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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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121. Malaria intervention scale-up in Africa: effectiveness predictions for health programme planning tools, based on dynamic transmission modelling. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the Spectrum health programme planning tool.The dynamic Plasmodium falciparum transmission model OpenMalaria was used to simulate health effects of scale-up of insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage, indoor residual spraying (IRS), management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CM) and seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) over a 10-year horizon, over a range of settings with stable endemic malaria. Generalized linear regression models (GLMs) were used to summarize determinants of impact across a range of sub (...) Malaria intervention scale-up in Africa: effectiveness predictions for health programme planning tools, based on dynamic transmission modelling. Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue to further important gains made in the past decade, but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. Statistical models were developed summarizing dynamically simulated relations between increases in coverage and intervention impact, to inform a malaria module

2016 Malaria journal

122. Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection. Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary diagnostic test.1691 diagnostic blood samples were analysed by microscopy and qPCR from 115 volunteers (55 malaria (...) naïve and 60 having received chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization) who were challenged by five mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites of the NF54 strain.Retrospective analysis of different qPCR criteria for diagnosis and treatment, showed that once daily qPCR (threshold 100 parasites/ml) had 99 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity, and shortened the median prepatent period from 10.5 to 7.0 days after CHMI when compared to twice daily measurement of thick blood smears

2016 Malaria journal

123. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), but the incidence remained high until December. Surprisingly, the risk of clinical malaria was two- to nine-fold higher among children 5-9 years old compared to younger children.A shift in the peak of clinical episodes from children under 5-9 years of age calls for expanding control interventions, such as seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis targeting the peak transmission months. (...) Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali. Malaria transmission in Mali is seasonal and peaks at the end of the rainy season in October. This study assessed the seasonal variations in the epidemiology of malaria among children under 10 years of age living in two villages in Selingué: Carrière, located along the Sankarani River but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice

2016 Malaria journal

124. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine. Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine

2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

125. Epidemiological and entomological studies of a malaria outbreak among French armed forces deployed at illegal gold mining sites reveal new aspects of the disease's transmission in French Guiana. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiological and entomological studies of a malaria outbreak among French armed forces deployed at illegal gold mining sites reveal new aspects of the disease's transmission in French Guiana. In December 2010, a Plasmodium vivax malaria outbreak occurred among French forces involved in a mission to control illegal gold mining in French Guiana. The findings of epidemiological and entomological investigations conducted after this outbreak are presented here.Data related to malaria cases (...) and P. vivax were tested by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR.Seventy-two P. vivax malaria cases were reported (three were mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections), leading to a global attack rate of 26.5% (72/272). Lack of compliance with vector control measures and doxycycline chemoprophylaxis was reported by patients. Two illegal gold mining sites located in remote areas in the primary forest were identified as places of contamination. In all, 595 Anopheles females were

2016 Malaria journal

126. UK Malaria Treatment Guidelines 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species (...) UK Malaria Treatment Guidelines 2016. 1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused

2016 Journal of Infection

127. Macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides in malaria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides in malaria. Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the biggest health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The emergence and rapid extension of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to various anti-malarial drugs has gradually limited the potential malaria therapeutics available to clinicians. In this context, macrolides and associated antibiotics (...) based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides constitute an interesting alternative in the treatment of malaria. These molecules, whose action spectrum is similar to that of tetracyclines, are typically administered to children and pregnant women. Recent studies have examined the effects of azithromycin and the lincosamide clindamycin, on isolates from different continents. Azithromycin and clindamycin are effective and well tolerated in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in combination

2016 Malaria journal

128. Antibody profiles to plasmodium merozoite surface protein-1 in Cambodian adults during an active surveillance cohort with nested treatment study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibody profiles to plasmodium merozoite surface protein-1 in Cambodian adults during an active surveillance cohort with nested treatment study. In addition to evidence for a protective role of antibodies to the malaria blood stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), MSP1 antibodies are also considered as a marker of past malaria exposure in sero-epidemiological studies.In order to better assess the potential use of MSP1 serology in malaria chemoprophylaxis trials in endemic areas (...) , an analysis for the prevalence of antibodies to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax MSP142 in healthy Cambodian adults was conducted at two sites as part of an active, observational cohort evaluating the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for uncomplicated malaria (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01280162).Rates of baseline sero-positivity were high (59 and 73% for PfMSP142 and PvMSP142, respectively), and titers higher in those who lived in a higher transmission area, although

2016 Malaria journal

129. Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC Full Text available with Trip Pro

to share our experience in diagnosing and treating these patients at our institution. We did a retrospective chart review of 37 cases with a documented history of imported malaria from 1998 to 2012. Among them, 16 patients had complicated malaria during that study period, with a mean length of hospital stay of 3.5 days. Most common place of travel was Africa, and chemoprophylaxis was taken by only 11% of patients. Travel history plays a critical role in suspecting the diagnosis and in initiating prompt (...) Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC As endemic malaria is not commonly seen in the United States, most of the cases diagnosed and reported are associated with travel to and from the endemic places of malaria. As the number of imported cases of malaria has been increasing since 1973, it is important to look into these cases to study the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease in the United States. In this study, we would like

2016 The Korean journal of parasitology

130. Type I Interferons Regulate Immune Responses in Humans with Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

function and parasitic-specific CD4+ T cell IFNγ production, and they promoted the development of parasitic-specific IL-10-producing Th1 (Tr1) cells. Type I IFN-dependent, parasite-specific IL-10 production was also observed in P. falciparum malaria patients in the field following chemoprophylaxis. Parasite-induced IL-10 suppressed inflammatory cytokine production, and IL-10 levels after drug treatment were positively associated with parasite burdens before anti-parasitic drug administration (...) Type I Interferons Regulate Immune Responses in Humans with Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection The development of immunoregulatory networks is important to prevent disease. However, these same networks allow pathogens to persist and reduce vaccine efficacy. Here, we identify type I interferons (IFNs) as important regulators in developing anti-parasitic immunity in healthy volunteers infected for the first time with Plasmodium falciparum. Type I IFNs suppressed innate immune cell

2016 Cell reports

131. Evidence of triple mutant Pfdhps ISGNGA haplotype in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from North-east India: An analysis of sulfadoxine resistant haplotype selection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence of triple mutant Pfdhps ISGNGA haplotype in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from North-east India: An analysis of sulfadoxine resistant haplotype selection North-east region of India has consistent role in the spread of multi drug resistant Plasmodium (P.) falciparum to other parts of Southeast Asia. After rapid clinical treatment failure of Artemisinin based combination therapy-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine (ACT-SP) chemoprophylaxis, Artemether-Lumefantrine (ACT-AL) combination therapy (...) was introduced in the year 2012 in this region for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. In a DNA sequencing based polymorphism analysis, seven codons of P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) gene were screened in a total of 127 P. falciparum isolates collected from Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura of North-east India during the year 2014 and 2015 to document current sulfadoxine resistant haplotypes.Sequences were analyzed to rearrange both nucleotide and protein haplotypes

2016 Genomics data

132. Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Decision Aid for the Management of Fever by International Travelers

of these febrile illness episodes. Its objective is to evaluate the clinical use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) by travelers or their peers during travel, as a decision aid for the management of febrile illness in the tropics. If the study demonstrates that malaria can be ruled out safely by travelers themselves using a RDT, a combination of self/peer testing with SBET may become an alternative to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Fever (...) Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Decision Aid for the Management of Fever by International Travelers Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Decision Aid for the Management of Fever by International Travelers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2016 Clinical Trials

133. A Challenge Study to Assess the Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Malaria Vaccine Candidate

Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of the Blood-stage Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Vaccine Candidate RH5.1/AS01 Actual Study Start Date : October 17, 2016 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Active Comparator: Group 1-Phase Ia The study is designed to assess a 'standard (...) steroids are allowed. Administration of long-acting immune-modifying drugs at any time during the study period (e.g. infliximab). Chronic use of antibiotics with antimalarial effects (e.g. tetracyclines for dermatologic patients, sulfa for recurrent urinary tract infections, etc.). History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine. Any history of anaphylaxis in relation

2016 Clinical Trials

134. Epidemiology and clinical features of imported malaria in East London. Full Text available with Trip Pro

described and risk factors associated with severe falciparum malaria were explored.In total, 133 patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria were identified including three requiring critical care admission but no deaths. The median age at presentation was 41 years (IQR 30-50). The majority of patients were males (64.7%, 86/133) and had Black or Black British ethnicity (67.5%, 79/117). West Africa was the most frequent region of travel (70.4%, 76/108). Chemoprophylaxis use was poor (25.3%, 20/79 (...) ). The interval between arriving in the UK and presenting to hospital was short (median 10 days; IQR 5-15.5, n = 84). July-September was the peak season of presentation (34.6%, 46/133). Plasmodium falciparum was the commonest species (76.7%, 102/133) and 31.4% (32/102) of these patients had parasitaemia >2%. Severe falciparum malaria was documented in 36.3% (37/102) of patients and the October-March season presentation was associated with an increased risk of severity (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.30-6.93). Black

2016 Journal of Travel Medicine

135. The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon. Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study (...) population.In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis. Complete blood count was performed using an automated haematology analyser (Mindray®, BC-2800) and CD4 (+) T cell count was performed using a flow cytometer (BD FASCount™). Giemsa-stained blood films were examined to detect malaria parasite. The Pearson's chi-square, student's T-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were all performed as part

2016 BMC Public Health

136. Diagnosis and Treatment Malaria in Pregnancy

, in situations that are likely to be encountered in UK medical practice. For initial rapid assessment and management, see Appendix 1. 2. Background Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in humans and is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with approximately 1500 cases reported each year and rising, apart from 2008. 1 Approximately 75% of cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and there is an average of 5–15 deaths a year (mortality rate approximately 0.5–1.0%). 1 (...) , Kwiek JJ, et al. A randomized controlled pilot trial of azithromycin or artesunate added to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine as treatment for malaria in pregnant women. PLoS ONE 2007;2:e1166. 42. McGready R, Tan SO, Ashley EA, Pimanpanarak M, Viladpai- Nguen J, Phaiphun L, et al. A randomised controlled trial of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate for uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum treatment in pregnancy. PLoS Med 2008;5:e253. 43. Mutabingwa TK, Muze K, Ord R, Briceno M, Greenwood BM, Drakeley C

2010 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

137. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from (...) incubation period varying from three to 12 months and were returned travellers from Brazilian Amazonian states (6) and Indonesia (1). None of them had taken malarial chemoprophylaxis.The authors emphasize that considering malaria as a possible cause of febrile syndrome should be a post-travel routine, independent of the time elapsed after exposure in the transmission area, even in the absence of malaria chemoprophylaxis. They speculate that, since there is no current and detailed information about

2011 Malaria journal

138. Chemoprophylaxis of Homozygous Sicklers with Antimalarials and Long-acting Penicillin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemoprophylaxis of Homozygous Sicklers with Antimalarials and Long-acting Penicillin 14305376 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0007-1447 2 5453 1965 Jul 10 British medical journal Br Med J CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS OF HOMOZYGOUS SICKLERS WITH ANTIMALARIALS AND LONG-ACTING PENICILLIN. 86-8 WARLEY M A MA HAMILTON P J PJ MARSDEN P D PD BROWN R E RE MERSELIS J G JG WILKS N N eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Antimalarials 0 Delayed-Action Preparations 0 Ethylenediamines 0 Placebos 886U3H6UFF (...) Chloroquine C659VZ7P7T benzathine Q42T66VG0C Penicillin G RIT82F58GK Penicillin G Benzathine OM Adolescent Anemia Anemia, Sickle Cell Antimalarials Biomedical Research Chemoprevention Child Chloroquine Delayed-Action Preparations Drug Therapy Ethylenediamines Fingers Humans Infant Inflammation Malaria Penicillin G Penicillin G Benzathine Placebos Preventive Medicine Respiratory Tract Infections Statistics as Topic Toes Uganda ADOLESCENCE ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL CHILD CHLOROQUINE CLINICAL RESEARCH DELAYED

1965 British medical journal

139. Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

21 days (3 weeks) after the booster dose (Booster Phase Study Day 21). Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Number of Subjects With Plasmodium Falciparum Parasitemia Defined by a Positive Blood Slide, Following Sporozoite Challenge [ Time Frame: 28 days post-challenge (Study Day 245) ] The definition of malaria for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes is the appearance of asexual blood stage P. falciparum parasites detected by blood slide at any time post challenge/rechallenge up (...) With Plasmodium Falciparum Parasitemia Defined by a Positive Blood Slide, Following Sporozoite Rechallenge [ Time Frame: Up to 28 days post rechallenge (Booster Phase Day 49) ] The definition of malaria infection for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes is the appearance of asexual blood stage P. falciparum parasites detected by blood slide at any time post challenge/rechallenge up to 28 days. Time to Onset of P. Falciparum Parasitemia Infection Defined by a Positive Blood Slide, Following Sporozoite

2013 Clinical Trials

140. Safety, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Intradermal Immunization with Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Volunteers Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Intradermal Immunization with Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Volunteers Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Immunization of volunteers under chloroquine prophylaxis by bites of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ)-infected mosquitoes induces > 90% protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). We studied intradermal immunization with cryopreserved, infectious (...) PfSPZ in volunteers taking chloroquine (PfSPZ chemoprophylaxis vaccine [CVac]). Vaccine groups 1 and 3 received 3× monthly immunizations with 7.5 × 10(4) PfSPZ. Control groups 2 and 4 received normal saline. Groups 1 and 2 underwent CHMI (#1) by mosquito bite 60 days after the third immunization. Groups 3 and 4 were boosted 168 days after the third immunization and underwent CHMI (#2) 137 days later. Vaccinees (11/20, 55%) and controls (6/10, 60%) had the same percentage of mild to moderate

2015 The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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