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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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121. Malaria intervention scale-up in Africa: effectiveness predictions for health programme planning tools, based on dynamic transmission modelling. (PubMed)

in the Spectrum health programme planning tool.The dynamic Plasmodium falciparum transmission model OpenMalaria was used to simulate health effects of scale-up of insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage, indoor residual spraying (IRS), management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CM) and seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) over a 10-year horizon, over a range of settings with stable endemic malaria. Generalized linear regression models (GLMs) were used to summarize determinants of impact across a range of sub (...) Malaria intervention scale-up in Africa: effectiveness predictions for health programme planning tools, based on dynamic transmission modelling. Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue to further important gains made in the past decade, but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. Statistical models were developed summarizing dynamically simulated relations between increases in coverage and intervention impact, to inform a malaria module

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2016 Malaria journal

122. Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC (PubMed)

to share our experience in diagnosing and treating these patients at our institution. We did a retrospective chart review of 37 cases with a documented history of imported malaria from 1998 to 2012. Among them, 16 patients had complicated malaria during that study period, with a mean length of hospital stay of 3.5 days. Most common place of travel was Africa, and chemoprophylaxis was taken by only 11% of patients. Travel history plays a critical role in suspecting the diagnosis and in initiating prompt (...) Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC As endemic malaria is not commonly seen in the United States, most of the cases diagnosed and reported are associated with travel to and from the endemic places of malaria. As the number of imported cases of malaria has been increasing since 1973, it is important to look into these cases to study the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease in the United States. In this study, we would like

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2016 The Korean journal of parasitology

123. Macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides in malaria. (PubMed)

Macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides in malaria. Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the biggest health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The emergence and rapid extension of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to various anti-malarial drugs has gradually limited the potential malaria therapeutics available to clinicians. In this context, macrolides and associated antibiotics (...) based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides constitute an interesting alternative in the treatment of malaria. These molecules, whose action spectrum is similar to that of tetracyclines, are typically administered to children and pregnant women. Recent studies have examined the effects of azithromycin and the lincosamide clindamycin, on isolates from different continents. Azithromycin and clindamycin are effective and well tolerated in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in combination

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2016 Malaria journal

124. Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection. (PubMed)

Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection. Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary diagnostic test.1691 diagnostic blood samples were analysed by microscopy and qPCR from 115 volunteers (55 malaria (...) naïve and 60 having received chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization) who were challenged by five mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites of the NF54 strain.Retrospective analysis of different qPCR criteria for diagnosis and treatment, showed that once daily qPCR (threshold 100 parasites/ml) had 99 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity, and shortened the median prepatent period from 10.5 to 7.0 days after CHMI when compared to twice daily measurement of thick blood smears

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2016 Malaria journal

125. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. (PubMed)

Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more (...) surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed

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2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

126. Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. (PubMed)

advice but also for the control of malaria in India and Pakistan. A reduced incidence of vivax malaria in travellers may mean further areas of South Asia can be considered not to need malaria chemoprophylaxis.© Broderick et al 2015. (...) Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. To examine temporal and geographical trends, risk factors, and seasonality of imported vivax malaria in the United Kingdom to inform clinical advice and policy.Observational study.National surveillance data from the UK Public Health England Malaria Reference Laboratory, data from the International Passenger Survey

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2015 BMJ

127. Diagnosis and Treatment Malaria in Pregnancy

Diagnosis and Treatment Malaria in Pregnancy The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy Green–top Guideline No. 54b April 2010RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 54b 2 of 29 © Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy This is the first edition of this guideline. 1. Purpose and scope The aim of this guideline is to provide clinicians with up-to-date, evidence-based information on the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (...) , in situations that are likely to be encountered in UK medical practice. For initial rapid assessment and management, see Appendix 1. 2. Background Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in humans and is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with approximately 1500 cases reported each year and rising, apart from 2008. 1 Approximately 75% of cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and there is an average of 5–15 deaths a year (mortality rate approximately 0.5–1.0%). 1

2010 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

128. Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria

Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria Clinical question What is the most effective and safest prophylactic anti- malarial for non-immune adults and children travelling to regions with Plasmodium falciparum resistance (...) to chloroquine? Bottom line Atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline were well tolerated by most travellers, and they were less likely than mefloquine to cause neuropsychiatric adverse events. Chloroquine-proguanil caused more gastrointestinal adverse events than other chemoprophylaxis. In other respects, the common unwanted effects of currently available drugs were similar. There was no evidence from head-to-head comparisons to support primaquine use as primary prophylaxis for travellers. The choice of whether

2011 Cochrane PEARLS

129. Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

. Chronic use of antibiotics with antimalarial effects. History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. Any history of malaria. Planned travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine(s) including latex. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by chloroquine. History of psoriasis and porphyria, which may be exacerbated after chloroquine treatment (...) Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results

2013 Clinical Trials

130. Imported malaria including HIV and pregnant woman risk groups: overview of the case of a Spanish city 2004-2014. (PubMed)

Imported malaria including HIV and pregnant woman risk groups: overview of the case of a Spanish city 2004-2014. Arrival of inmigrants from malaria endemic areas has led to a emergence of cases of this parasitic disease in Spain. The objective of this study was to analyse the high incidence rate of imported malaria in Fuenlabrada, a city in the south of Madrid, together with the frequent the lack of chemoprophylaxis, for the period between 2004 and 2014. Both pregnant women and HIV risk groups (...) have been considered.Retrospective descriptive study of laboratory-confirmed malaria at the Fuenlabrada University Hospital, in Madrid, during a 10-year period (2004-2014). These data were obtained reviewing medical histories of the cases. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and laboratory results were analysed, with focus on the following risk groups: pregnant women and individuals with HIV.A total of 185 cases were diagnosed (90.3 % Plasmodium falciparum). The annual incidence rate was 11.9

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2015 Malaria journal

131. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru. (PubMed)

species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine. (...) Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru. We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both

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2015 Journal of Travel Medicine

132. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force (PubMed)

Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury

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2015 Journal of parasitology research

133. Review: provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works?

), pre/post studies, time series, and post-only evaluations with a control group, were eligible. Studies of chemoprophylaxis, mass drug administration, traveller health or severe malaria (only) were excluded. Most of the user populations in the included studies were children aged under five years and (if relevant) their caretakers. The studies targeted diverse groups, most of whom were providers, either in the public (governmental) or the private (for-profit or non-governmental) sector. Providers (...) Review: provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works? Review: provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works? Review: provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works? Smith L A, Jones C, Meek S, Webster J CRD summary The authors concluded that there was little

2009 DARE.

134. Recommendations for malaria prevention in moderate to low risk areas: travellers' choice and risk perception. (PubMed)

Recommendations for malaria prevention in moderate to low risk areas: travellers' choice and risk perception. The considerable malaria decline in several countries challenges the strategy of chemoprophylaxis for travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk areas. An international consensus on the best strategy is lacking. It is essential to include travellers' opinions in the decision process. The preference of travellers regarding malaria prevention for moderate- to low-risk areas, related (...) to their risk perception, as well as the reasons for their choices were investigated.Prior to pre-travel consultation in the Travel Clinic, a self-administered questionnaire was given to travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk malaria areas. Four preventive options were proposed to the traveller, i.e., bite prevention only, chemoprophylaxis, stand-by emergency treatment alone, and stand-by emergency treatment with rapid diagnostic test. The information was accompanied by a risk scale for incidence

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2015 Malaria journal

135. Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis for travellers' malaria is problematic. Decision modeling may help determine optimal prevention strategies for travellers' malaria. Such models can fully assess effect of drug use and disease on quality of life, and help travellers make informed values based decisions. Such models require utility values reflecting societal preferences over different health states of relevance. To date (...) , there are no published utility values relating to clinical malaria or chemoprophylaxis adverse events.Utility estimates for health states related to falciparum malaria, sequelae and drug-related adverse events were obtained using a self-administered visual analogue scale in 20 individuals. Utility values for health states related to clinical malaria were obtained from a survey of 11 malaria experts questioned about length of hospital stay or equivalent disability with simple and severe travellers' malaria.The

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2010 Malaria journal

136. Chemoprophylaxis of Homozygous Sicklers with Antimalarials and Long-acting Penicillin (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of Homozygous Sicklers with Antimalarials and Long-acting Penicillin 14305376 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0007-1447 2 5453 1965 Jul 10 British medical journal Br Med J CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS OF HOMOZYGOUS SICKLERS WITH ANTIMALARIALS AND LONG-ACTING PENICILLIN. 86-8 WARLEY M A MA HAMILTON P J PJ MARSDEN P D PD BROWN R E RE MERSELIS J G JG WILKS N N eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Antimalarials 0 Delayed-Action Preparations 0 Ethylenediamines 0 Placebos 886U3H6UFF (...) Chloroquine C659VZ7P7T benzathine Q42T66VG0C Penicillin G RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine OM Adolescent Anemia Anemia, Sickle Cell Antimalarials Biomedical Research Chemoprevention Child Chloroquine Delayed-Action Preparations Drug Therapy Ethylenediamines Fingers Humans Infant Inflammation Malaria Penicillin G Penicillin G Benzathine Placebos Preventive Medicine Respiratory Tract Infections Statistics as Topic Toes Uganda ADOLESCENCE ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL CHILD CHLOROQUINE CLINICAL RESEARCH DELAYED

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1965 British medical journal

137. Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of the Malaria Vaccine Candidates Falciparum Merozoite Protein-1 (FMP1) and SmithKlineBeecham (SKBB) Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S

of malaria ever, or use of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination Known exposure to malaria within the past 12 months or planned travel to malarious area during the study period Confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive or immunodeficient condition Family history of congenital or hereditary immunodeficiency History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine Chronic or active neurologic disease including seizures History of splenectomy (...) Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of the Malaria Vaccine Candidates Falciparum Merozoite Protein-1 (FMP1) and SmithKlineBeecham (SKBB) Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of the Malaria Vaccine Candidates Falciparum Merozoite Protein-1 (FMP1) and SmithKlineBeecham (SKBB) Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x

2012 Clinical Trials

138. Idiopathic acute myocarditis during treatment for controlled human malaria infection: a case report. (PubMed)

Idiopathic acute myocarditis during treatment for controlled human malaria infection: a case report. A 23-year-old healthy male volunteer took part in a clinical trial in which the volunteer took chloroquine chemoprophylaxis and received three intradermal doses at four-week intervals of aseptic, purified Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites to induce protective immunity against malaria. Fifty-nine days after the last administration of sporozoites and 32 days after the last dose of chloroquine (...) the volunteer underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by the bites of five P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes. Eleven days post-CHMI a thick blood smear was positive (6 P. falciparum/μL blood) and treatment was initiated with atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone®). On the second day of treatment, day 12 post-CHMI, troponin T, a marker for cardiac tissue damage, began to rise above normal, and reached a maximum of 1,115 ng/L (upper range of normal = 14 ng/L) on day 16 post-CHMI. The volunteer had one

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2014 Malaria journal

139. Summary of recommendations on malaria issues in special hosts (PubMed)

chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis for pregnant and breastfeeding women and for children requires careful consideration in the context of the pregnancy trimester, the age or size of the infant/child as well as their glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status. Recommendations for long-term travellers, expatriates and people visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) do not differ markedly from those for short-term travellers. Some underlying medical conditions may make individuals more vulnerable to malaria (...) Summary of recommendations on malaria issues in special hosts On behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) developed the Canadian Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria Among International Travellers for Canadian health care providers who are preparing patients for travel to malaria-endemic areas and treating travellers who have returned ill.To provide guidelines on malaria issues related to special

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2014 Canada Communicable Disease Report

140. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. (PubMed)

Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98 (...) (24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5

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2014 Tropical Doctor

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