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1. What effects -- if any -- does marijuana use during pregnancy have on the fetus or child?

What effects -- if any -- does marijuana use during pregnancy have on the fetus or child? What effects -- if any -- does marijuana use during pregnancy have on the fetus or child? Toggle navigation Shared more. Cited more. Safe forever. Toggle navigation View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search MOspace This Collection Browse Statistics What effects -- if any -- does marijuana use during pregnancy have on the fetus or child (...) ? View/ Open Date 2017 Format Metadata Abstract What effects -- if any -- does marijuana use during pregnancy have on the fetus or child? Evidence-based answer: The effects are unclear. Marijuana use during pregnancy is associated with clinically unimportant lower birth weights (growth differences of approximately 100 g), but no differences in preterm births or congenital anomalies (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, prospective and retrospective cohort studies with methodologic flaws). Similarly

2018 Clinical Inquiries

2. Has Self-reported Marijuana Use Changed in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty After the Legalization of Marijuana? (PubMed)

Has Self-reported Marijuana Use Changed in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty After the Legalization of Marijuana? Marijuana use has become more accessible since its recent legalization in several states. However, its use in a total joint arthroplasty population to our knowledge has not been reported, and the implications of its use in this setting remain unclear.We report (1) the self-reported use of marijuana in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty both before and after its (...) legalization; and (2) clinical and demographic factors associated with marijuana use in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.One thousand records of patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty (500 consecutive before and 500 consecutive after the legalization of the commercial sale of marijuana in Colorado) were included for analysis. Preoperative medical history and physicals were retrospectively reviewed for self-reported and reasons (medicinal versus recreational) for use. Additionally

2019 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

3. Unintentional Pediatric Marijuana Exposures Prior to and After Legalization and Commercial Availability of Recreational Marijuana in Washington State. (PubMed)

Unintentional Pediatric Marijuana Exposures Prior to and After Legalization and Commercial Availability of Recreational Marijuana in Washington State. Washington State was one of the first states to legalize recreational marijuana. Increased availability of marijuana may result in more unintentional pediatric exposure, which often presents as altered mental status with unknown cause.To quantify unintentional pediatric marijuana exposures reported to the Washington Poison Center (WAPC) prior (...) to and after legalization and commercial availability of recreational marijuana.Data were obtained from the WAPC database, toxiCALL®. Patients ≤ 9 years old with a reported marijuana exposure between July 2010 and July 2016 were included in the analysis. Patient and exposure characteristics were summarized and median exposure frequencies were calculated for the periods prior to and after legalization.There were 161 cases meeting the inclusion criteria that occurred between July 2010 and July 2016

2019 Journal of Emergency Medicine

4. Medical Marijuana for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Medical Marijuana for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Medical Marijuana for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Medical Marijuana for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Medical Marijuana for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: January 11, 2017 Project (...) Number: RC0838-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of medical marijuana for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults? What is the clinical effectiveness of synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of PTSD in adults? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of medical marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids in adult patients with PTSD? Key Message Based

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

5. Can I Use Marijuana Safely? An Examination of Distal Antecedents, Marijuana Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Marijuana Outcomes (PubMed)

Can I Use Marijuana Safely? An Examination of Distal Antecedents, Marijuana Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Marijuana Outcomes Given the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. We examined marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a proximal predictor of marijuana-related outcomes and a mediator of the associations between (...) other known risk/protective factors and marijuana-related outcomes.Using data from a sample of 2,129 past-month marijuana users, collected from 11 universities in the United States, we examined marijuana PBS use as a mediator of the effects of sex, age at first use, impulsivity-like traits, and marijuana use motives on marijuana use frequency and marijuana related consequences.Marijuana PBS was identified as a robust negative predictor of marijuana use frequency and marijuana-related consequences

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2017 Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs

6. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12–14 Living in US Households (PubMed)

Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12–14 Living in US Households Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse (...) or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school. Sex differences in the correlates of lifetime use and past year marijuana initiation were tested via interaction. Lifetime prevalence of marijuana use was 5.5%; 3.2% reported past year initiation. About 1 in 6 (16.8%) past year initiates progressed

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2017 Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

7. Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation

Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation - ACOG Menu ▼ Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation Page Navigation ▼ INTERIM UPDATE Number 722, October 2017 (Replaces Committee Opinion No. 637, July 2015) Committee on Obstetric Practice This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change. The information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure (...) UPDATE: This Committee Opinion is updated as highlighted to reflect a limited, focused change in the language and supporting evidence regarding marijuana use and neonatal outcomes. Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation ABSTRACT: Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

8. Point-of-sale marketing and context of marijuana retailers: Assessing reliability and generalizability of the marijuana retail surveillance tool (PubMed)

Point-of-sale marketing and context of marijuana retailers: Assessing reliability and generalizability of the marijuana retail surveillance tool As recreational marijuana expands, standardized surveillance measures examining the retail environment are critical for informing policy and enforcement. We conducted a reliability and generalizability study using a previously developed tool involving assessment of a sample of 25 randomly selected Seattle recreational marijuana retailers (20 (...) of parks. Almost all (n = 23) had exterior signage indicating the minimum age requirement, and 23 verified age. Two retailers had exterior ads for marijuana, and 24 had interior ads. Overall, there were 76 interior ads (M = 3.04; SD = 1.84), most commonly for edibles (n = 28). At least one price promotion/discount was recorded in 17 retailers, most commonly in the form of loyalty membership programs (n = 10) or daily/weekly deals (n = 10). One retailer displayed potential health harms/warnings, while

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2018 Preventive medicine reports

9. Framing marijuana: How U.S. newspapers frame marijuana legalization stories (1995–2014) (PubMed)

Framing marijuana: How U.S. newspapers frame marijuana legalization stories (1995–2014) Marijuana legalization has been one of the most controversial issues in the public health field. Since news frames can influence the public's perceptions about public health policy including marijuana legalization, it is important to understand how the media report this issue. Thus, we explore how U.S. newspapers present marijuana legalization stories, examining two key dimensions of framing: an organizing (...) theme and a story tone. We analyzed news articles of national and regional newspapers between 1995 and 2014 (N = 640). Findings revealed that newspapers have largely presented marijuana legalization as a law enforcement issue, rather than an economic issue or a medical issue. Marijuana legalization has been differently presented according to each presidential period. Overall, marijuana legalization stories have been described using a neutral tone. However, findings showed that newspapers that were

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2018 Preventive medicine reports

10. Medical Marijuana Availability, Price, and Product Variety, and Adolescents' Marijuana Use. (PubMed)

Medical Marijuana Availability, Price, and Product Variety, and Adolescents' Marijuana Use. We aimed to examine the availability of medical marijuana dispensaries, price of medical marijuana products, and variety of medical marijuana products in school neighborhoods and their associations with adolescents' use of marijuana and susceptibility to use marijuana in the future.A representative sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (N = 46,646) from 117 randomly selected schools in California (...) participated in the cross-sectional 2015-2016 California Student Tobacco Survey (CSTS). Characteristics of medical marijuana dispensaries in California were collected and combined with school locations to compute availability, price, and product variety of medical marijuana in school neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regressions with random intercepts at school level were conducted to test the associations, accounting for individual and school socioeconomic characteristics.The distance from school

2018 The Journal of Adolescent Health

11. Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: a systematic review and meta‐analysis (PubMed)

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: a systematic review and meta‐analysis To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in order to estimate the effect of US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on past-month marijuana use prevalence among adolescents.A total of 2999 papers from 17 literature sources were screened systematically. Eleven studies, developed from four ongoing large national surveys, were meta-analyzed. Estimates of MML effects on any (...) past-month marijuana use prevalence from included studies were obtained from comparisons of pre-post MML changes in MML states to changes in non-MML states over comparable time-periods. These estimates were standardized and entered into a meta-analysis model with fixed-effects for each study. Heterogeneity among the study estimates by national data survey was tested with an omnibus F-test. Estimates of effects on additional marijuana outcomes, of MML provisions (e.g. dispensaries) and among

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2018 Addiction (Abingdon, England)

12. Prenatal Marijuana Use by Self-Report and Umbilical Cord Sampling in a State With Marijuana Legalization. (PubMed)

Prenatal Marijuana Use by Self-Report and Umbilical Cord Sampling in a State With Marijuana Legalization. To compare self-reported maternal marijuana use with quantitative biological sampling for a marijuana metabolite, 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, in umbilical cord homogenate in a state with legalized marijuana.We conducted a cross-sectional study of women approached at the time of admission for delivery with live, singleton pregnancies at 24 weeks of gestation (...) or greater at two urban medical centers in Colorado. Maternal marijuana use was estimated by 1) report to a health care provider on admission history and physical, 2) survey of self-reported use, and 3) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of umbilical cord homogenate for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. Women were categorized by survey-reported last use (30 days ago or less, 30 days to 1 year, more than 1 year, never) and proportion of women with cord results

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

13. How does state marijuana policy affect U.S. youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991–2014 (PubMed)

How does state marijuana policy affect U.S. youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991–2014 To test, among US students: (1) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana has changed over time, (2) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana changed post-passage of state medical marijuana laws (MML) compared with pre-passage; and (3) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana statistically mediates and/or modifies the relation between MML and marijuana use (...) as a function of grade level.Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of US students, conducted annually, 1991-2014, in the Monitoring the Future study.Surveys conducted in schools in all coterminous states; 21 states passed MML between 1996 and 2014.The sample included 1 134 734 adolescents in 8th, 10th and 12th grades.State passage of MML; perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (perceiving great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally versus slight or no risk

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2016 Addiction (Abingdon, England)

14. State-Level Medical Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Use and Perceived Availability of Marijuana Among the General U.S. Population (PubMed)

State-Level Medical Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Use and Perceived Availability of Marijuana Among the General U.S. Population Little is known on how perceived availability of marijuana is associated with medical marijuana laws. We examined the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MML) and the prevalence of past-month marijuana use, with perceived availability of marijuana.Data were from respondents included in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health restricted use data portal 2004-2013 (...) . Multilevel logistic regression of individual-level data was used to test differences between MML and non-MML states and changes in prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perceived availability from before to after passage of MML among adolescents, young adults and older adults controlling for demographics.Among adults 26+, past-month prevalence of marijuana use increased from 5.87% to 7.15% after MML passage (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.24 [1.16-1.31]), but no change in prevalence of use was found

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2016 Drug and alcohol dependence

15. Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana. (PubMed)

Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana. Many states have recently made significant changes to their legislation making recreational and/or medical marijuana use by adults legal. Although these laws, for the most part, have not targeted the adolescent population, they have created an environment in which marijuana increasingly is seen as acceptable, safe, and therapeutic. This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based (...) on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use. The recently published technical report provides the detailed evidence and references regarding the research on which the information in this clinical report is based.Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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2017 Pediatrics

16. The development and pilot testing of the marijuana retail surveillance tool (MRST): assessing marketing and point-of-sale practices among recreational marijuana retailers (PubMed)

The development and pilot testing of the marijuana retail surveillance tool (MRST): assessing marketing and point-of-sale practices among recreational marijuana retailers As recreational marijuana expands, it is critical to develop standardized surveillance measures to study the retail environment. To this end, our research team developed and piloted a tool assessing recreational marijuana retailers in a convenience sample of 20 Denver retailers in 2016. The tool assesses: (i) compliance (...) . Reliability assessments with larger, representative samples are needed to create a standardized marijuana retail surveillance tool.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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2017 Health education research

17. “Is Marijuana even a drug?” A qualitative study of how teens view marijuana use and why they use it (PubMed)

“Is Marijuana even a drug?” A qualitative study of how teens view marijuana use and why they use it This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes (...) as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested. Former occasional users mostly reported that they did not like the somatic effects of marijuana and did not feel it enhanced their social interactions or activities. Teens who reported never having used marijuana did so out of concerns for their health. Except for never-users, marijuana was seen as safe to use. Teens

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2017 Journal of psychoactive drugs

18. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever* (PubMed)

Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever* Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined (...) the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR.State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies

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2017 Drug and alcohol dependence

19. Marijuana advertising exposure among current marijuana users in the U.S (PubMed)

Marijuana advertising exposure among current marijuana users in the U.S Little is known about marijuana advertising exposure among users in the U.S. We examined the prevalence of advertising exposure among young adult marijuana users through traditional and new media, and identified characteristics associated with seeking advertisements.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 18-34 year-old past-month marijuana users in the U.S. using a pre-existing online panel (N=742). The survey queried (...) about passively viewing and actively seeking marijuana advertisements in the past month, sources of advertisements, and marijuana use characteristics.Over half of participants were exposed to marijuana advertising in the past month (28% passively observed advertisements, 26% actively sought advertisements). Common sources for observing advertisements were digital media (i.e., social media, online, text/emails; 77%). Similarly, those actively seeking advertisements often used Internet search engines

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2017 Drug and alcohol dependence

20. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana (PubMed)

Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported "ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish." Data came from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using (...) marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n = 3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of regular (at least once a month for more than one year) and non-regular marijuana smoking by current (serum cotinine ≥ 3.08 ng/mL) and not current use of tobacco. Suboptimal SRH status was defined as "fair" or "poor" in response to the question "Would you say that in general your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" We produced prevalence ratios

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2017 Preventive medicine reports

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