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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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161. High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. (PubMed)

High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. To estimate malaria rates in association with birth country, we analyzed routine surveillance data for US military members. During 2002-2010, rates were 44× higher for those born in western Africa than for those born in the United States. Loss of natural immunity renders persons susceptible when visiting birth countries. Pretravel chemoprophylaxis should be emphasized.

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2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

162. Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

. Prior receipt of an investigational malaria or adenovirus vaccine. Chronic use of antibiotics with antimalarial effects. History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. Any history of malaria. Planned travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine(s) including latex. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by chloroquine. History of psoriasis (...) Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100

2011 Clinical Trials

163. WITHDRAWN: Mefloquine for preventing malaria in non-immune adult travellers. (PubMed)

the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register (September 2002), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2002), EMBASE (1980 to September 2002), LILACS (September 2002), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2002), and bibliographies in retrieved papers and standard textbooks. We contacted researchers in the subject of malaria chemoprophylaxis, and pharmaceutical companies.Randomised trials comparing (...) comparing mefloquine with placebo showed mefloquine prevented malaria episodes in an area of drug resistance (Peto odds ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.08). Withdrawals in the mefloquine group were consistently higher in four placebo controlled trials (odds ratio 3.56, 95% confidence interval 1.67 to 7.60). In five trials comparing mefloquine with other chemoprophylaxis, no difference in tolerability was detected. We found 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects. 63 per

2008 Cochrane

164. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. (PubMed)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. The importation of malaria to non-endemic countries remains a major cause of travel-related morbidity and a leading cause of travel-related hospitalizations. Currently they are three priority medications for malaria prophylaxis to West Africa: mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline. We investigate the cost effectiveness of a partial reimbursement of the cheapest effective malaria chemoprophylaxis (...) (mefloquine) for travellers to high risk areas of malaria transmission compared with the current situation of no reimbursement.This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis based on malaria cases imported from West Africa to Switzerland from the perspective of the Swiss health system. We used a decision tree model and made a literature research on the components of travel related malaria. The main outcome measure was the cost effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis reimbursement based on malaria

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2010 BMC Infectious Diseases

165. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis.A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis.Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently (...) recognized fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi. New data were found in the literature on the tolerability of mefloquine and the use of this medication by groups at high risk of malaria.Use of mefloquine for pregnant women in the second and third trimester is sanctioned by the WHO and some authorities (CDC) allow the use of mefloquine even in the first trimester. Inadvertent pregnancy while using mefloquine is not considered grounds for pregnancy termination. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis is allowed during

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2010 Malaria journal

166. Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. (PubMed)

Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. Two Australian blood donors were diagnosed with relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria 5 and 15 months, respectively, after their most recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Common features included travel to Papua New Guinea (specifically, the Kokoda Trail); full compliance with recommended malaria chemoprophylaxis; and negative results on malaria antibody testing at the time (...) of donation. Although all fresh blood components from the two donors issued on the basis of these negative results were recalled before transfusion, these cases underscore the increased potential for relapse of P. vivax in donors returning from malaria-endemic countries, as well as the inability to identify the potential for relapse using current malarial screening tests.

2010 Medical Journal of Australia

167. An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. (PubMed)

occurred in patients reporting chemoprophylaxis use was higher than for Plasmodium falciparum (OR 7.56; p<0.0001) or P vivax (OR 1.82; p<0.0001).These findings provide the first difference of epidemiological significance observed between the two parasites which cause ovale malaria, and suggest that control measures aimed at P falciparum may not be adequate for reducing the burden of malaria caused by P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri. (...) An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. Ovale malaria is caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasite: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Although clearly distinct genetically, there have been no studies comparing the morphology, life cycle or epidemiology of these parasites. We tested the hypothesis that the two species differ

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2013 BMJ open

168. Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. (PubMed)

%) of participants were on malaria chemoprophylaxis at the time of the study. Female sex (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.73), immunosuppression (CD4+ cell count <350/μL vs. 600/μL, aOR=2.41, 95% CI 1.23-3.74) and non-use of ITN (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.17-2.85) predicted the occurrence of clinical malaria in patients. We report a high burden of malaria in HIV-infected patients attending a tertiary facility in urban Kano, Nigeria. Health communication, standardized protocols (...) Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. The clinical burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is well-described, but the dynamics of the interaction between the two diseases remain poorly understood. Using a cross-sectional study design, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among HIV-positive patients attending a referral center in urban Kano, northwest Nigeria. Structured questionnaires covering socio

2013 Acta Tropica

169. Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study. (PubMed)

%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less (...) diagnosis. A fever during the first half of the year requires investigating another aetiology, particularly a respiratory one. Malaria chemoprophylaxis is efficient and must not be overlooked. The QBC test appears to be the most reliable diagnostic test in this context.

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2013 Malaria journal

170. Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. (PubMed)

to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country.Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations (...) Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa.The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria

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2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases

171. Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. (PubMed)

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned (...) by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum.A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa

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2013 Malaria journal

172. Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. (PubMed)

, and Algeria (1%), and highest in rural Senegal (15%). Co-infections with R. felis and Plasmodium spp. and occurrences of R. felis relapses or reinfections were identified. This study demonstrates a correlation between malaria and R. felis infection regarding geographic distribution, seasonality, asymptomatic infections, and a potential vector. R. felis infection should be suspected in these geographical areas where malaria is endemic. Doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against malaria in travelers to sub (...) Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (p<0.0001) of increasing risk for R. felis infection. The risks were lowest in France, Tunisia

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2013 Emerging Infectious Diseases

173. Evaluating the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid

for decision-making; decrease decisional conflict; and affect levels of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. The hypotheses of this study are that: A decision aid will improve the quality of decision-making about malaria chemoprophylaxis by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge about malaria and malaria pills. Better decision quality will result in a greater level of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria (...) (the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid), in addition to standard medical care. Other: Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid The Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid is a tool that helps patients become involved in decision making about which malaria prophylaxis pill is right for them to take. The decision aid provides information about the options for malaria chemoprophylaxis, information about the financial costs and time required to adhere to the course of preventative medication, and clarifies personal values. The decision aid

2013 Clinical Trials

174. The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. (PubMed)

platform: radiation-attenuated sporozoites (irrSPZ), chemoprophylaxis with infectious sporozoites (CPS), and genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs). In all three, SPZ are administered to the vaccinee. All three protect animals against infection when administered by injection with a needle and syringe, and irrSPZ and CPS protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans when P. falciparum SPZ (PfSPZ) are administered by mosquito bite. Metabolically active, nonreplicating (radiation attenuated (...) The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. The whole sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine platform provides the only established approach for inducing high-level sustained protective immunity in humans against malaria. We introduce this platform, highlight literature published since 2011, and discuss the challenges of further development.There are three major approaches to development of a whole parasite vaccine to prevent malaria infection using the SPZ

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2013 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

175. Systematic review of current and emerging strategies for reducing morbidity from malaria in sickle cell disease. (PubMed)

Systematic review of current and emerging strategies for reducing morbidity from malaria in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting erythrocytes, which is especially prevalent throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and among individuals of African descent. Because malaria is thought to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis is often recommended for these patients. In SCD, malaria (...) chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria parasite count, anaemia and the need for blood transfusion, and improves clinical outcomes. However, the effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis in the setting of SCD is based on a few studies conducted prior to the emergence of widespread antimalarial drug resistance. Consequently, it is uncertain what the optimal strategy for managing patients with SCD in malarious areas should be. Despite the widespread use of hydroxyurea in non-malarious regions, little is known about its

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2013 Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH

176. Safety And Immunogenicity Of Novel Candidate Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine P27A : Phase Ia/Ib

History of living in a malaria endemic area for more than five (5) years OR living in a malaria endemic area in early childhood. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic (cf. www.safetravel.ch). Known exposure to malaria in the previous six (6) months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region P27A ELISA positive OR parasite ELISA antibody positive AND Known exposure to malaria in a malaria endemic area P27A (...) Safety And Immunogenicity Of Novel Candidate Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine P27A : Phase Ia/Ib Safety And Immunogenicity Of Novel Candidate Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine P27A : Phase Ia/Ib - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more

2013 Clinical Trials

177. Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. (PubMed)

. Participants were presumptively cleared of malaria with Coartem™ (artemether-lumefantrine) and tested for malaria every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The HLC collections were conducted four nights per week for six weeks. Collectors were provided chemoprophylaxis with Malarone™ (atovaquone-proguanil) during the six weeks of HLC activities and one week after HLC activities were completed. The incidence of malaria was 96.6% lower in collectors than in non-collectors (hazard ratio = 0.034, P < 0.0001). Therefore (...) Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. The human landing catch (HLC) has long been the gold standard for estimating malaria transmission by mosquitoes, but has come under scrutiny because of ethical concerns of exposing collectors to infectious bites. We estimated the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a cohort of 152 persons conducting HLCs and compared it with that of 147 non-collectors in western Kenya

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2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

178. The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. (PubMed)

. The demographics of travelers and the proportion of severe cases are similar to those statistics reported in previous years. Non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis remains a nearly universal modifiable risk factor among these cases. (...) The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting both the increased number of travelers arriving from Haiti and the increased risk of acquiring malaria infection in Haiti

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2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

179. Imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in HIV-infected patients: a report of two cases. (PubMed)

-endemic areas and presented a parasitaemia > 5% of erythrocytes and clinical signs of severe falciparum malaria, both with > 350 CD4 cell count/μl, absence of chemoprophylaxis and successful response. Factors like drug interactions and the possible implication of anti-malarial therapy bioavailability are all especially interesting in HIV-malaria co-infections. (...) Imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in HIV-infected patients: a report of two cases. As HIV becomes a chronic infection, an increasing number of HIV-infected patients are travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Association of malaria with HIV/AIDS can be clinically severe. Severe falciparum malaria is a medical emergency that is associated with a high mortality, even when treated in an Intensive Care Unit. This article describes two cases of HIV-positive patients, who returned from malaria

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2012 Malaria journal

180. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. (PubMed)

advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers, in particular, substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, underlining the continuous need for personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis for this risk group. (...) Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travellers, including business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs

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2012 Malaria journal

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