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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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141. Preventing malaria in international travellers: an evaluation of published English-language guidelines. (Full text)

development: none include a transparent description of methods; only one describes sources of funding or potential conflicts of interest; and only one includes formal presentation of the evidence alongside transparent assessment of the quality of that evidence. There were a number of important discrepancies between guidelines, and some omit information about effectiveness, safety and adverse effects of chemoprophylaxis options.The methods used for developing guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers (...) Preventing malaria in international travellers: an evaluation of published English-language guidelines. People intending to travel may seek information on malaria prevention from a range of sources. To ensure the best protection, this information needs to be reliable, up-to-date, consistent, and useful to their decision making. This study appraises current international and national guidelines written in English for malaria prevention in travellers, and whether any recommendations conflict.We

2014 BMC Public Health

142. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a two-day regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria prevention halted for concern of prolonged QTc interval. (Full text)

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a two-day regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria prevention halted for concern of prolonged QTc interval. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy (...) of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min

2014 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

143. Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria ex Pakistan. (Full text)

as a low risk area for malaria. Nevertheless, this event is considered plausible by international organizations. This has potential implications for changes in chemoprophylaxis options and reinforces the need for increased surveillance, also considering the risk of introduction of autochthonous P. vivax malaria in areas where competent vectors are present, such as Europe.© 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine. (...) Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria ex Pakistan. According to WHO, 1.5 million cases of malaria are reported annually in Pakistan. Malaria distribution in Pakistan is heterogeneous, and some areas, including Punjab, are considered at low risk for malaria. The aim of this study is to describe the trend of imported malaria cases from Pakistan reported to the international surveillance systems from 2005 to 2012.Clinics reporting malaria cases acquired after a stay in Pakistan between January 1, 2005

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

144. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of wintersun vacationers to the Gambia toward prevention of malaria: is it really that bad? (Full text)

2002 to 2009 a questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study the KAP, i.e. accuracy of risk perception ("knowledge"), intended risk-avoiding behaviour ("attitude") and use of personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis ("practice") toward prevention malaria in travellers to The Gambia. Travellers to other high-risk destinations served as controls.The KAP of travellers to The Gambia toward prevention of malaria was significantly better (...) The knowledge, attitudes and practices of wintersun vacationers to the Gambia toward prevention of malaria: is it really that bad? Each year clusters of imported malaria cases are observed in Dutch wintersun vacationers returning from The Gambia. To gain more insight in the travel health preparation and awareness of these travellers, the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this travel group was studied by analysing the data of the Continuous Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey.In the years

2014 Malaria journal

145. Cytotoxic Markers Associate with Protection against Malaria in Human Volunteers Immunized with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites. (Full text)

Cytotoxic Markers Associate with Protection against Malaria in Human Volunteers Immunized with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites. Immunization of healthy volunteers by bites from Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes during chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (hereafter, chemoprophylaxis and sporozoites [CPS] immunization) induces sterile protection against malaria. CPS-induced protection is mediated by immunity against pre-erythrocytic stages, presumably at least partially by cytotoxic cellular

2014 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

146. Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). (Full text)

analysis of the results was undertaken.Time constraints in GPs' surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment.Some issues raised (...) Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand

2014 Malaria journal

147. Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among italian troops in afghanistan, 2002 to 2011. (Full text)

Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among italian troops in afghanistan, 2002 to 2011. Malaria prevention policy is different among coalition troops in Afghanistan, ranging from the combined use of suppressive and terminal chemoprophylaxis to the absence of any prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance with malaria prevention measures and the risk of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan.Target population was the cohort of 32,500 army soldiers (...) deployed in Afghanistan, 2002 to 2011; eligible subjects were the 21,900 soldiers stationed in endemic areas, who were prescribed mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was assessed by a cross-sectional study in a volunteer sample of 5,773 (26.4%) of eligible subjects. The risk of malaria was assessed by detecting malaria cases in the target population.Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis was administered to 4,123 (71.4%) of the 5,773 enrolled soldiers and 3,575 (86.7%) of these took

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

148. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. (Full text)

Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98 (...) (24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5

2014 Tropical Doctor

149. Intent-to-Adhere and Adherence to Malaria Prevention Recommendations in Two Travel Clinics. (Full text)

Intent-to-Adhere and Adherence to Malaria Prevention Recommendations in Two Travel Clinics. Malaria infects 30,000 travelers annually worldwide. At greatest risk are those who travel for long duration. Prevention of malaria includes chemoprophylaxis. This prospective study on 121 travelers who visited two travel clinics shows that adherence to prophylactic treatment was low, especially in long duration trips, and that adherence rate could be predicted by the much more available intent-to-adhere

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

150. Blood oxidative stress markers and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune African children. (Full text)

, have not yet been tested for clinical significance. In 349 non-immune Mozambican newborns recruited in a double-blind placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial, oxidative markers including 4-HNE-conjugates and membrane-bound haemoglobin were longitudinally assessed from 2·5 to 24 months of age, at first acute malaria episode and in convalescence. During acute malaria, 4-HNE-conjugates were shown to increase significantly in parasitized and non-parasitized RBCs. In parallel, advanced oxidation (...) Blood oxidative stress markers and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune African children. Converging in vitro evidence and clinical data indicate that oxidative stress may play important roles in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, notably in the pathogenesis of severe anaemia. However, oxidative modifications of the red blood cell (RBC)-membrane by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and haemoglobin-binding, previously hypothesized to contribute mechanistically to the pathogenesis of clinical malaria

2014 British journal of haematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

151. Post-mortem diagnosis of malaria (Full text)

England New Microbes New Infect 101624750 2052-2975 Chemoprophylaxis malaria real-time PCR sudden death 2014 03 22 2014 04 25 2014 05 12 2014 10 31 6 0 2014 10 31 6 0 2014 10 31 6 1 ppublish 25356366 10.1002/nmi2.52 PMC4184481 Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2000 Dec;21(4):366-9 11111799 Infection. 2005 Feb;33(1):33-5 15750758 Int J Legal Med. 2000;113(4):251-2 10929245 Leg Med (Tokyo). 2012 May;14(3):111-5 22369777 J Forensic Sci. 2003 Mar;48(2):404-8 12665001 Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Mar;17(3):469-75 (...) Post-mortem diagnosis of malaria 25356366 2014 10 30 2018 11 13 2052-2975 2 5 2014 Sep New microbes and new infections New Microbes New Infect Post-mortem diagnosis of malaria. 154-5 10.1002/nmi2.52 Palmiere C C University Centre of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Centre and University of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland ; Hospital Centre of Sion Sion, Switzerland. Jaton K K Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Centre and University of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland. Lobrinus

2014 New Microbes and New Infections

152. Effect of Malaria and Geohelminth Infection on Birth Outcomes in Kumasi, Ghana (Full text)

Effect of Malaria and Geohelminth Infection on Birth Outcomes in Kumasi, Ghana In 2005, the Ghana Health Service mandated malaria and helminths chemoprophylaxis during antenatal care visits. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria and helminth infections and their relationship with adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, stillbirth, and preterm) following the implementation of these treatments.A quantitative cross-sectional study.The study was conducted on 630 women (...) presenting for delivery in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the Manhyia District Hospital from July to November 2011. Socio-demographic information and medical and obstetric history were collected. Laboratory analyses for the presence of malaria and helminths were performed. Association of malaria and helminths with birth outcomes was assessed using logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals.The prevalence of malaria, helminths and adverse birth outcomes was 9.0

2014 International journal of tropical disease & health

153. Malaria (Follow-up)

chemoprophylaxis. [ ] Travel Medicine clinics are also a useful source of information and advice. Investigational malaria vaccine Malaria vaccine production and distribution continues to be in the research and development stage. [ , , ] In 2015, European Union (EU) regulators approved the world's first malaria vaccine for use outside the EU among children aged 6 weeks to 17 months. The new vaccine (Mosquirix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), which includes a vaccine for hepatitis B, is awaiting review (...) Malaria (Follow-up) Malaria Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Pharmacologic Therapy, Inpatient Care Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjIxMTM0LXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Malaria

2014 eMedicine.com

154. Malaria (Overview)

with artemisinin combination therapy. These zoonotic malaria species are transmitted by non-usual mosquitoes. Two known species are Anopheles balabacensis and Anopheles dirus . The non-human reservoir and non-usual vectors have the potential to impede malaria control efforts. Risk factors Risk factors for malaria include the following: Residence in, or travel through, a malarious area No previous exposure to malaria (hence no immunity) No chemoprophylaxis or improper chemoprophylaxis Previous Next (...) , being more common when quinine was used for prophylaxis. Other complications of malaria include the following: Pulmonary edema Hyperpyrexia Circulatory collapse (algid malaria) Jaundice Previous Next: Patient Education Advise persons visiting a malarious area regarding chemoprophylaxis and the need to continue the regimen for some weeks after leaving the area. Motivate travelers regarding chemoprophylaxis. Fewer than 20% of people diagnosed with imported malaria in the United States have taken

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

155. Malaria (Treatment)

chloroquine resistance is common. Mefloquine may cause adverse neuropsychiatric reactions and should not be prescribed for prophylaxis in patients with active or recent history of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, psychosis, or schizophrenia or other major psychiatric disorders. [ ] The CDC provides country-specific advice on malaria chemoprophylaxis. Infants younger than 6 weeks should not be administered chemoprophylaxis. In July 2018, the FDA approved tafenoquine, an antiplasmodial 8 (...) Malaria (Treatment) Pediatric Malaria Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Intensive Care, Deterrence and Prevention Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTk4OTQyLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

156. Malaria (Follow-up)

chloroquine resistance is common. Mefloquine may cause adverse neuropsychiatric reactions and should not be prescribed for prophylaxis in patients with active or recent history of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, psychosis, or schizophrenia or other major psychiatric disorders. [ ] The CDC provides country-specific advice on malaria chemoprophylaxis. Infants younger than 6 weeks should not be administered chemoprophylaxis. In July 2018, the FDA approved tafenoquine, an antiplasmodial 8 (...) Malaria (Follow-up) Pediatric Malaria Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Intensive Care, Deterrence and Prevention Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTk4OTQyLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

157. Malaria (Treatment)

chemoprophylaxis. [ ] Travel Medicine clinics are also a useful source of information and advice. Investigational malaria vaccine Malaria vaccine production and distribution continues to be in the research and development stage. [ , , ] In 2015, European Union (EU) regulators approved the world's first malaria vaccine for use outside the EU among children aged 6 weeks to 17 months. The new vaccine (Mosquirix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), which includes a vaccine for hepatitis B, is awaiting review (...) Malaria (Treatment) Malaria Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Pharmacologic Therapy, Inpatient Care Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjIxMTM0LXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Malaria

2014 eMedicine.com

158. Malaria (Diagnosis)

with artemisinin combination therapy. These zoonotic malaria species are transmitted by non-usual mosquitoes. Two known species are Anopheles balabacensis and Anopheles dirus . The non-human reservoir and non-usual vectors have the potential to impede malaria control efforts. Risk factors Risk factors for malaria include the following: Residence in, or travel through, a malarious area No previous exposure to malaria (hence no immunity) No chemoprophylaxis or improper chemoprophylaxis Previous Next (...) , being more common when quinine was used for prophylaxis. Other complications of malaria include the following: Pulmonary edema Hyperpyrexia Circulatory collapse (algid malaria) Jaundice Previous Next: Patient Education Advise persons visiting a malarious area regarding chemoprophylaxis and the need to continue the regimen for some weeks after leaving the area. Motivate travelers regarding chemoprophylaxis. Fewer than 20% of people diagnosed with imported malaria in the United States have taken

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

159. An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. (Full text)

occurred in patients reporting chemoprophylaxis use was higher than for Plasmodium falciparum (OR 7.56; p<0.0001) or P vivax (OR 1.82; p<0.0001).These findings provide the first difference of epidemiological significance observed between the two parasites which cause ovale malaria, and suggest that control measures aimed at P falciparum may not be adequate for reducing the burden of malaria caused by P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri. (...) An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. Ovale malaria is caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasite: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Although clearly distinct genetically, there have been no studies comparing the morphology, life cycle or epidemiology of these parasites. We tested the hypothesis that the two species differ

2013 BMJ open

160. The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. (Full text)

platform: radiation-attenuated sporozoites (irrSPZ), chemoprophylaxis with infectious sporozoites (CPS), and genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs). In all three, SPZ are administered to the vaccinee. All three protect animals against infection when administered by injection with a needle and syringe, and irrSPZ and CPS protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans when P. falciparum SPZ (PfSPZ) are administered by mosquito bite. Metabolically active, nonreplicating (radiation attenuated (...) The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. The whole sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine platform provides the only established approach for inducing high-level sustained protective immunity in humans against malaria. We introduce this platform, highlight literature published since 2011, and discuss the challenges of further development.There are three major approaches to development of a whole parasite vaccine to prevent malaria infection using the SPZ

2013 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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