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Medication Causes of Dyspepsia

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181. Oesophageal manometry and oesophageal reflux monitoring

for oesophageal manometry for symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation or chest pain to rule out structural and mucosal causes for their symptoms including eosinophilic oesophagitis. Endoscopy also allows assessment of abnormalities (eg, oesophageal diverticula, pharyngeal pouch, varices, etc), which potentially increase the risk of insertion of a catheter into the oesophagus. Any medication known to affect oesophageal motor function should be stopped for 48 hours prior to the test if possible (eg, nitrates (...) diagnosed clin- ically on the basis of a typical history, but if the diagnosis is unclear, the patient needs convincing of the diagnosis or objec- tive evidence is required prior to therapy, HRM with impedance after a test meal can be utilised to identify diagnostic features. Simultaneous impedance provides additional confirmatory and diagnostic information. GRADE evidence: Moderate Strength recommendation: Strong 2. Catheter based oesophageal reflux monitoring, including pH and impedance monitoring

2019 British Society of Gastroenterology

182. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: an AUA/SUFU Guideline

a successive increase in risk or invasiveness, are not intended to represent a strict algorithm. This is specifically relevant with regard to PTNS, as it is the opinion of the Panel that, given the minimally invasive and reversible nature of this therapy, juxtaposed with the potential side effects and cost of medications, PTNS can be considered in drug-naïve patients who opt to forego pharmacotherapy. Guideline Statement 4. OAB is not a disease; it is a symptom complex that generally is not a life (...) ) 9. If an immediate release (IR) and an extended release (ER) formulation are available, then ER formulations should preferentially be prescribed over IR formulations because of lower rates of dry mouth. Standard (Evidence Strength Grade B) 10. Transdermal (TDS) oxybutynin (patch or gel) may be offered. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 11. If a patient experiences inadequate symptom control and/or unacceptable adverse drug events with one anti- muscarinic medication, then a dose

2019 American Urological Association

183. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Luminal Crohn’s Disease

, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Statements were developed through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on by a group of specialists. Results: The consensus includes 41 statements focused on 6 main drug classes: antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylate, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, biologic therapies, and other therapies. The group suggested against the use of antibiotics or 5-aminosalicylate as induction or maintenance ther- apies. Corticosteroid therapies (including (...) to clinicians and their patients when managing CD. The purpose of these consensus statements is to review the lit - erature relating to the medical management of luminal CD and to develop specific statements regarding the various therapies available for ambulatory patients with mild to severe active dis- ease. Furthermore, we offer practical guidance for the practicing clinician given the evidence. METHODS Scope and Purpose These consensus statements focused on specific questions, identified and discussed

2019 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

184. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults

of therapy before considering the next. In other words, the lines of therapy, while representing a successive increase in risk or invasiveness, are not intended to represent a strict algorithm. This is specifically relevant with regard to PTNS, as it is the opinion of the Panel that, given the minimally invasive and reversible nature of this therapy, juxtaposed with the potential side effects and cost of medications, PTNS can be considered in drug-naïve patients who opt to forego pharmacotherapy (...) as second-line therapy. Standard (Evidence Strength Grade B) 9. If an immediate release (IR) and an extended release (ER) formulation are available, then ER formulations should preferentially be prescribed over IR formulations because of lower rates of dry mouth. Standard (Evidence Strength Grade B) 10. Transdermal (TDS) oxybutynin (patch or gel) may be offered. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 11. If a patient experiences inadequate symptom control and/or unacceptable adverse drug events

2019 American Urological Association

185. Robot-assisted surgery in thoracic and visceral indications

IN THORACIC AND VISCERAL INDICATIONS Project ID: OTCA14 Robot-assisted surgery for thoracic and visceral surgery Version 1.4, 06.05.2019 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 2 DOCUMENT HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTORS Version Date Description V1.0 31.01.19 First draft. V1.1 27.02.19 Input from co-author has been processed. V1.2 29.03.19 Input from dedicated reviewers has been processed. V1.3 30.04.19 Input from external experts and manufacturer(s) has been processed. V1.4 06.05.19 Input from medical editing has been (...) MD Mean difference Ø Mean M Median MeSH Medical Subject Headings mg milligram Robot-assisted surgery for thoracic and visceral surgery Version 1.4, 06.05.2019 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 7 ml milliliter n Number n/a Not applicable NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network NIH National Institute for Health NR Not reported NRS Numeric Rating Scale ns Not significant NSCLC Non-small cell lung Cancer p Power PFDI Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory PFIQ Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire PISQ Pelvic

2019 EUnetHTA

186. Management of Atopic Eczema

Educational and Psychological Interventions 28 12. TRADITIONAL AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 30 12.1 Herbal and Food Supplementation 30 12.2 Topical Oils and Massage Therapy 31 12.3 Acupuncture 31 12.4 Balneotherapy 31 12.5 Homeopathy 32 13. REFERRAL 33 14. IMPLEMENTING THE GUIDELINES 34 14.1 Facilitating and Limiting Factors 34 14.2 Potential Resource Implications 34 14. REFERENCES 35 Appendix 1 Example of Search Strategy 40 Appendix 2 Clinical Questions 41 Appendix 3 Guidelines for the Diagnosis of 43 (...) Atopic Dermatitis (Hanifin and Rajka Criteria) Appendix 4 Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) 44 Appendix 5 Dermatology Life Quality Index 45 Appendix 6 Children Dernatology Life Quality Index 46 Appendix 7 Topical Corticosteroids Class & Potency 47 (UK Classification) Management of Atopic Eczema TABLE OF CONTENTS No. Title Page Appendix 8 Fingertip Unit 48 Appendix 9 Six Steps of Wet Wrap Therapy 49 Appendix 10 Written Eczema Action Plan 50 Appendix 11 Recommended Medication Dosing, 51 Side

2019 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

187. Taking a hard look at the evidence: Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors in erectile dysfunction

Taking a hard look at the evidence: Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors in erectile dysfunction Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). ACFP is a provincial, professional voluntary organization, representing more than 4,800 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students in Alberta. Established over sixty years ago, the ACFP strives for excellence in family practice through advocacy, continuing medical education and primary care (...) . Bansal UK, Jones C, Fuller TW et al. Urology. 2018; 112:6-11. 8. Fink H, MacDonald R, Indulis R, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162:1349-1360. 9. Berner MM, Kriston L and Harms A. Int J Impot Res. 2006; 18:229-235. 10. PEER. Price Comparison of commonly prescribed Pharmaceuticals in Alberta 2019. Available at: https://acfp.ca/wp- content/uploads/2019/02/ACFPPricingDoc2019.pdf Accessed 27 June 2019. Tools for Practice is a biweekly article summarizing medical evidence with a focus on topical issues

2019 Tools for Practice

188. Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

with conventional Western medicine improved IBS symptoms (RR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18–1.24) com- pared with Western medicine alone using indirect comparisons. However, the authors noted the methodological quality of the included RCTs was very low (89). A second systematic review including 27 studies on a wide variety of herbal therapies found the most evidence for efficacy in IBS for essential oil of Mentha piperita and the compound preparation STW 5, a formula containing hydroethanolic extract of nine herbs. Aloe (...) of Gastroenterology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 3 Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 4 Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5 Unaffliated; 6 Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipe.g., Manitoba, Canada; 7 Department of Family Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipe.g., Manitoba, Canada; 8 Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 9

2019 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

189. Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Information for Women at Increased Risk

not impact the risk of other cancers. RRSO: Things to consider • Type of surgery: There are different ways the surgery can be performed which may also include hysterectomy (see page 12) • Surgical menopause: RRSO can have a big impact on women who are premenopausal at the time of surgery. Surgical menopause is caused by the sudden change in hormones after RRSO and may lead to a range of physical and emotional changes. Hormone replacement therapy is usually used to prevent the symptoms of surgical (...) and screening 7 Family history and ovarian cancer 8 Types of ovarian cancer 9 Risk reducing surgery 10 Types of surgery 11 Surgical menopause 13 Hormone replacement therapy 14 HRT and breast cancer risk 14 Summary 16 Where to get more information 17 References 17 My notes and questions 18 CONTENTS PAGE4 INTRODUCTION This booklet is for women who have an increased chance of developing ovarian cancer and would like to know more about surgery to reduce their risk. Each woman should seek advice about the risk

2019 European Society of Endocrinology

190. Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month: 2018 Gynaecological Cancer Update

of co-morbidities, secondary prevention, quality of life and psychosocial support, and care which can be appropriately and feasibly delivered in a primary care setting. No-one knows your body like you do ovarian cancer awareness campaign Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month in February provides the opportunity to focus attention on ovarian cancer, the second most common gynaecological cancer and the most common cause of gynaecological cancer death in women in Australia. The symptoms of ovarian cancer (...) after uterine cancer in Australia. 1 It is estimated that ovarian cancer will be the most common cause of death from gynaecological cancer in Australia during 2018, with approximately 1,069 deaths predicted. 1 While the five year relative survival rate for ovarian cancer has improved from 1984–1988 to 2009–2013, it remains low in comparison with other cancers. 44 out of 100 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer survive five years beyond their diagnosis. 1 ovarian cancer aware Learn more to be Teal

2018 Cancer Australia

191. Gynaecological Cancers: a Handbook for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and Health Practitioners

Investigating symptoms 12 Chapter 3: If it’s cancer – what next? 17 Explaining test results 17 Overview of treatments for gynaecological cancers 18 Complementary therapies and bush medicine 19 Multidisciplinary care 21 Chapter 4: Cervical cancer 25 What causes cervical cancer? 25 Reducing the risk of cervical cancer 26 National HPV Vaccination Program 26 Cervical Screening Test 27 Why has the Cervical Screening Test changed? 27 Why does screening start at 25? 27 What does the Cervical Screening Test involve (...) , radiotherapy and chemotherapy. • Complementary therapies, including some bush medicine, can be used alongside conventional treatments, but it is important to check with the treating doctor to make sure they will not interfere with treatment. • Providing information about treatments will enable a woman to make an informed choice about her treatment. • It is important to respect a woman’s choice about her treatment. Explaining test results When a woman is diagnosed with gynaecological cancer, test results

2018 Cancer Australia

192. Chronic Pelvic Pain

. Eur Urol, 2008. 53: 33. 69. Hanno, P., et al. Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn, 2010. 29: 191. 70. Yoon, B.I., et al. Clinical courses following acute bacterial prostatitis. Prostate Int, 2013. 1: 89. 71. Giamberardino, M.A., et al. Viscero-visceral hyperalgesia: characterization in different clinical models. Pain, 2010. 151: 307. 72. Wesselmann, U., et al. Emerging Therapies and Novel Approaches to Visceral Pain. Drug Discov Today (...) of the story. Hum Reprod Update, 2009. 15: 177. 330. Vercellini, P., et al. Medical treatment for rectovaginal endometriosis: what is the evidence? Hum Reprod, 2009. 24: 2504. 331. Walters, C., et al. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Aust J Gen Pract, 2018. 47: 439. 332a. Khan, K.S., et al. MRI versus laparoscopy to diagnose the main causes of chronic pelvic pain in women: a test-accuracy study and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess, 2018. 22: 1. 332b. Kaminski, P., et al. The usefulness

2019 European Association of Urology

193. Paediatric Urology

of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ, 2008. 336: 924. 6. Guyatt, G.H., et al. What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ, 2008. 336: 995. 7. Phillips B, et al. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998. 8. Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ, 2008. 336: 1049. 9. Gairdner, D. The fate of the foreskin, a study of circumcision. Br Med J, 1949. 2: 1433. 10. Kuehhas, F.E., et al (...) genitalia in boys. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Vol. 4. 2016, Philadelphia. 14. Liu, J., et al. Is steroids therapy effective in treating phimosis? A meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol, 2016. 48: 335. 15. Chu, C.C., et al. Topical steroid treatment of phimosis in boys. J Urol, 1999. 162: 861. 16. ter Meulen, P.H., et al. A conservative treatment of phimosis in boys. Eur Urol, 2001. 40: 196. 17. Elmore, J.M., et al. Topical steroid therapy as an alternative to circumcision for phimosis in boys

2019 European Association of Urology

194. Male Sexual Dysfunction

Deficiency: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1787. 92. Davis-Joseph, B., et al. Accuracy of the initial history and physical examination to establish the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1995. 45: 498. 93. Ghanem, H.M., et al. SOP: physical examination and laboratory testing for men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 108. 94. Bhasin, S., et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency (...) -onset hypogonadism in males: ISA, ISSAM, EAU, EAA, and ASA recommendations. Eur Urol, 2009. 55: 121. 147. Khera, M., et al. A new era of testosterone and prostate cancer: from physiology to clinical implications. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 115. 148. Corona, G., et al. Cardiovascular risk associated with testosterone-boosting medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Opin Drug Saf, 2014. 13: 1327. 149. Baillargeon, J., et al. Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Older Men Receiving Testosterone

2019 European Association of Urology

195. Management of Non-neurogenic Male LUTS

: 563. 16. Ficarra, V., et al. The role of inflammation in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its potential impact on medical therapy. Curr Urol Rep, 2014. 15: 463. 17. He, Q., et al. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms: possible translational links. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2016. 19: 7. 18. Drake, M.J. Do we need a new definition of the overactive bladder syndrome? ICI-RS 2013. Neurourol Urodyn, 2014. 33: 622. 19 (...) : 827. 77. Mochtar, C.A., et al. Post-void residual urine volume is not a good predictor of the need for invasive therapy among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol, 2006. 175: 213. 78. Jorgensen, J.B., et al. Age-related variation in urinary flow variables and flow curve patterns in elderly males. Br J Urol, 1992. 69: 265. 79. Kranse, R., et al. Causes for variability in repeated pressure-flow measurements. Urology, 2003. 61: 930. 80. Reynard, J.M., et al. The ICS-’BPH’ Study

2019 European Association of Urology

196. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

suffer from inadequate or no access to opioid analgesic medicines, an epidemic of opioid overdoses in the United States has been observed in the last two decades (12,13). Inappropriate marketing of prescription opioids by pharmaceutical companies (14) and inappropriate prescription by medical practitioners with little attention to the development of opioid-use disorders and the risk of opioid- induced respiratory depression are postulated to have contributed to the epidemic (15). Global treatment (...) interests were managed 104 ANNEX 5: OPIOID ANALGESICS AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 105 United Nations drug conventions and their governance system 105 The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and opioid analgesics 106 Drug misuse versus patient need 107 Competent national authorities under the international drug control treaties 108 The Convention’s requirements for national estimates of medical need for opioids 108 The importance of reliable estimates 109 Domestic manufacture of strong opioid

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

197. 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

and obesity, counseling and caloric restriction are recommended for achieving and maintaining weight loss. 5. Adults should engage in at least 150 minutes per week of accumulated moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity physical activity. 6. For adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, lifestyle changes, such as improving dietary habits and achieving exercise recommendations, are crucial. If medication is indicated, metformin is first-line therapy, followed (...) levels (=190 mg/dL), those with diabetes mellitus, who are 40 to 75 years of age, and those determined to be at sufficient ASCVD risk after a clinician–patient risk discussion. 10. Nonpharmacological interventions are recommended for all adults with elevated blood pressure or hypertension. For those requiring pharmacological therapy, the target blood pressure should generally be $200 billion annually in healthcare services, medications, and lost productivity. Much of this is attributable

2019 American Heart Association

198. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

with type 2 diabetes mellitus, lifestyle changes, such as improving dietary habits and achieving exercise recommendations, are crucial. If medication is indicated, metformin is first-line therapy, followed by consideration of a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. 7. All adults should be assessed at every healthcare visit for tobacco use, and those who use tobacco should be assisted and strongly advised to quit. 8. Aspirin should be used infrequently (...) requiring pharmacological therapy, the target blood pressure should generally be $200 billion annually in healthcare services, medications, and lost productivity. Much of this is attributable to suboptimal implementation of prevention strategies and uncontrolled ASCVD risk factors in many adults (S1-2). Most Americans who have had a myocardial infarction (MI) had unfavorable levels of at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor before their ASCVD event (S1-4). In 2010, the AHA defined a new model of “ideal

2019 American College of Cardiology

199. AACE/ACE Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm Full Text available with Trip Pro

cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Since originally drafted in 2013, the algorithm has been updated as new therapies, management approaches, and important clinical data have emerged. The current algorithm includes up-to-date sections on lifestyle therapy and all classes of obesity, antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through December 2018. This algorithm supplements the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE (...) or intensified. Lifestyle therapy can be recommended for all patients with overweight or obesity, and more intensive options can be prescribed for patients with complications. For example, weight-loss medications can be used to intensify therapy in combination with lifestyle therapy for all patients with a BMI ≥27 kg/m 2 having complications and for patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 whether or not complications are present. The FDA has approved 8 drugs as adjuncts to lifestyle therapy in patients with overweight

2019 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

200. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Statement on the Putative Link Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;9:132–9. 4. Agoritsas T , Merglen A, Shah ND, et al. Adjusted analyses in stud- ies addressing therapy and harm: Users’ guides to the medical lit- erature. JAMA 2017;317:748–759. 5. Moayyedi PM, Lacy BE, Andrews CN, et al. ACG and CAG clin- ical guideline: Management of Dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2017;112:988–1013. 6. Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health. Government released the 2012 Hong Kong Smoking Prevalence. (Accessed March 1, 2018). 7. Tredaniel J, Buffetta P, Buiatti (...) the article was that ongoing PPI use had caused gastric cancer in those receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. In our opinion, the conclusions of Cheung et al. are not robust and we outline our main concerns with this article. INADEQUATE ADJUSTMENT FOR CONFOUNDERS Inadequate adjustment for confounders was the most serious limitation of the study. In association studies, the unadjusted results are expected to show a positive association between PPI use and gastric cancer. This is due to confounding

2019 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

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