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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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101. Malaria after international travel: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016. (PubMed)

with severe malaria; 31 children had severe malaria. Twelve travellers died.Malaria remains a serious threat to international travellers. Efforts must focus on preventive strategies aimed on children and VFRs, and chemoprophylaxis access and preventive measure adherence should be emphasized. (...) Malaria after international travel: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016. More than 30,000 malaria cases are reported annually among international travellers. Despite improvements in malaria control, malaria continues to threaten travellers due to inaccurate perception of risk and sub-optimal pre-travel preparation.Records with a confirmed malaria diagnosis after travel from January 2003 to July 2016 were obtained from GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network of travel and tropical medicine

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2017 Malaria journal

102. Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century. (PubMed)

contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis. (...) Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century. Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29

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2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

103. Efficacy of standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in Improving Iron Status of Adults in Malaria Endemic Area: A Randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

when concurrently used with malaria chemoprophylaxis in malaria endemic areas.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Efficacy of standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in Improving Iron Status of Adults in Malaria Endemic Area: A Randomized controlled trial. Indigenous community of Mkuranga district have been using aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. for treating anemia. However, there have been neither safety nor efficacy studies to validate this medicinal product in anemia.The purpose of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L

2017 Journal of Ethnopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

104. The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. (PubMed)

The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use (...) of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after tetracycline and was labelled with the same side-effects as the earlier tetracyclines. However, recent studies report little or no effects of doxycycline on tooth staining

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2017 Malaria journal

105. Antibiotics in malaria therapy: which antibiotics except tetracyclines and macrolides may be used against malaria? (PubMed)

Antibiotics in malaria therapy: which antibiotics except tetracyclines and macrolides may be used against malaria? Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the most significant health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of individual chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy remain a major area of research, and new drug molecules are constantly being developed before drug-resistant parasites strains emerge. The use of anti-malarial drugs (...) is challenged by contra-indications, the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas, clinical tolerance and financial cost. New therapeutic approaches are currently needed to fight against this disease. Some antibiotics that have shown potential effects on malaria parasite have been recently studied in vitro or in vivo intensively. Two families, tetracyclines and macrolides and their derivatives have been particularly studied in recent years. However, other less well-known have been

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2016 Malaria journal

106. Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific. (PubMed)

Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific. Significant progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden in the Asia Pacific region, which is aggressively pursuing a 2030 regional elimination goal. Moving from malaria control to elimination requires National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) to target interventions at populations at higher risk, who are often not reached by health services, highly mobile (...) and difficult to test, treat, and track with routine measures, and if undiagnosed, can maintain parasite reservoirs and contribute to ongoing transmission.A qualitative, free-text questionnaire was developed and disseminated among 17 of the 18 partner countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN).All 14 countries that responded to the survey identified key populations at higher risk of malaria in their respective countries. Thirteen countries engage in the dissemination of malaria

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2016 Malaria journal

107. The risk of imported malaria in security forces personnel returning from overseas missions in the context of prevention of re-introduction of malaria to Sri Lanka. (PubMed)

falciparum and two cases of Plasmodium ovale.This study investigated the knowledge and practices regarding malaria chemoprophylaxis among all the Sri Lankan security forces personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in malaria endemic countries over a 7 month period. Adherence to other malaria prevention measures, occurrence of adverse events and incident cases of malaria were also recorded maintaining the anonymity of the respondents. Potential associations for non-compliance were studied.Interviews (...) were carried out with 559 security forces personnel returning home from foreign deployments in malaria-endemic regions (males: 550, 98.4 %). The majority (553, 98.9 %) was well aware of the need for chemoprophylaxis during the overseas stay and its regular use as prescribed. The overall adherence to chemoprophylaxis was good with 78.7 % (440/559) reporting regular, as prescribed, use. Having better educational qualifications, being female, being prescribed mefloquine, having fever during deployment

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2016 Malaria journal

108. Distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at Korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. (PubMed)

Distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at Korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. As a result of the reintroduction of malaria in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 and the threat to military and civilian populations, the Korea Military National Defense (MND) increased emphasis on vector control in 2012 at ROK Army (ROKA) installations located near the DMZ, while decreasing chemoprophylaxis, fearing potential drug resistance. Mosquito (...) surveillance demonstrated a need for continuous monitoring of disease patterns among ROKA soldiers and vector malaria infection rates to ensure positive outcomes.Anopheles spp. were collected from May-October at three ROKA installations in three locations near the DMZ. Each of the areas included one installation <2 km and two installations 11-12 km from the DMZ in Paju and Yeoncheon counties, Gyeonggi Province. Anopheles spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and then assayed

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2016 Malaria journal

109. Malaria prophylaxis

, mefloquine, proguanil, Malarone® (atovaquone-proguanil combination) and doxycycline. Choice of medication for effective chemoprophylaxis is guided by the existing patterns of parasite resistance in the area of travel, the possibility of adverse maternal side effects and patient-specific medical history. Please refer to the specific UKTIS monographs on individual antimalarials for further information. Considering the maternal and fetal risks posed by gestational malaria infection, antimalarials should (...) Malaria prophylaxis MALARIA PROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 MALARIA PROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: February 2019 , Version: 3 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite, Plasmodium

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

110. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. (PubMed)

Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more (...) surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed

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2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

111. Malaria

Presentation within the first month of return from travel to endemic region Delayed presentation beyond 2 months may occur with the use of chemoprophylaxis Initial prodrome Malaise Next (>50% of patients) Shaking chills Next Drowsiness Lethargy Other symptoms Myalgias More severe in Muscle tenderness More severe in and s Back pain VI. Signs for 1-8 hours recurs Plasmodium Vivax: 48 hour intervals (Tertian Fever) Plasmodium Malariae: 72 hour intervals (Quartan Fever) Plasmodium Falciparum: Variable (...) when patient is febrile Image Rapid blood dipstick testing (when smear not available) Tests HRP-2 detection (only detects P. falciparum) LDH detection (detects all 4 Malaria types) Precautions Decreased with low levels of mia Examples: Patients who took chemoprophylaxis, or prior exposure Negative rapid tests should be confirmed with blood smears Malaria PCR Detects low levels of parsites in blood (<5 s/ul) Distinguishes between plasmodium species May be used to monitor response to treatment at 5-8

2018 FP Notebook

112. Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. (PubMed)

advice but also for the control of malaria in India and Pakistan. A reduced incidence of vivax malaria in travellers may mean further areas of South Asia can be considered not to need malaria chemoprophylaxis.© Broderick et al 2015. (...) Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. To examine temporal and geographical trends, risk factors, and seasonality of imported vivax malaria in the United Kingdom to inform clinical advice and policy.Observational study.National surveillance data from the UK Public Health England Malaria Reference Laboratory, data from the International Passenger Survey

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2015 BMJ

113. Diagnosis and Treatment Malaria in Pregnancy

Diagnosis and Treatment Malaria in Pregnancy The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy Green–top Guideline No. 54b April 2010RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 54b 2 of 29 © Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy This is the first edition of this guideline. 1. Purpose and scope The aim of this guideline is to provide clinicians with up-to-date, evidence-based information on the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (...) , in situations that are likely to be encountered in UK medical practice. For initial rapid assessment and management, see Appendix 1. 2. Background Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in humans and is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with approximately 1500 cases reported each year and rising, apart from 2008. 1 Approximately 75% of cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and there is an average of 5–15 deaths a year (mortality rate approximately 0.5–1.0%). 1

2010 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

114. Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session

per day compared to 9.0/100,000 in rural Aweil, where access to appropriate healthcare is more difficult. One strategy to deliver malaria treatment, which MSF has early on implemented in multiple sites, is seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC). SMC consists of This regimen works in regions with seasonal malaria, generally those where >60% of the annual rainfall occurs over a 3 month period. : 24.9 north of the equator (Sahel region) and 14.1 south of the equator (East and South Africa (...) Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session | PLOS Blogs Network PLOS Blogs Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Diverse perspectives on science and medicine Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life

2017 PLOS Blogs Network

115. Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria

Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They Limited evidence on most effective prophylaxis for chloroquine-resistant malaria Clinical question What is the most effective and safest prophylactic anti- malarial for non-immune adults and children travelling to regions with Plasmodium falciparum resistance (...) to chloroquine? Bottom line Atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline were well tolerated by most travellers, and they were less likely than mefloquine to cause neuropsychiatric adverse events. Chloroquine-proguanil caused more gastrointestinal adverse events than other chemoprophylaxis. In other respects, the common unwanted effects of currently available drugs were similar. There was no evidence from head-to-head comparisons to support primaquine use as primary prophylaxis for travellers. The choice of whether

2011 Cochrane PEARLS

116. Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

. Chronic use of antibiotics with antimalarial effects. History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. Any history of malaria. Planned travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine(s) including latex. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by chloroquine. History of psoriasis and porphyria, which may be exacerbated after chloroquine treatment (...) Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine 257049 in the Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results

2013 Clinical Trials

117. Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC (PubMed)

to share our experience in diagnosing and treating these patients at our institution. We did a retrospective chart review of 37 cases with a documented history of imported malaria from 1998 to 2012. Among them, 16 patients had complicated malaria during that study period, with a mean length of hospital stay of 3.5 days. Most common place of travel was Africa, and chemoprophylaxis was taken by only 11% of patients. Travel history plays a critical role in suspecting the diagnosis and in initiating prompt (...) Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC As endemic malaria is not commonly seen in the United States, most of the cases diagnosed and reported are associated with travel to and from the endemic places of malaria. As the number of imported cases of malaria has been increasing since 1973, it is important to look into these cases to study the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease in the United States. In this study, we would like

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2016 The Korean journal of parasitology

118. UK Malaria Treatment Guidelines 2016. (PubMed)

be considered. 23. An acute attack of malaria does not confer protection from future attacks: individuals who have had malaria should take effective anti-mosquito precautions and chemoprophylaxis during future visits to endemic areas.Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) UK Malaria Treatment Guidelines 2016. 1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused

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2016 Journal of Infection

119. Epidemiology and clinical features of imported malaria in East London. (PubMed)

described and risk factors associated with severe falciparum malaria were explored.In total, 133 patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria were identified including three requiring critical care admission but no deaths. The median age at presentation was 41 years (IQR 30-50). The majority of patients were males (64.7%, 86/133) and had Black or Black British ethnicity (67.5%, 79/117). West Africa was the most frequent region of travel (70.4%, 76/108). Chemoprophylaxis use was poor (25.3%, 20/79 (...) Epidemiology and clinical features of imported malaria in East London. Malaria is the most common imported tropical disease in the United Kingdom (UK). The overall mortality is low but inter-regional differences have been observed.We conducted a 2-year retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with malaria attending three acute hospitals in East London from 1 April 2013 through 31 March 2015. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported malaria were

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2016 Journal of Travel Medicine

120. The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon. (PubMed)

The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon. Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study (...) population.In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis. Complete blood count was performed using an automated haematology analyser (Mindray®, BC-2800) and CD4 (+) T cell count was performed using a flow cytometer (BD FASCount™). Giemsa-stained blood films were examined to detect malaria parasite. The Pearson's chi-square, student's T-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were all performed as part

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2016 BMC Public Health

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