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Management of Severe Head Injury

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121. Evidence-based approaches to the management of cognitive and behavioral impairments following pediatric brain injury

, Juttler E, Unterberg A, Hacke W. Decompressive surgery for severe brain edema. J. Intensive Care Med. 24(3),168–178 ( 2009 ). , 20 Guerguerian A, Milly Lo TY, Hutchison JS. Clinical management and functional neuromonitoring in traumatic brain injury in children. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 21,1–8 ( 2009 ). , 21 Philip S, Udomphorn Y, Kirkham FJ, Vavilala MS. Cerebrovascular pathopysiology in pediatric traumatic brain injury. J. Trauma Inj. Infect. Crit. Care 67(2),128–134 ( 2009 ). , 22 Beauchamp MH, Babl FE (...) CE, Adelson PD. Neurobehavioral effects of amantadine after pediatric traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma. Rehabil. 20(5),450–463 ( 2005 ). , 38 Patrick PD, Buck ML, Conaway MR, Blackman JA. The use of dopamine enhancing medications with children in low response states following brain injury. Brain Inj. 17(6),497–506 ( 2003 ). , , 39 Trovato M, Slomine B, Pidock F, Christensen J. The efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride on memory functioning in three adolescents with severe traumatic brain

2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

122. The Acute Cardiopulmonary Management of Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries

acute spinal cord injuries (SCIs). – Several reports describe improved patient management and lower morbidity and mortality following acute SCI with ICU monitoring and aggressive medical management. – , – Despite this interest in and commitment to more comprehensive care for the patient with an acute SCI, many traumatic SCI patients are not managed in an ICU setting, nor are they routinely monitored for cardiac or respiratory dysfunction. There exist divergent management strategies for acute SCI (...) itself, or a combination of the two. The presence of hypotension has been shown to be associated with worse outcomes after traumatic injury, including severe head injury. , , – Although a prospective controlled assessment of the effects of hypotension on acute human SCI has not been performed, laboratory evidence suggests that hypotension contributes to secondary injury after acute SCI by further reducing spinal cord blood flow and perfusion. , , , , – Hypotension in animal models of SCI results

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2013 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

123. Methodology of the Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injuries

; 49 : 407 – 498 . 2. Rosenberg J , Greenberg MK Practice parameters: strategies for survival into the nineties . Neurology . 1992 ; 42 ( 5 ): 1110 – 1115 . 3. Field M , Lohr K Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program—Committee to Advise the Public Health Service on Clinical Practice Guidelines: Institute of Medicine . Washington, DC : National Academy Press ; 1990 . 4. Bullock R , Chesnut RM , Clifton G , et al. Guidelines for the management of severe head injury: Brain Trauma (...) of these guidelines, as well as several other neurosurgical guideline documents. – The levels of recommendations as used in the previous iteration of the “Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injuries,” which are derived from the classes of evidence listed above, are related to the certainty that a clinician has that the evidence is strong enough to support the recommendation(s) as follows: Standards: Reflection of a high degree of clinical certainty Guidelines: Reflection

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2013 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

124. Assessment of traumatic brain injury, acute

of severity and prognosis. Carney N, Totten AM, O'Reilly C, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):6-15. https://braintrauma.org/uploads/03/12/Guidelines_for_Management_of_Severe_TBI_4th_Edition.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654000?tool=bestpractice.com Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, et al. The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (...) . The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11356436?tool=bestpractice.com Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al; Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Author Group. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3 Suppl):S16-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710968?tool=bestpractice.com Epidural haematomas (EDH) are seen in about 10% of patients with moderate to severe TBI

2018 BMJ Best Practice

125. Overview of sport-related injuries

either a direct blow to the head or the transmission of an impulsive force to the head. Symptoms can be divided into 3 groups: cognitive, somatic, and affective. A combination of somatic and cognitive symptoms is most common. Collection of blood between the dural and arachnoid coverings of the brain. May be acute or chronic, and the primary cause is trauma. It is the most common life-threatening injury encountered by boxers. Miele VJ, Bailes JE, Cantu RC, et al. Subdural hematomas in boxing (...) haemodynamic effects. Patients typically present with new, not previously experienced, headache of variable character. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This may be due to trauma or rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (which may be triggered by stress and physical exertion). Sudden severe headache, photophobia, and loss of consciousness are characteristic. Sports are a frequent cause of these traumatic injuries. Blunt trauma to the globe of the eye (e.g., impact

2018 BMJ Best Practice

126. Assessment of traumatic brain injury, acute

of severity and prognosis. Carney N, Totten AM, O'Reilly C, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):6-15. https://braintrauma.org/uploads/03/12/Guidelines_for_Management_of_Severe_TBI_4th_Edition.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654000?tool=bestpractice.com Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, et al. The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (...) . The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11356436?tool=bestpractice.com Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al; Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Author Group. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3 Suppl):S16-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710968?tool=bestpractice.com Epidural haematomas (EDH) are seen in about 10% of patients with moderate to severe TBI

2018 BMJ Best Practice

127. Guidelines for diagnosing and managing pediatric concussion

group. These guidelines also do not apply to children/adolescents who have moderate-to-severe closed head injuries, moderate-to-severe developmental delays, neurological disorders, penetrating brain injuries or brain damage from other causes, such as injuries at birth or in infancy. General Directions for Clinical Use We expect that children/adolescents who have sustained a head injury will visit a health care professional soon after the incident for a primary assessment. In this scenario, health (...) , outcomes, and quality of life of those who have sustained a neurotrauma injury. The Foundation receives its funding from the Government of Ontario. © Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation, 2014 Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation 90 Eglinton Street East Toronto ON M4P 2Y3 Tel: 416 422 2228 Fax: 416 422 1240 Email: info@onf.org Questions, changes and errata: info@onf.org Cover image: courtesy of Dr. Mike Evans Chapter: Using These Guidelines Guidelines for Diagnosing and Managing Pediatric Concussion 1 Tipsheet

2019 CPG Infobase

128. Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury

Cancer Administration 4 Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury Aka: Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury , Increased Intracranial Pressure in Trauma , Severe Head Trauma Related Increased Intracranial Pressure From Related Chapters II. Differential Diagnosis III. Pathophysiology with secondary IV. Signs: Findings indicating management below >15 mm Severe (GCS 8 or less) Cerebral edema Severe Severe Hypopnea V (...) Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury Increased Intracranial Pressure in Closed Head Injury Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse

2017 FP Notebook

129. Early Mobilisation After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Early Mobilisation After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Early Mobilisation After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Early Mobilisation After Severe Traumatic Brain (...) for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Early Mobilisation by Head-up Tilt With Stepping Compared With Standard Care After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury - a Randomised Clinical Feasibility Trial Study Start Date : January 2017 Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 2019 Estimated Study Completion

2016 Clinical Trials

130. Efficacy of VAS203 (Ronopterin) in Patients With Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Efficacy of VAS203 (Ronopterin) in Patients With Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Efficacy of VAS203 (Ronopterin) in Patients With Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) to the assessment of the treating physician. Catheter placement (intraventricular or intraparenchymal, only) for monitoring and management of increased ICP Systolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mmHg Females of child-bearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test Exclusion Criteria: Penetrating head injury (e.g. missile, stab wound) Concurrent, but not pre-existing, spinal cord injury Bilateral fixed and dilated pupil (> 4 mm) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed post injury, or extracranial injuries causing

2016 Clinical Trials

131. Impact of Early Optimization of Brain Oxygenation on Neurological Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Impact of Early Optimization of Brain Oxygenation on Neurological Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Impact of Early Optimization of Brain Oxygenation on Neurological Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) head-injured patients. On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that an early optimization of brain oxygenation, together with keeping ICP and CPP within recommended values, could reduce the volume of vulnerable lesions following severe TBI and possibly improve neurological outcome. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Brain Injuries, Traumatic Device: PbtO2 probes Other: No PbtO2 probes Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type

2016 Clinical Trials

132. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries in Children (PubMed)

. The primary injury of a TBI is because of direct trauma from an external force, a penetrating object, blast waves, or a jolt to the head. Secondary injury occurs because of alterations in cerebral blood flow, and the development of cerebral edema leads to necrotic and apoptotic cellular death after TBI. Monitoring focuses on intracranial pressure, cerebral oxygenation, cerebral edema, and cerebrovascular injuries. If abnormalities are identified, treatments are available to manage the negative effects (...) Pathophysiology and Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries in Children Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe TBIs account for 15,000 admissions annually and a mortality rate of 24% in children in the United States. The purpose of this article is to explore pathophysiologic events, examine monitoring techniques, and explain current treatment modalities and nursing care related to caring for children with severe TBI

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2016 The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses

133. Glaucoma: diagnosis and management

a visual field defect or IOP of Glaucoma: diagnosis and management (NG81) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 4124 mmHg or more, unless clinical circumstances indicate urgent or emergency referral is needed. [2017] [2017] 1.1.5 Refer for further investigation and diagnosis of COAG and related conditions, after considering repeat measures as in recommendation 1.1.4, if: there is optic nerve head damage (...) , amended 2017] 1.4.5 When a visual field defect has previously been detected, use the same measurement strategy for each visual field assessment. [2009] [2009] 1.4.6 When clinically indicated, repeat assessment of the optic nerve head (for Glaucoma: diagnosis and management (NG81) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 8 of 41example, stereoscopic slit lamp biomicroscopy or imaging). [2017] [2017] 1.4.7 When

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

134. Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment and management

and management (NG62) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 7 of 46children with cerebral palsy born after 35 weeks: attributed to a perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic injury: 20% not attributed to a perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic injury: 12%. 1.2.7 Recognise that for cerebral palsy associated with a perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic injury: the extent of long-term functional impairment is often related to the severity (...) of the initial encephalopathy the dyskinetic motor subtype is more common than other subtypes. 1.2.8 Recognise that for cerebral palsy acquired after the neonatal period, the following causes and approximate prevalences have been reported: meningitis: 20% other infections: 30% head injury: 12%. 1.2.9 When assessing the likely cause of cerebral palsy, recognise that independent risk factors: can have a cumulative impact, adversely affecting the developing brain and resulting in cerebral palsy may have

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

135. Splenic Injury, Blunt, Selective Nonoperative Management of

in adults with injuries to the liver continue to support nonoperative management in hemodynamically stable adults, but questions still exist about efficacy, patient selection, and details of management. [4–8] These questions include the following: Are the 2003 recommendations still valid? Is nonoperative management appropriate for all hemodynamically stable adults regardless of severity of solid-organ injury or presence of associated injuries? What role should angiography and other adjunctive therapies (...) after blunt abdominal trauma should be taken urgently for laparotomy. Level 2 A routine laparotomy is not indicated in the hemodynamically stable patient without peritonitis presenting with an isolated splenic injury. The severity of splenic injury (as suggested by CT grade or degree of hemoperitoneum), neurologic status, age >55 and/or the presence of associated injuries are not contraindications to a trial of nonoperative management in a hemodynamically stable patient. In the hemodynamically

2012 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

136. Hepatic Injury, Blunt, Selective Nonoperative Management of

with blunt hepatic trauma at most of the US trauma centers, with reported success rates ranging from 82% to 100%. [8][10–14] Some have even voiced that operative management of hepatic trauma leads to increased hepatic hemorrhage and may lead to unnecessary interventions with an increased incidence of iatrogenic complications. [2][3] Factors previously thought to completely preclude nonoperative management of hepatic injuries include hepatic injury grade, head injury, injury severity score, degree (...) , patient selection, and details of management. [2][6–9] These questions include as follows: Are the 2003 recommendations still valid? Is nonoperative management appropriate for all hemodynamically stable adults regardless of the severity of solid-organ injury or presence of associated injuries? What role should angiography and other adjunctive therapies play in nonoperative management? Is the risk of missing a hollow viscous injury a deterrent to nonoperative management? What is the best way

2012 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

137. Should stimulants be administered to manage difficulties with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity following paediatric acquired brain injury?

of traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 1988;2:273–90. Clark E, Baker BK, Gardner MK, et al. Effectiveness of stimulant drug treatment for attention problems – a look at head injured children. Sch Psychol Int 1990;11:227–34. Plenger PM, Dixon CE, Castillo RM, et al. Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to moderately severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:536–40 Mahalick DM, Carmel PW, Greenberg JP, et al. Psychopharmacologic (...) Should stimulants be administered to manage difficulties with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity following paediatric acquired brain injury? BestBets: Should stimulants be administered to manage difficulties with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity following paediatric acquired brain injury? Should stimulants be administered to manage difficulties with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity following paediatric acquired brain injury? Report By: David W Harvey, Matthew Morrall

2012 BestBETS

138. Is traumatic brain injury preventable in amateur boxing competition?

of traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a consequence of repeated blows to the head. Traumatic brain injury can be classified as acute TBI, commonly known as a concussion, and chronic TBI, sometimes called chronic traumatic encephalitis (CTE). 3 Concussion represents an immediate and transient response of the brain to trauma, 4 while CTE is a . 5 Concussions occur less frequently in amateur boxing than professional boxing. 6 The reduction of concussions in amateur boxing could be attributed to shorter match (...) biomarker concentrations included being hit over 15 times in the head during an amateur bout and grogginess after fighting. Further investigation into neuronal damage biomarkers in boxers could provide promising diagnostic and prognostic information regarding acute and chronic TBI. Of note, there was no significant association found in a 2013 study between levels of neuronal and axonal injury biomarkers and . 11 The ability to assess for genetic predisposition to chronic brain injury would be helpful

2019 Clinical Correlations

139. Traumatic brain injury

intracranial pressure (ICP)] are [hypertonic sodium solutions better than mannitol] at [reducing morbidity and mortality]? Clinical Scenario A 54 year old female pedestrian has been hit by a bus. She is brought into the ED by ambulance. Her GCS is 13 on arrival and examination reveals an isolated head injury with a haematoma over the left occiput. CT confirms a right 2011 13. Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury . BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain (...) of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Top results for traumatic brain injury 1. Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (4th edition) Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury , Fourth Edition | Neurosurgery | Oxford Academic We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

140. Guidelines on Management of Dyspnea (Breathlessness) in Patients with Cancer

on Management of Dyspnea Page 5 the literature search was not designed to locate these guidelines, additional guidelines on these topics may exist. The list for COPD is more extensive, with several of the guidelines identified from references in other guidelines. Guidelines Focused on Dyspnea or Symptom Management The guideline by the Japanese Society for Palliative Medicine covers palliative interventions for respiratory symptoms in cancer and is probably the most comprehensive for the therapies it covers (...) is a risk factor for both. Evidence Summary SMG-3 SMG-3. Guidelines on Management of Dyspnea Page 9 Several recent guidelines on COPD exist (see Appendix E), including those by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) [47], Lung Foundation Australia/Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand (based largely on GOLD) [48], the Canadian Thoracic Society [53,55,56], American College of Chest Physicians/Canadian Thoracic Society [54], and the European Respiratory Society/American

2019 Cancer Care Ontario

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