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Iron status, energy intake, and nutritional status of healthy young Asian children. The iron status, dietary intake, and protein energy nutritional status of healthy Asian children ranging in age from 4 to 40 months was investigated. The serum ferritin, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin, haemoglobin and meancorpuscular haemoglobin concentrations, and meancorpuscularvolume were determined in a community study of 138 children. Protein energy nutritional status was estimated by anthropometry (...) and a four or five day weighed dietary inventory was completed by 97 children. Concentrations of the serum ferritin, haemoglobin, and meancorpuscular haemoglobin, and the meancorpuscularvolume decreased progressively with increasing age. The mean values for these four indices were significantly lower in toddlers between 21 and 23 months age than in infants less than 6 months old. The mean erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin was high in the first six months, later falling and rising again to peak in the 21
volume (greater than 100.0 fl) was found in 35 patients (5.9%) (24 women, 11 men), but only one of these was anaemic. However, among the patients with a low meancorpuscularvolume (less than 80.0 fl), seven had a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11.5 g dl-1. Although this exercise has produced clinical benefit for a few patients, and has been interesting and academically stimulating, it cannot be concluded that the benefits obtained are worth the effort that has been involved. (...) . On checking haemoglobin concentrations, 39 patients (6.2%) were found to have levels below 11.5 g dl-1 (30 women, nine men). Forty two patients (7.1%) were found to have a blood urea concentration of more than 10.0 mmol l-1 and only three patients were found to be deficient in potassium, none of whom were receiving long term diuretic medication. Of the 16 patients (2.8%) discovered to have a lower than normal serum thyroxine concentration, 12 were not known to the practice. A raised meancorpuscular
of the antibody levels. Significantly higher proportion of the gliadin antibody positive individuals reported unexplained attacks of diarrhoea (p = 0.03), and IgA gliadin antibodies were associated with increased prevalence of chronic fatigue (p = 0.0037). The gliadin antibody positive group also showed significantly decreased transferrin saturation, meancorpuscularvolume and meancorpuscular haemoglobin compared with the gliadin antibody negative controls. Serum folic acid concentrations were significantly
the government-defined low-income cutoff point were eligible.During a home visit capillary blood samples were obtained from the child, and the mother answered a questionnaire about infant-feeding practices. Infants with a serum ferritin level of 10 micrograms/L or less and either a hemoglobin level of 115 g/L or less or a meancorpuscularvolume of 72 fL or less were considered as having iron deficiency anemia.Of the 299 mothers who were eligible and could be located 220 (74%) agreed to participate; 218 (...) blood samples were available. Iron deficiency anemia was found in 25% of the infants (95% confidence interval [CI] 19% to 31%). The mean hemoglobin level was 115 (standard deviation 11) g/L. The serum ferritin level, assessed routinely in the last 62 infants, was 10 micrograms/L or less in 37% of the infants. The factors that were found to be predictors of iron deficiency anemia included the use of whole cow's milk before 6 months of age (odds ratio [OR] 3.56 [95% CI 1.07 to 11.26]) and the use
corpuscularvolume were two times higher in known diabetic men than in men not known to be diabetic. Central obesity was significant only in men not known to be diabetic (1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)). In known diabetic men a two hour glucose concentration higher than 11.1 mmol/l carried a relative risk of death of 3.8 (1.4 to 9.4).Diabetic men have similar risk factors for early mortality to other men but are at higher risk from hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, and high meancorpuscularvolume. (...) to be diabetic, 180 had diabetes diagnosed, and 697 had impaired glucose tolerance diagnosed. Compared with normoglycaemic men the relative risks of death in these groups were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.0), 2.7 (2.0 to 3.6), and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) respectively. Obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, and high non-esterified fatty acid concentration were risk factors for death in all subjects and were unaffected by glucose tolerance. The risks for fasting and two hour insulin concentrations and mean
Iron deficiency in inner city pre-school children: development of a general practice screening programme Iron deficiency in children has been associated with behavioural disorder and developmental delay. Screening for iron deficiency was offered to all 527 children aged between one and four years in an inner city practice. Half the children belong to an ethnic minority group, and there is widespread social deprivation in the area. Capillary haemoglobin concentration and meancorpuscularvolume (...) were estimated in 365 children (69%). Dietary history, birth weight and current weight were also recorded. Fifty-eight (16%) of the children were iron deficient as defined by a meancorpuscularvolume of less than 75 fl and/or a haemoglobin concentration of less than 10.5 g dl(-1). All were hypochromic and among 23 tested all had serum ferritin levels below 10microg I(-1). Twenty-one children (5.8%) were anaemic (haemoglobin concentration less than 10.5 g dl(-1)). Anaemia was significantly more
Age- and sex-related blood cell values in healthy black Americans. Hemoglobin, meancorpuscularvolume, erythrocyte count, and leukocyte count were measured, and hematocrit, meancorpuscular hemoglobin, and meancorpuscular hemoglobin concentration were computed electronically for 7,739 healthy black persons. The study population comprised 3,393 males and 4,346 females 1-84 years of age, all from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Persons with sickle cell disease and elevated hemoglobin F (...) were excluded from analysis, but those with traits for hemoglobin S, C, and thalassemia were not. Mean and percentile values are presented in tabular form. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and meancorpuscularvolumes were lower than those reported in surveys of white populations. Beginning with the 11-15-year age groups, black males had higher red cell values than black females. After age 30, mean hemoglobin levels for men gradually declined, while those in women rose, so that the sex difference diminished
said they drank more than 20 units of alcohol weekly or who scored more than two on the CAGE questionnaire or who had a positive alcolmeter reading, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels and meancorpuscularvolume were determined.The study showed that questions about quantity and frequency of drinking, taking under two minutes to administer in the consultation, are sufficient to raise suspicions about drinking problems. Detailed investigation can then be undertaken in patients who say (...) Assessment of drinking patterns in general practice A study was undertaken in a north London general practice to see which questions and investigations were useful in assessing the drinking patterns of patients. In a 10-month period in 1984, 855 patients were interviewed by means of a questionnaire about quantity and frequency of drinking and the CAGE questionnaire to determine their drinking habits. They were also asked to blow into an alcolmeter. A blood sample was taken from 119 patients who
, the proband with HbMS-beta +-thalassemia had a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl, meancorpuscularvolume (MCV) of 68 fl, reticulocytes of 2-6%, HbF of 18%, marked anisocytosis and poikilocytosis, and splenomegaly, all features of thalassemia intermedia. With oxidant stress, her erythrocytes developed multiple dispersed Heinz bodies, but HbMS was only mildly unstable. HbMS was susceptible to proteolytic degradation in the presence of ATP. The unexpectedly severe clinical findings in HbMS-beta +-thalassemia may
levels and meancorpuscularvolumes; coexisting iron deficiency, present in 62% of these children, resulted in substantially lower hemoglobin levels, very low meancorpuscularvolumes and lower than expected levels of hemoglobin E on electrophoresis. The children with hemoglobin EE were only slightly anemic, but those with hemoglobin E-beta-thalassemia had severe anemia and required long-term transfusion therapy. Nutritional factors and parasitic infestations were the main causes of iron depletion (...) Hemoglobin E: a common hemoglobinopathy among children of Southeast Asian origin. With the recent immigration of Southeast Asians to Canada, hemoglobin E has become a frequent diagnosis. The clinical and hematologic findings in 42 children (mean age 4.3 years) with hemoglobin E are presented. There were 33 heterozygotes (having hemoglobin E trait), 6 homozygotes (having hemoglobin EE) and 3 double heterozygotes (having hemoglobin E-beta-thalassemia). The heterozygotes had low-normal hemoglobin
Screening of antenatal patients in a multiethnic community for beta thalassaemia trait. An investigation of the reliability of screening tests for beta thalassaemia trait in pregnant women was carried out as part of a programme to predict beta thalassaemia major in the fetus. Women with a meancorpuscularvolume (MCV) of less than 83fl were examined further, and the reliability of various red cell indices as screening tests was assessed and compared. Over three years 696 women were found (...) to be microcytic and were investigated further. If no abnormal haemoglobin was found by cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH, haemoglobin A2 estimation was performed. Beta thalassaemia trait was diagnosed in 56 (8%) of the microcytic women. Both the MCV and the meancorpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were found to be suitable screening tests for detecting patients who required further investigation. Women found to have beta thalassaemia trait or a functionally equivalent disorder were of varied ethnic
folate deficiency. Values ranged from 11 to 476 mumol/liter in the cobalamin-deficient patients and 77 of the 78 patients had values above the normal range of 7-22 mumol/liter as determined for 50 normal blood donors. In the cobalamin-deficient patients, serum total homocysteine was positively correlated with serum folate, meancorpuscularvolume, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum methylmalonic acid, and the degree of neurologic involvement, and inversely correlated with platelets and hematocrit
) age and weight of 14.58 (0.09) years and 57.75 (0.67) kg. The group of athletes was divided into seven subgroups according to the sport practiced: athletics (105), swimming (107), rowing (230), wrestling (225), weight lifting (47), various team sports (92), and other sports (67). Venous blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, and meancorpuscularvolume were measured. Statistical indices were computed for each (...) subgroup (4.32 (0.04) x 10(12)/l, 0.314 (0.003) l/l, and 124.27 (0.93) g/l) and the swimming subgroup (4.40 (0.05) x 10(12)/l, 0.375 (0.005) l/l, and 125.90 (1.30) g/l). No differences were found in the meancorpuscular volume.Continuous (more than one year) high intensity sports training (twice a day/five days a week) results in a decrease in the basic red blood cell variables in pubescent boys and girls, this being most pronounced in the submaximal sports.
volumes were measured. At the same time points, meancorpuscularvolume and hematocrit were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and hemoglobin were measured every 5 min throughout the study. Volume kinetic analysis was performed for the volunteers receiving hydroxyethyl starch.Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors (...) Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume. The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information
an inpatient treatment program. Healthy comparison men were similarly tested.On admission, RBC count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit were significantly lower in alcoholic subjects than comparison subjects; meancorpuscularvolume, SGOT, SGPT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly higher. By discharge, all measures had improved, although RBC count, meancorpuscularvolume, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels remained significantly different from those of comparison subjects. Upon (...) Brain volumes, RBC status, and hepatic function in alcoholics after 1 and 4 weeks of sobriety: predictors of outcome. The authors asked if hematological indices of RBC status and hepatic function in newly sober alcoholic men are related to abnormalities in brain morphology, change with normalization of brain function during short-term sobriety, and predict prolonged sobriety.Alcoholic men received brain magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory assessments on admission and before discharge from
cotransport activity was undiminished in Kcc1(-/-) mice, decreased in Kcc3(-/-) mice, and almost completely abolished in mice lacking both isoforms, we conclude that K-Cl cotransport activity of mouse rbc is mediated largely by KCC3. Whereas rbc of either Kcc1(-/-) or Kcc3(-/-) mice were of normal density, rbc of Kcc1(-/-)Kcc3(-/-) mice exhibited defective volume regulation, including increased meancorpuscularvolume, decreased density, and increased susceptibility to osmotic lysis. K-Cl cotransport (...) activity was increased in rbc of SAD mice, which are transgenic for a hypersickling human hemoglobin S variant. Kcc1(-/-)Kcc3(-/-) SAD rbc lacked nearly all K-Cl cotransport activity and exhibited normalized values of meancorpuscularvolume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration mean, and K(+) content. Although disruption of K-Cl cotransport rescued the dehydration phenotype of most SAD rbc, the proportion of the densest red blood cell population remained unaffected.
kcal per session (mean +/- SE across training weeks = 298+/-0.34 and 297+/-0.37 kcal per session for HI and LO, respectively). Plasma volume (PV, T-1824 dilution); calculated total blood (TBV) and red cell volumes (RCV); calculated total hemoglobin (THb); erythropoietin concentration ([Epo]) and selected hematologic variables were measured at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12 of training.The observed relative (percent) changes in PV, TBV, RCV and THb from pre-training baseline values were (...) not statistically significant. Decreases (p < 0.05) in hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin ([Hb]) and RBC count were observed in both training groups. Meancorpuscular Hb (MCH) and Hb concentration (MCHC) increased (p < 0.05) during training. [Epo] was decreased at week 2 compared with baseline (p < 0.03), but was similar to baseline at weeks 4, 8 and 12.Within the limits of this study, endurance training did not increase PV, TBV, RCV and THb in previously sedentary females regardless of the intensity of training.
in pretaper low intensity continuous training (LICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT). Blood samples were obtained and 800-m running performance was measured before and after taper.Performance was not significantly enhanced by either taper protocol (post- vs pre-taper times 124.9 +/- 4.5 vs 126.1 +/- 4.2 s with LVT, 126.2 +/- 8.0 vs 125.7 +/- 6.6 s with MVT). For the entire group of 8 subjects, red cell count, hemoglobin (Hb), meancorpuscularvolume and meancorpuscular Hb concentration (...) Physiological responses to a 6-d taper in middle-distance runners: influence of training intensity and volume. This study examined some physiological and performance responses to a 6-d taper, and the influence of training intensity and volume on these responses.After 15 wk of training, 8 well-trained male middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to either a moderate volume taper (MVT, N = 4) or a low volume taper (LVT, N = 4), consisting of either a 50% or a 75% progressive reduction
-PI group, the PI group had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (4.8 +/- 1.0 vs 3.8 +/- 0.7 mmol/L, P <.001) and LDL cholesterol (2.9 +/- 0.8 vs 2.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/L, P <.001) levels and red blood cell meancorpuscularvolume (92.2 +/- 9.3 vs 86.8 +/- 7.2 microm3, P =.048). The CAC scores in the PI group were also higher than those in the non-PI group (11.0 +/- 28.6 [n = 43] vs 1.7 +/- 5.8, P =.043). CAC scores were marginally associated with log-transformed duration of the PI therapy (P (...) =.055). Serum CRP levels remained unchanged (5.5 +/- 13.6 mg/L [n = 45] vs 3.9 +/- 5.5 mg/L, P =.467). Serum total cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol level, red blood cell meancorpuscularvolume, and CAC scores were indicated by means of regression analyses to be associated with log-transformed duration of the PI therapy.The use of PIs is associated with coronary artery calcification, atherogenic lipid changes, and increased erythrocyte volume in individuals infected with HIV-1.