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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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161. Memory B-cell and antibody responses induced by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Memory B-cell and antibody responses induced by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization. Immunization of healthy volunteers during receipt of chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS-immunization) induces sterile protection from malaria. Antibody responses have long been known to contribute to naturally acquired immunity against malaria, but their association with sterile protection after whole sporozoite immunization is not well established. We therefore studied (...) the induction and kinetics of malaria parasite antigen-specific antibodies and memory B-cells (MBCs) during CPS-immunization and their correlation with protection from challenge infection.We assessed humoral reactivity to 9 antigens representing different stages of the life cycle of P. falciparum by performing standardized MBC enzyme-linked immunospot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma samples from 38 Dutch volunteers enrolled in 2 randomized controlled

2014 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

162. Intent-to-Adhere and Adherence to Malaria Prevention Recommendations in Two Travel Clinics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intent-to-Adhere and Adherence to Malaria Prevention Recommendations in Two Travel Clinics. Malaria infects 30,000 travelers annually worldwide. At greatest risk are those who travel for long duration. Prevention of malaria includes chemoprophylaxis. This prospective study on 121 travelers who visited two travel clinics shows that adherence to prophylactic treatment was low, especially in long duration trips, and that adherence rate could be predicted by the much more available intent-to-adhere

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

163. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. (Abstract)

(24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5 (...) Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98

2014 Tropical Doctor

164. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a two-day regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria prevention halted for concern of prolonged QTc interval. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a two-day regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria prevention halted for concern of prolonged QTc interval. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy (...) of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min

2014 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

165. Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among italian troops in afghanistan, 2002 to 2011. Full Text available with Trip Pro

it regularly; however, compliance dropped from 80.9% (2,592/3,202) in 2002 to 2006 to 59.5% (1,531/2,571) in 2007 to 2011 (p < 0.01). Adverse events were reported by 875 (21.2%) of the 4,123 soldiers taking mefloquine, but caused irregularity or interruption of chemoprophylaxis only in 48 (1.2%) and 113 (2.7%) subjects, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. No malaria cases occurred in Afghanistan, and one Plasmodium vivax case was reported in Italy, yielding an incidence rate of 3.24 (...) Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among italian troops in afghanistan, 2002 to 2011. Malaria prevention policy is different among coalition troops in Afghanistan, ranging from the combined use of suppressive and terminal chemoprophylaxis to the absence of any prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance with malaria prevention measures and the risk of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan.Target population was the cohort of 32,500 army soldiers

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

166. Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand (...) analysis of the results was undertaken.Time constraints in GPs' surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment.Some issues raised

2014 Malaria journal

167. In vitro activity of immunosuppressive drugs against Plasmodium falciparum. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activity of immunosuppressive drugs against Plasmodium falciparum. Solid organ transplant recipients are particularly vulnerable for infectious diseases due to prolonged immunosuppressive treatment. Residents of endemic regions and travellers may be exposed to malaria and may, therefore, require prolonged antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The hypothesis of this study was that certain immunosuppressive drugs may exert clinically relevant anti-malarial activity. It was therefore designed (...) to assess the intrinsic anti-malarial activity of everolimus, mycophenolic acid, and rapamycin against Plasmodium falciparum in an in vitro model.Three laboratory adapted clones of P. falciparum and two isolates were used to assess the potential of mycophenolic acid, rapamycin and everolimus to inhibit in vitro growth of P. falciparum. The standard histidine rich protein 2 assay was employed and inhibitory drug concentrations (IC) were computed by non-linear regression analysis.All drugs were associated

2014 Malaria journal

168. Preventing malaria in international travellers: an evaluation of published English-language guidelines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

development: none include a transparent description of methods; only one describes sources of funding or potential conflicts of interest; and only one includes formal presentation of the evidence alongside transparent assessment of the quality of that evidence. There were a number of important discrepancies between guidelines, and some omit information about effectiveness, safety and adverse effects of chemoprophylaxis options.The methods used for developing guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers (...) Preventing malaria in international travellers: an evaluation of published English-language guidelines. People intending to travel may seek information on malaria prevention from a range of sources. To ensure the best protection, this information needs to be reliable, up-to-date, consistent, and useful to their decision making. This study appraises current international and national guidelines written in English for malaria prevention in travellers, and whether any recommendations conflict.We

2014 BMC Public Health

169. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of wintersun vacationers to the Gambia toward prevention of malaria: is it really that bad? Full Text available with Trip Pro

2002 to 2009 a questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study the KAP, i.e. accuracy of risk perception ("knowledge"), intended risk-avoiding behaviour ("attitude") and use of personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis ("practice") toward prevention malaria in travellers to The Gambia. Travellers to other high-risk destinations served as controls.The KAP of travellers to The Gambia toward prevention of malaria was significantly better (...) The knowledge, attitudes and practices of wintersun vacationers to the Gambia toward prevention of malaria: is it really that bad? Each year clusters of imported malaria cases are observed in Dutch wintersun vacationers returning from The Gambia. To gain more insight in the travel health preparation and awareness of these travellers, the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this travel group was studied by analysing the data of the Continuous Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey.In the years

2014 Malaria journal

170. Malaria (Treatment)

than 1 species of Plasmodium may occur in areas of high endemicity and multiple circulating malarial species. In these cases, clinical differentiation and decision making will be important; however, the clinician should have a low threshold for including the possible presence of P falciparum in the treatment considerations. Occasionally, morphologic features do not permit distinction between P falciparum and other Plasmodium species. In such cases, patients from a P falciparum –endemic area should (...) to contract malaria than nongravid women. Gravid women who contract malaria also have a greater tendency to develop severe malaria. Unlike malarial infection in nongravid individuals, pregnant women with P vivax are at high risk for severe malaria, and those with P falciparum have a greatly increased predisposition for severe malaria as well. For these reasons, it is especially important that nonimmune pregnant women in endemic areas use the proper pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prophylaxis

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Malaria (Follow-up)

than 1 species of Plasmodium may occur in areas of high endemicity and multiple circulating malarial species. In these cases, clinical differentiation and decision making will be important; however, the clinician should have a low threshold for including the possible presence of P falciparum in the treatment considerations. Occasionally, morphologic features do not permit distinction between P falciparum and other Plasmodium species. In such cases, patients from a P falciparum –endemic area should (...) to contract malaria than nongravid women. Gravid women who contract malaria also have a greater tendency to develop severe malaria. Unlike malarial infection in nongravid individuals, pregnant women with P vivax are at high risk for severe malaria, and those with P falciparum have a greatly increased predisposition for severe malaria as well. For these reasons, it is especially important that nonimmune pregnant women in endemic areas use the proper pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prophylaxis

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Malaria (Follow-up)

stages of Plasmodium life cycle are shown. Knowledge of the life cycle of the malarial parasite is essential to understanding the chemotherapy of malaria. The various stages of Plasmodium vivax as observed on Giemsa staining of a peripheral blood smear. The various stages of Plasmodium falciparum as observed on Giemsa staining of a peripheral blood smear are shown. The presence of more than one parasite in an erythrocyte is unique to this species. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures (...) important for people living in or traveling through a malarious area. Chemoprophylaxis is undermined by poor adherence and parasite resistance to almost all drugs, and is not fully dependable on its own. Therapy should be started a week before entering a malarious area and continued for 4 weeks after leaving it. Chloroquine is the most commonly used drug, at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a week; however, significant resistance to it is now present. Mefloquine (5 mg/kg once a week) is recommended in areas where

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

173. Malaria (Treatment)

stages of Plasmodium life cycle are shown. Knowledge of the life cycle of the malarial parasite is essential to understanding the chemotherapy of malaria. The various stages of Plasmodium vivax as observed on Giemsa staining of a peripheral blood smear. The various stages of Plasmodium falciparum as observed on Giemsa staining of a peripheral blood smear are shown. The presence of more than one parasite in an erythrocyte is unique to this species. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures (...) important for people living in or traveling through a malarious area. Chemoprophylaxis is undermined by poor adherence and parasite resistance to almost all drugs, and is not fully dependable on its own. Therapy should be started a week before entering a malarious area and continued for 4 weeks after leaving it. Chloroquine is the most commonly used drug, at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a week; however, significant resistance to it is now present. Mefloquine (5 mg/kg once a week) is recommended in areas where

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

174. Malaria (Overview)

of maturation and multiplication known as preerythrocytic or hepatic schizogony. In P vivax and P ovale infection, some sporozoites convert to dormant forms, called hypnozoites, which can cause disease after months or years. The images below detail the various stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. The various stages of Plasmodium life cycle are shown. Knowledge of the life cycle of the malarial parasite is essential to understanding the chemotherapy of malaria. The various stages of Plasmodium vivax (...) be significant in populations who are semi-immune to malaria. The mother may have placental parasitemia, peripheral parasitemia, or both, without any fever or other clinical manifestations. Vertical transmission of this infestation may be as high as 40% and is associated with in the baby. Zoonotic Malaria There are several Plasmodium species that infect non-human primates. P. knowlesi is a malarial parasite of macaques, but it can be transmitted to humans and cause disease. This zoonotic disease

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

175. Malaria (Diagnosis)

of maturation and multiplication known as preerythrocytic or hepatic schizogony. In P vivax and P ovale infection, some sporozoites convert to dormant forms, called hypnozoites, which can cause disease after months or years. The images below detail the various stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. The various stages of Plasmodium life cycle are shown. Knowledge of the life cycle of the malarial parasite is essential to understanding the chemotherapy of malaria. The various stages of Plasmodium vivax (...) be significant in populations who are semi-immune to malaria. The mother may have placental parasitemia, peripheral parasitemia, or both, without any fever or other clinical manifestations. Vertical transmission of this infestation may be as high as 40% and is associated with in the baby. Zoonotic Malaria There are several Plasmodium species that infect non-human primates. P. knowlesi is a malarial parasite of macaques, but it can be transmitted to humans and cause disease. This zoonotic disease

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

176. Prednisone Plus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly

Medical Centre Information provided by (Responsible Party): Oriol Mitja, Lihir Medical Centre Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This randomized clinical trial will address a complication related to recurrent episodes of malaria in endemic areas - hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. We aim to assess the efficacy of chloroquine after prednisone-induction therapy compared to standard treatment of chloroquine alone in the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed hyper-reactive (...) malarial splenomegaly. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly Malaria Anaemia Drug: prednisone induction - chloroquine Drug: Chloroquine Phase 3 Detailed Description: Hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly (HMS) is a known chronic autoimmune complication in areas where malaria is endemic. Patients with HMS complain most commonly of abdominal swelling or pain from the enlarged spleen and the condition is defined using clear clinical and laboratory criteria

2013 Clinical Trials

177. Immunization With Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine or Chloroquine/Azithromycin Prophylaxis

: February 4, 2013 Last Update Posted : November 13, 2014 Sponsor: Radboud University Collaborators: Leiden University Medical Center Medicines for Malaria Venture Information provided by (Responsible Party): Radboud University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will assess the superior protective immunity of the combination of chloroquine and azithromycin prophylaxis under Chemoprophylaxis Sporozoites (CPS) immunization versus a standard chloroquine prophylactic regimen (...) . Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria, Falciparum Drug: Azithromycin capsules Drug: Placebo Biological: Immunization with falciparum Phase 1 Phase 2 Detailed Description: This study assesses the superiority of protective immunity of the combination of chloroquine and azithromycin prophylaxis under Chemoprophylaxis Sporozoites (CPS) immunization versus a standard chloroquine prophylactic regimen. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional

2013 Clinical Trials

178. Evaluating the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid

for decision-making; decrease decisional conflict; and affect levels of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. The hypotheses of this study are that: A decision aid will improve the quality of decision-making about malaria chemoprophylaxis by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge about malaria and malaria pills. Better decision quality will result in a greater level of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria (...) (the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid), in addition to standard medical care. Other: Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid The Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid is a tool that helps patients become involved in decision making about which malaria prophylaxis pill is right for them to take. The decision aid provides information about the options for malaria chemoprophylaxis, information about the financial costs and time required to adhere to the course of preventative medication, and clarifies personal values. The decision aid

2013 Clinical Trials

179. Safety And Immunogenicity Of Novel Candidate Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine P27A : Phase Ia/Ib

History of living in a malaria endemic area for more than five (5) years OR living in a malaria endemic area in early childhood. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic (cf. www.safetravel.ch). Known exposure to malaria in the previous six (6) months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region P27A ELISA positive OR parasite ELISA antibody positive AND Known exposure to malaria in a malaria endemic area P27A (...) 18, 2018 Last Verified: July 2018 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: Yes Keywords provided by François Spertini, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois: plasmodium falciparum long synthetic peptide antibody T cell cytokine vaccine safety phase 1 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Malaria Protozoan Infections Parasitic Diseases Vaccines Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs Adjuvants

2013 Clinical Trials

180. Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and Algeria (1%), and highest in rural Senegal (15%). Co-infections with R. felis and Plasmodium spp. and occurrences of R. felis relapses or reinfections were identified. This study demonstrates a correlation between malaria and R. felis infection regarding geographic distribution, seasonality, asymptomatic infections, and a potential vector. R. felis infection should be suspected in these geographical areas where malaria is endemic. Doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against malaria in travelers to sub (...) Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (p<0.0001) of increasing risk for R. felis infection. The risks were lowest in France, Tunisia

2013 Emerging Infectious Diseases

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