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Medication Causes of Dyspepsia

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181. Post-traumatic stress disorder

distress or functional impairment (e.g. social, occupational). Not be caused by medication, substance use, or other illness. Be persistence for more than one month. PTSD with delayed expression is diagnosed when the full diagnostic criteria are not met until at least 6 months after the traumatic event (although the onset of some symptoms may be immediate). PTSD with dissociative symptoms is diagnosed if they meet the DSM 5 criteria and they experience high levels of either of the following in reaction (...) Post-traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder - NICE CKS Share Post-traumatic stress disorder - Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder can develop following a major traumatic event. It can affect people of any age. The ICD-10 describes a major traumatic event as 'a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature, which is likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone'. The DSM-5 describes a major traumatic event as 'exposure to actual

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

182. Prostatitis - acute

the QT interval. [ ; ; ; ; ] Trimethoprim Trimethoprim Cautions and contraindications Cautions and contraindications Do not prescribe trimethoprim to people with: Severe hepatic insufficiency, or severe renal insufficiency. Megaloblastic anaemia or other blood dyscrasias. Prescribe trimethoprim with caution to people: With impaired renal function. With hyperkalaemia, or taking medication that is known to cause hyperkalaemia. With acute porphyrias. Predisposed to folate deficiency — because (...) Prostatitis - acute Prostatitis - acute - NICE CKS Share Prostatitis - acute: Summary Acute bacterial prostatitis is a severe, potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the prostate. Urinary infection with pathogens may be caused by urethral instrumentation, trauma, bladder outflow obstruction, or dissemination of infection from outside the urinary tract. Most men treated appropriately for acute prostatitis will recover completely within 2 weeks. Acute prostatitis should be suspected

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

183. Atrial fibrillation

of an irregular pulse makes a diagnosis of AF unlikely, but its presence does not reliably indicate AF — see the section on . Note: Be aware that an accurate assessment of pulse rate and regularity may require palpation of the carotids or auscultation, since palpation of other sites may cause decreased perfusion which potentially influences the findings. Additionally, it can be difficult to detect irregularity if the pulse rate is very fast or slow. Past medical history that may further raise suspicion of AF (...) and specialist input is required. Provide information on: Atrial fibrillation (AF) Provide written information on the causes, effects, possible complications, and management of AF. Patient information is available from the . Explain when to seek further medical advice (such as if symptoms worsen). Stroke awareness and how to prevent stroke. Written information is available from the . Flying — advise that there are no flying restrictions provided AF is stable and has not recently worsened or become more

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

184. Lyme disease

Lyme disease Lyme disease - NICE CKS Share Lyme disease: Summary Lyme disease is an infection caused by a group of bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi , which are transmitted to humans following a bite from an infected tick. The true incidence of Lyme disease is unknown, however it is estimated that there are 2,000–3,000 new confirmed cases of Lyme disease each year in England and Wales. Risk factors for Lyme disease include: Occupational and recreational exposure to woodland, and fields (...) : chronic illness is rare, say experts. The British Medical Journal. [ ] Primary evidence No new randomized controlled trials published in the major journals since 1 July 2018 New policies New policies No new national policies or guidelines since 1 July 2018 New safety alerts New safety alerts No new safety alerts since 1 July 2018 Changes in product availability Changes in product availability No changes in product availability since 1 July 2018 Goals and outcome measures Goals and outcome measures

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

185. Glaucoma

of glaucoma. Secondary angle closure glaucoma is uncommon and is due to a number of causes. Symptom development in primary or secondary angle closure can be classified as: Acute: this occurs when there is abrupt onset of symptoms (most notably, eye pain) associated with a marked elevation of IOP due to a total closure of the angle. This is a sight-threatening medical emergency which is not self-limiting. Sub-acute (or intermittent): where there is abrupt onset of symptoms and elevation of IOP due (...) is accumulating to suggest that SLT is often as effective as medical therapy to achieve target intraocular pressures. SLT is therefore gaining in popularity as a first-line treatment. Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). This uses a high-energy laser to burn holes in the trabecular meshwork to increase the drainage of aqueous humour. Due to the thermal damage caused by ALT, repeated treatments are not usually an option. Micropulse laser trabeculoplasty (MLT). This is a relatively new technique. It uses repeated

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

186. Lipid modification - CVD prevention

Lipid modification - CVD prevention Lipid modification - CVD prevention - NICE CKS Share Lipid modification - CVD prevention: Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term which describes a range of conditions that affect the heart, the blood vessels, or both. The risk of CVD can be reduced by modification of the blood lipid profile. CVD is caused by blood clots (thrombosis), or atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition where there is a build-up of fatty deposits (plaques (...) ) inside an artery which cause the artery to harden and narrow, restricting blood flow. Cardiovascular conditions caused by atherosclerosis include: Coronary heart disease (including angina and myocardial infarction). Stroke. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Peripheral arterial disease. Modification of the blood lipid profile can reduce CVD risk. Total cholesterol is an important predictor of CVD events. However, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) — the difference between total

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

187. Cellulitis - acute

and frail, and people with comorbidities. People with facial cellulitis (unless mild) or suspected orbital or periorbital cellulitis. Primary care management of uncomplicated cellulitis includes: Prescribing appropriate antibiotics. Advising on the use of analgesia to treat pain, adequate fluid intake, elevating the leg for comfort and to relieve oedema (where applicable), and when to seek immediate medical review (for example if antibiotics are not tolerated or systemic symptoms develop or worsen (...) ). Managing any underlying risk factors (such as breaks in the skin). Identifying and managing comorbidities (such as diabetes mellitus) that may cause the cellulitis to spread rapidly, or delay healing. Advising on preventative measures to reduce the risk of recurrence, including weight loss (where applicable) and the use of emollients to prevent dry skin and cracking. Providing patient information on cellulitis. Reviewing the person appropriately. Have I got the right topic? Have I got the right topic

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

188. Myocardial infarction: cardiac rehabilitation and prevention of further MI

Is treatment with an oral anticoagulant, aspirin and clopidogrel preferable to treatment with an oral anticoagulant and clopidogrel in people who have had an MI, have an indication for oral anticoagulation and are treated either medically, by primary PCI or by coronary artery bypass grafting surgery? 26 2.4 What characteristics are associated with uptake and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation after an acute MI when rehabilitation is started early? 26 2.5 In people who have had a STEMI who undergo primary (...) guidance 80. The recommendations are labelled according to when they were originally published (see About this guideline for details). Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most dramatic presentations of coronary artery disease. It is usually caused by blockage of a coronary artery producing tissue death and consequently the typical features of a heart attack: severe chest pain, changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG), and raised concentrations of proteins released from the dying heart tissue

2013 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

189. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in adults: diagnosis and management

be documented. See the General Medical Council's Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices for further information. Where recommendations have been made for the use of drugs outside their licensed indications ('off-label use'), these drugs are marked with a footnote in the recommendations. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in adults: diagnosis and management (CG163) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights (...) ://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 7 of 22Best supportive care Offer best supportive care to people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from the point of diagnosis. Best supportive care should be tailored to disease severity, rate of progression, and the person's preference, and should include if appropriate: information and support (see recommendation 1.3.1) symptom relief management of comorbidities withdrawal of therapies suspected to be ineffective or causing harm end of life

2013 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

190. Obese, overweight with risk factors: liraglutide (Saxenda)

with severe hepatic impairment, people with congestive heart failure class III to IV and people with obesity secondary to endocrine or eating disorders or obesity caused by another medicinal treatment. The SPC also recommends that liraglutide is not recommended for use in people with inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic gastroparesis. See the liraglutide (Saxenda) SPC for further details. The following are reported as very common (1 in 10 or more) adverse reactions in the liraglutide (Saxenda) SPC (...) : nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. Common adverse reactions (from 1 in 100 to 1 in 10) reported in the SPC include hypoglycaemia, insomnia, dizziness, dysgeusia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, gastritis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, flatulence, eructation, upper abdomen pain, abdomen distension, cholelithiasis, injection site reactions, asthenia, fatigue, increased lipase and increased amylase. The EPAR for liraglutide (Saxenda) reported that the general adverse event profile is in-line

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

191. Early breast cancer (preventing recurrence and improving survival): adjuvant bisphosphonates

gastrointestinal adverse effects than intravenous bisphosphonates and some people may find them difficult to swallow. Nevertheless, some people may prefer oral medication because a hospital visit is not required. Zoledronic acid is administered intravenously and, it may be easier for some people to adhere to 6-monthly intravenous treatment, rather than daily oral treatment. Zoledronic acid infusion can cause an acute response resulting in flu-like symptoms. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is generally (...) mortality (absolute reductions 1.4%, 1.1% and 1.7% respectively), but not breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality. When prespecified subgroup analyses according to menopausal status were undertaken, no benefits were seen in premenopausal women, but the benefits in postmenopausal women were found to be greater than in the general study population. At 10 years compared with control, the absolute reductions in the risk of breast cancer mortality, bone recurrence and all-cause mortality

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

192. Management of osteoporosis and the prevention of fragility fractures

in Scotland. The majority of fractures occur in people over the age of 65 and a large proportion of these patients have osteoporosis. Fractures are an important cause of morbidity, and patients who suffer hip fractures and vertebral fractures have a decreased life expectancy compared with population-based controls. A wide range of treatments that can reduce the risk of fractures occurring in patients with osteoporosis is now available. These have the potential to improve clinical outcomes for patients (...) with osteoporosis and to reduce societal costs of medical care associated with fractures. 1.2 REMIT of THE GuIDElINE 1.2.1 OvERALL OBjECTIvES This guideline provides recommendations based on current evidence for best practice in the management of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. It addresses risk factors for fracture, commonly-used tools for assessment of fracture risk, approaches to targeting therapy, pharmacological, and non-pharmacological treatments to reduce fracture risk, treatment of painful

2015 SIGN

193. Impact of morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone or codeine on patient consciousness, appetite and thirst when used to treat cancer pain. (PubMed)

Impact of morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone or codeine on patient consciousness, appetite and thirst when used to treat cancer pain. There is increasing focus on providing high quality care for people at the end of life, irrespective of disease or cause, and in all settings. In the last ten years the use of care pathways to aid those treating patients at the end of life has become common worldwide. The use of the Liverpool Care Pathway in the UK has been criticised. In England the LCP (...) journal publication articles.Two review authors independently extracted adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality. The primary outcomes sought were numbers of participants experiencing adverse events of reduced consciousness, appetite, and thirst. Secondary outcomes were possible surrogate measures of the primary outcomes: delirium, dizziness, hallucinations, mood change and somnolence relating to patient consciousness, and nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysphagia

2014 Cochrane

194. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir (chronic hepatitis C) - Addendum to Commission A17-35

ACT appropriate comparator therapy AE adverse event CHC chronic hepatitis C CI confidence interval DAA direct acting antiviral agent G-BA Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss (Federal Joint Committee) IQWiG Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care) MedDRA Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities NS5A non-structural protein 5A PT Preferred Term RCT randomized controlled trial RR relative risk SAE serious adverse event SOC (...) study nor for the POLARIS-4 study presented as additional information. The reason was that the company had not presented the analyses of all AEs by System Organ Class (SOC) and Preferred Terms (PTs) according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) for the corresponding subpopulations. With its comments, the company subsequently submitted corresponding analyses at SOC and PT level for AEs and serious AEs (SAEs). Concurring with the methods described in the dossier assessment [1

2018 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

195. Milk Thistle (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

thistle or silymarin primarily in individuals with or , although small studies have been reported about individuals with , , , , and . Few adverse have been reported for milk thistle, but little information about interactions with anticancer medications, , or other drugs is available. Milk thistle is available in the United States as a . Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are hypertext linked (at first use in each section) to the , which is oriented toward nonexperts. When (...) in the specified amounts. The FDA has not approved the use of milk thistle as a treatment for patients or patients with any other medical condition. Despite milk thistle’s long history of being used to treat and complaints, it was not until 1968 that silymarin was isolated from the seeds of the plant, and it was proposed that silymarin might be the active ingredient.[ ] Researchers have investigated the role that silibinin may play in the treatment of and . Most studies have investigated the isolated compound

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

196. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. This information summary provides an overview of the use of as a treatment for people with cancer. The summary includes a brief history of cartilage research, the results of , and possible of cartilage use. This summary contains the following key information: Bovine (cow) cartilage and shark cartilage have been studied as treatments for people with cancer and other medical conditions for more than 30 years. Numerous cartilage products (...) , and the results are inconclusive. Additional of cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer are now being conducted. Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are hypertext linked (at first use in each section) to the , which is oriented toward nonexperts. When a linked term is clicked, a definition will appear in a separate window. Reference citations in some cancer information summaries may include links to external websites that are operated by individuals or organizations

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

197. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease - Management of Polycystic Liver Disease

,some,mainlythose with severe cystic liver disease, have abdominal pain or swelling, and, less commonly, dyspepsia, early satiety, dyspnea, and back pain. The severity of cystic liver disease can be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on total cyst number or total liver volume. 5 Complications such as hepatic cyst infection and bleeding cause pain acutely, and are not uncommon, occurring in at least 5% of patients. 7 The treatment is the same as for infected or bleeding kidney cysts (...) LSD symposium; and Gopala Rangan is a member of the advisory committee on the Safety of Medical Devices and received ?nancial support to attend the KDIGO Controversies on Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease meeting in 2014. * The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne Health and Northern Health, Melbourne, Australia. † Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Park- ville, Victoria, Australia. ‡ Kidney Health Service and Conjoint Kidney Research

2015 KHA-CARI Guidelines

198. Atrial Fibrillation ? Diagnosis and Management

benefit status for medication coverage and specific medical circumstances of coverage depending on BC PharmaCare plan rules. Diagnostic code: 427.3, I48 2 BCGuidelines.ca: Use of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC) in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: Appendix A (2015)BCGuidelines.ca: Atrial Fibrillation – Diagnosis and Management (2015) 11 Appendices • Appendix A: Types of Atrial Fibrillation • Appendix B: Possible Causes of Atrial Fibrillation • Appendix C: Assessing Atrial (...) approach to the management of clinical problem. We cannot respond to patients or patient advocates requesting advice on issues related to medical conditions. If you need medical advice, please contact a health care professional.Appendix A: Types of Atrial Fibrillation 1,2 Abnormalities or damage to the heart’s structure are the most common cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Note these types are not exclusive of each other. Valvular AF Occurs in the presence of rheumatic mitral stenosis, a mechanical

2015 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

199. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

factors for ductal and lobular breast cancer: results from the nurses' health study. Breast Cancer Res 12 (6): R106, 2010. [ ] [ ] Goldacre MJ, Abisgold JD, Yeates DG, et al.: Benign breast disease and subsequent breast cancer: English record linkage studies. J Public Health (Oxf) 32 (4): 565-71, 2010. [ ] [ ] Kabat GC, Jones JG, Olson N, et al.: A multi-center prospective cohort study of benign breast disease and risk of subsequent breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 21 (6): 821-8, 2010

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

200. Pertuzumab (Perjeta or Perjeta-Herceptin Combo Pack) for Neoadjuvant Breast Cancer

, they are made available for informational and educational purposes only. This report should not be used as a substitute for the application of clinical judgment in respect of the care of a particular patient or other professional judgment in any decision making process, or as a substitute for professional medical advice. Liability pCODR does not assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, drugs, therapies, treatments, products, processes (...) , or services disclosed. The information is provided "as is" and you are urged to verify it for yourself and consult with medical experts before you rely on it. You shall not hold pCODR responsible for how you use any information provided in this report. Reports generated by pCODR are composed of interpretation, analysis, and opinion on the basis of information provided by pharmaceutical manufacturers, tumour groups, and other sources. pCODR is not responsible for the use of such interpretation, analysis

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

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