress (secondary to mucosal ischaemia) and autoimmune gastritis. Rare forms include phlegmonous gastritis (a rare bacterial (...) pylori infection may cause both an acute and chronic gastritis. Chey WD, Leontiadis GI, Howden CW, Moss SF. ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(2):212-239. https://gi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ACGManagementofHpyloriGuideline2017.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28071659?tool=bestpractice.com Erosive gastritis may occur in response to NSAID/alcohol use or misuse Varis K. Gastritis - a misused term in clinical gastroenterology

2018 BMJ Best Practice

62. Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease Peptic ulcer disease - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Peptic ulcer disease Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Peptic ulcers usually present as chronic, upper abdominal pain related to eating a meal (dyspepsia). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori infection are the most common causes. There may be some (...) M Meyer and Dr Steven Moss, previous contributors to this topic. Peer reviewers Consultant Gastrounit Medical Division Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre Copenhagen Denmark Disclosures LLG declares that she has no competing interests. Use of this content is subject to our Services Legal © BMJ Publishing Group 2018 ISSN 2515-9615 Help us improve Thank you × Your feedback has been submitted successfully.

2018 BMJ Best Practice

63. Gastritis

Gastritis Gastritis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Gastritis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Helicobacter pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or alcohol are the most common causes. Other causes include stress (secondary to mucosal ischaemia) and autoimmune gastritis. Rare forms include phlegmonous gastritis (a rare bacterial (...) pylori infection may cause both an acute and chronic gastritis. Chey WD, Leontiadis GI, Howden CW, Moss SF. ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(2):212-239. https://gi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ACGManagementofHpyloriGuideline2017.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28071659?tool=bestpractice.com Erosive gastritis may occur in response to NSAID/alcohol use or misuse Varis K. Gastritis - a misused term in clinical gastroenterology

2018 BMJ Best Practice

64. Assessment of chronic abdominal pain

, and gynaecological tracts. The aetiology of chronic abdominal pain is so wide that only the more common causes can be covered here. A clear relationship with an anatomical structure or underlying process may not always be present. Classification Chronic abdominal pain is divided into organic and functional aetiologies. Organic aetiologies have a clear anatomical, physiological, or metabolic cause. Chronic abdominal pain without clear source, in spite of a thorough diagnostic evaluation, is usually termed (...) abdominal pain is 22.9 per 1000 person-years. Abdominal pain was reported in 25% of the adult population during cross-sectional surveys. Wallander MA, Johansson S, Ruigomez A, et al. Unspecified abdominal pain in primary care: the role of gastrointestinal morbidity. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:1663-1670. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17681003?tool=bestpractice.com Penston JG, Pounder RE. A survey of dyspepsia in Great Britain. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10:83-89. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

2018 BMJ Best Practice

65. Ascariasis

asymptomatic, ascariasis can cause gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary obstruction, and can contribute to cognitive and growth delay in children. Seltzer E, Barry M, Crompton DWT. Ascariasis. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006:1257-1264. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, et al. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet. 2006;367 (...) :1521-1532. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16679166?tool=bestpractice.com History and exam presence of risk factors asymptomatic co-infection with other parasites developmental delay malnutrition fever cough wheezing dyspnoea haemoptysis hypoxia tachypnoea rhonchi, rales retractions urticarial skin lesions abdominal pain anorexia dyspepsia nausea vomiting diarrhoea constipation abdominal distension reduced or absent bowel sounds hypotension RUQ tenderness hepatomegaly jaundice signs/symptoms

2018 BMJ Best Practice

66. Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children

:1456-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144632?tool=bestpractice.com Vomiting is usually preceded by nausea; the only exceptions are rumination syndrome, in which oral regurgitation is not preceded by nausea, and possibly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Nausea is not always followed by vomiting, as in conditions such as chronic functional nausea, postural nausea, and functional dyspepsia. Aetiology There are various established mechanisms that are known to cause nausea and vomiting (...) or central nervous system infection Metabolic or endocrine abnormalities such as diabetic ketoacidosis, adrenal insufficiency, and protein or carbohydrate metabolism disorders Urological/gynaecological or renal causes such as gonadal torsion Renal causes such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome and nephrolithiasis Psychiatric causes such as eating disorders, rumination, or factitious disorder Environmental causes such as toxic ingestions and adverse effects associated with the use of medications or illicit

2018 BMJ Best Practice

67. Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children

:1456-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144632?tool=bestpractice.com Vomiting is usually preceded by nausea; the only exceptions are rumination syndrome, in which oral regurgitation is not preceded by nausea, and possibly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Nausea is not always followed by vomiting, as in conditions such as chronic functional nausea, postural nausea, and functional dyspepsia. Aetiology There are various established mechanisms that are known to cause nausea and vomiting (...) or central nervous system infection Metabolic or endocrine abnormalities such as diabetic ketoacidosis, adrenal insufficiency, and protein or carbohydrate metabolism disorders Urological/gynaecological or renal causes such as gonadal torsion Renal causes such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome and nephrolithiasis Psychiatric causes such as eating disorders, rumination, or factitious disorder Environmental causes such as toxic ingestions and adverse effects associated with the use of medications or illicit

2018 BMJ Best Practice

68. Assessment of nausea and vomiting, adults

Assessment of nausea and vomiting, adults Assessment of nausea and vomiting, adults - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of nausea and vomiting, adults Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Nausea and vomiting are extremely common symptoms and may be caused by a vast array of medical conditions. Koch KL. Nausea and vomiting. In: Wolfe MM, Davis GL, Farraye FA, et al, eds (...) and disorders that originate in peripheral organ systems, such as the GI tract, stimulate vagal or spinal afferent nerves that connect with the vagal sensory (tractus solitarius) and vagal efferent motor nuclei. Ultimately, cortical centres where nausea is perceived and the efferent pathways that mediate vomiting are stimulated. Tumours, infections, and drugs in the periphery may cause local dysfunction in a variety of organ systems that is sensed as nausea, and severe nausea eventually evokes vomiting

2018 BMJ Best Practice

69. Managing GORD with PPIs in primary care (Full text)

PPI treatment was withdrawn. No signs of symptoms caused by rebound acid hypersecretion were found in three studies that investigated PPI withdrawal in patients with reflux disease. In this randomised controlled trial with healthy patients (no upper GI symptoms) given a PPI or placebo, 11 of 25 patients (44%) taking a PPI developed dyspepsia after PPI discontinuation, compared with 2 of 23 patients (9%) in the placebo group (p <0.01). In this randomised controlled trial with healthy patients (...) Managing GORD with PPIs in primary care Managing GORD with PPIs in primary care | NPS MedicineWise 20 Years Of Helping Australians Make Better Decisions About Medicines, Medical Tests And Other Health Technologies. Log in Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google Signing you in Use another account OR Login Form Email Password Log in to NPS MedicineWise Forgot password Forgot password Email Send reset instructions Set new password Reset Password Password Set password Account exists We found an existing

2019 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia) PubMed

70. Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis

to antimicrobial resistance 84 Table 35 – Minimum inhibitory concentrations for gonorrhoea 597 isolates 2016 Belgium by the EUCAST 85 Table 36 – Recommendations from national guides – Molecules and dosages for adults and adolescents 92 Table 37 – Gonorrhoea medication prices and availability in Belgium 98 Table 38 – Recommendations from national guides – Molecules and dosages for pregnant women 101 Table 39 – Recommendations from national guides – Molecules and dosages for people with an allergy (...) for syphilis 139 Table 52 – Recommendations from international guidelines – Information for the patient 142 Table 53 – Recommendations from national guides – Molecules and dosages for adults and adolescents ...150 Table 54 – Included primary studies 152 Table 55 – Syphilis medication prices and availability in Belgium 162 Table 56 – When to perform a test of cure for syphilis – Definitions from international guidelines 164 Table 57 – Conclusions and recommendations from guidelines – Follow-up 165 Table 58

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

71. Bariatric surgery: an HTA report on the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness

and lifestyle modifications, there is increasing interest in performing MBS in adolescents with severe or morbid obesity, especially in those at very high risk or those with associated co- morbidities like hypertension, diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as well as in those with extreme BMI values, who cannot be managed successfully otherwise. A particular medical challenge constitute children and adolescents with monogenic traits causing morbid or super- obesity. Psychopathology and social (...) the presence of (pre- )diabetes, hypertension, a low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and/or a high waist-circumference might indicate a higher associated risk, as is also the presence of non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people with visceral adiposity. Obesity clearly does imply risks, may lead to physical and psychological symptoms, can cause functional limitation, the development of co- morbidities and complications, and cause psycho

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

72. Depression

/escitalopram : Tablet and oral suspension available. It is useful for agitated depression/anxiety and relatively safe if the patient is at risk of . There is a risk of QTc prolongation and drug interactions. Review concurrent medications, see British National Formulary Fluoxetine: It is long acting and offers low risk of withdrawal effects. It has many drug interactions so it may not be suitable in palliative care patients. Side effects include: , , dyspepsia, risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding - avoid (...) Depression Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines - Depression Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines search / / / Depression Depression Introduction Depression: is strongly and consistently associated with a poor quality of life. causes more reduction in role and social functioning than would be due to the physical illness alone. reduces physical functioning. is often associated with symptoms that are difficult to control. has a major impact on the patient’s family. Treatment of depression can

2018 Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines

74. Ranitidine

Coronary Artery Disease: A Double-Blind, Double Dummy, Randomized Study. 275-84 10.1007/s40256-016-0172 (...) -5 Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed to patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, this class of medication, especially omeprazole, has been associated with a reduction in clopidogrel efficacy, leading many clinicians to substitute omeprazole with ranitidine . Our objective was to compare the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel before and after the addition (...) information leaflet on is available at . Summary Histamine H2 (H 2 ) receptor antagonists (...) (cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine and ranitidine ) reduce gastric acid output and thus gastric acidity. H 2 receptor antagonists are used in the symptomatic relief of chronic episodic dyspepsia and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, in the prevention and treatment of gastric or duodenal ulceration, and prior to general anaesthesia in patients at risk of acid aspiration. The BNF suggests ranitidine

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

75. Proton pump inhibitors

the small number of studies. Authors' objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors compared to histamine-2 receptor antagonists in the prevention of stress 2009 8. Proton pump inhibitors for functional dyspepsia. BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia) is defined as continuous or frequently recurring epigastric pain or discomfort for which no organic cause can be found. Acid suppressive therapy, including proton pump inhibitors ( PPIs ), has been proposed (...) , but the poor quality of the included trials and the potential for publication and language biases should be considered when interpreting the results. Authors' objectives 2010 4. Are We Overusing Proton Pump Inhibitors ? Are We Overusing Proton Pump Inhibitors ? | Clinical Correlations Are We Overusing Proton Pump Inhibitors ? November 13, 2015 By Shimwoo Lee Peer Reviewed Case: A 31-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes was hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. His home medications

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

76. Finasteride

Academy of Dermatology J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. A randomized, active- and placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of different doses of dutasteride versus placebo and finasteride (...) in the treatment of male subjects with androgenetic alopecia. 489-498.e3 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.10.049 S0190-9622(13)01171-7 Dihydrotestosterone is the main androgen causative of androgenetic alopecia, a psychologically and physically harmful condition warranting medical treatment. We sought to compare (...) and ejaculatory dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Purported mechanisms for these effects include the decreased production of neurosteroids, which may regulate sexual desire and function, and impaired testosterone 2018 5. Assessing finasteride -associated sexual dysfunction using the FAERS database. BACKGROUND: Post-marketing reports suggest that finasteride causes sexual dysfunction despite a low incidence reported in clinical trials. Therefore, the extent of risk remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

77. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Statement on the Putative Link Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;9:132–9. 4. Agoritsas T , Merglen A, Shah ND, et al. Adjusted analyses in stud- ies addressing therapy and harm: Users’ guides to the medical lit- erature. JAMA 2017;317:748–759. 5. Moayyedi PM, Lacy BE, Andrews CN, et al. ACG and CAG clin- ical guideline: Management of Dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2017;112:988–1013. 6. Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health. Government released the 2012 Hong Kong Smoking Prevalence. (Accessed March 1, 2018). 7. Tredaniel J, Buffetta P, Buiatti (...) E, et al. Tobacco smoke and gastric cancer: Review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 1997;72:565–73. 8. Yang P, Zhou Y, Chen B, et al. Overweight, obesity and gastric cancer risk: Result from a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:2867–73. 9. W ang B. Dyspepsia: What you think it is, is different than what doc - tors thinks it is [Chinese]. Medical community Gastroenterology Channel. (Accessed May 1, 2018). 10. Lipsitch M, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, et al. Negative controls: A tool

2019 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

78. Robot-assisted surgery in thoracic and visceral indications

IN THORACIC AND VISCERAL INDICATIONS Project ID: OTCA14 Robot-assisted surgery for thoracic and visceral surgery Version 1.4, 06.05.2019 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 2 DOCUMENT HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTORS Version Date Description V1.0 31.01.19 First draft. V1.1 27.02.19 Input from co-author has been processed. V1.2 29.03.19 Input from dedicated reviewers has been processed. V1.3 30.04.19 Input from external experts and manufacturer(s) has been processed. V1.4 06.05.19 Input from medical editing has been (...) MD Mean difference Ø Mean M Median MeSH Medical Subject Headings mg milligram Robot-assisted surgery for thoracic and visceral surgery Version 1.4, 06.05.2019 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 7 ml milliliter n Number n/a Not applicable NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network NIH National Institute for Health NR Not reported NRS Numeric Rating Scale ns Not significant NSCLC Non-small cell lung Cancer p Power PFDI Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory PFIQ Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire PISQ Pelvic

2019 EUnetHTA

79. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

or non-existent, suggest that approximately 80% of people dying from cancer experience moderate or severe pain lasting on average for 90 days (5). Thus, cancer pain is a major cause of unnecessary suffering.15 1. I NTRODUCTION Everyone has a right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, and states have an obligation to take steps towards “the creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness” (6 (...) interests were managed 104 ANNEX 5: OPIOID ANALGESICS AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 105 United Nations drug conventions and their governance system 105 The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and opioid analgesics 106 Drug misuse versus patient need 107 Competent national authorities under the international drug control treaties 108 The Convention’s requirements for national estimates of medical need for opioids 108 The importance of reliable estimates 109 Domestic manufacture of strong opioid

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

80. AACE/ACE Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm (Full text)

, but these reductions came at the cost of requiring more antihypertensive medications and produced a significantly higher number of serious adverse events (SAEs). In particular, a greater likelihood of decline in renal function was observed in the intensive arm of ACCORD-BP ( ). A meta-analysis of antihypertensive therapy in patients with T2D or impaired fasting glucose demonstrated similar findings. Systolic BP ≤135 mm Hg was associated with decreased nephropathy and a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (...) patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician. From the 1 Chair, Professor, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 2 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 3 Division of Endocrinology Kaiser Permanente of Georgia and the Division of Endocrinology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 4 Director, Ochsner

2019 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists PubMed

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