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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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101. Malaria Surveillance — United States, 2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malaria Surveillance — United States, 2014 Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products (...) confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2

2017 MMWR Surveillance Summaries

102. The need for preventive and curative services for malaria when the military is deployed in endemic overseas territories: a case study and lessons learned Full Text available with Trip Pro

also conducted.One hundred twenty male Air Force personnel were interviewed (out of a group of 122 officers and airmen). All participants were deployed in the CAR for 14 months and were aware of the existence of chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The majority of the subjects (92.5%, 111/120) also knew that prophylaxis should be started prior to departure. However, the regular use of chemoprophylaxis was reported by only 61.7% (74/120) of the sample. Overall, 30.8% of the participants (37/120) had 44 (...) symptomatic episodes of malaria during deployment, and one person succumbed to severe malaria. All cases were associated with noncompliance with chemoprophylaxis.Better coordination with overseas healthcare services and the establishment of directly observed chemoprophylaxis may help to avoid similar outbreaks in the future.

2017 Military Medical Research

103. Prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

of prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria.A 35-year-old Chinese male suffered 2 days of febrile illness after returning to Zhumadian city of Henan province from Nigeria on October 1, 2014. The main symptoms were febrile, including the highest axillary temperature of 40 °C, headache, and chills. A peripheral blood smear showed parasitemia (53 913 asexual parasites/μl) of Plasmodium falciparum. The patient had not used any (...) chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Nigeria when he worked there as a construction worker between 2009 and 2014. The patient had three episodes of malaria in Nigeria and had a splenectomy due to a traffic accident 8 years ago from the time he was admitted to hospital. The patient was orally administrated a total of 320 mg/2.56 g dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 2 days and intravenously administrated a total of 3 000 mg artesunate for 18 days. The axillary temperature of the patient ranged between 37.0

2017 Infectious diseases of poverty

104. The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use (...) of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after tetracycline and was labelled with the same side-effects as the earlier tetracyclines. However, recent studies report little or no effects of doxycycline on tooth staining

2017 Malaria journal

105. An intricate case of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolate imported from Cambodia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An intricate case of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolate imported from Cambodia. Imported cases of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and treatment failure with artemisinin-based regimens, although rare, have been described also in Western countries and their management is often challenging. This is also due to an inadequate knowledge and implementation of health prevention measures.A complex case of imported malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax/P. falciparum isolates (...) in a patient who was not taking chemoprophylaxis while he was travelling in Cambodia is reported in this article. After failures of artemisinin-based and both oral and intravenous quinine-based regimens, a multidrug resistant P. falciparum was detected. The patient was successfully treated with atovaquone-proguanil.This experience highlights the importance of a careful management that should be based not only on the most up-to-date guidelines, but also on the awareness of a rapidly evolving scenario.

2017 Malaria journal

106. Antibiotics in malaria therapy: which antibiotics except tetracyclines and macrolides may be used against malaria? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics in malaria therapy: which antibiotics except tetracyclines and macrolides may be used against malaria? Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the most significant health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of individual chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy remain a major area of research, and new drug molecules are constantly being developed before drug-resistant parasites strains emerge. The use of anti-malarial drugs (...) is challenged by contra-indications, the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas, clinical tolerance and financial cost. New therapeutic approaches are currently needed to fight against this disease. Some antibiotics that have shown potential effects on malaria parasite have been recently studied in vitro or in vivo intensively. Two families, tetracyclines and macrolides and their derivatives have been particularly studied in recent years. However, other less well-known have been

2016 Malaria journal

107. The risk of imported malaria in security forces personnel returning from overseas missions in the context of prevention of re-introduction of malaria to Sri Lanka. Full Text available with Trip Pro

falciparum and two cases of Plasmodium ovale.This study investigated the knowledge and practices regarding malaria chemoprophylaxis among all the Sri Lankan security forces personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in malaria endemic countries over a 7 month period. Adherence to other malaria prevention measures, occurrence of adverse events and incident cases of malaria were also recorded maintaining the anonymity of the respondents. Potential associations for non-compliance were studied.Interviews (...) The risk of imported malaria in security forces personnel returning from overseas missions in the context of prevention of re-introduction of malaria to Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is a malaria-free country. However it remains surrounded by countries with endemic malaria transmission. Since the last indigenous case of malaria was reported in October 2012, only imported malaria cases have been diagnosed with 36 cases detected in 2015, which includes 17 cases each of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium

2016 Malaria journal

108. Pre-infection administration of asiatic acid retards parasitaemia induction in Plasmodium berghei murine malaria infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-infection administration of asiatic acid retards parasitaemia induction in Plasmodium berghei murine malaria infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Malaria prevention has remained a critical area in the absence of efficacious vaccines against malaria. Drugs currently used as chemotherapeutics are also used in chemoprophylaxis increasing possible drug resistance. Asiatic acid is a natural phytochemical with oxidant, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with emerging anti-malarial potential (...) preserved food and water intake as well as increase in percentage weight gain of infected animals. In pre-infection treated animals, the pre-patent period was extended to day 6 from 72 h. Asiatic acid suppressed parasitaemia while oral chloroquine (30 mg/kg) did not influence malaria induction.Per-oral, pre-infection, asiatic acid administration influenced parasitaemia patency and parasitaemia progression, food, water, and weight gain percentage. This may suggest possible chemoprophylaxis effects

2016 Malaria journal

109. Distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at Korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at Korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. As a result of the reintroduction of malaria in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 and the threat to military and civilian populations, the Korea Military National Defense (MND) increased emphasis on vector control in 2012 at ROK Army (ROKA) installations located near the DMZ, while decreasing chemoprophylaxis, fearing potential drug resistance. Mosquito (...) for the presence of vivax malaria sporozoites. The ROK MND reported vivax malaria patients monthly to Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Correlations for the incidence of Plasmodium vivax patients and infected Anopheles species were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Pearson correlation test and liner regression analysis.A total of 4282 Anopheles spp. were collected. Anopheles kleini (69.5 %) was the most commonly collected, followed by Anopheles pullus (17.3 %), Anopheles belenrae (4.5

2016 Malaria journal

110. Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific. Significant progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden in the Asia Pacific region, which is aggressively pursuing a 2030 regional elimination goal. Moving from malaria control to elimination requires National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) to target interventions at populations at higher risk, who are often not reached by health services, highly mobile (...) and difficult to test, treat, and track with routine measures, and if undiagnosed, can maintain parasite reservoirs and contribute to ongoing transmission.A qualitative, free-text questionnaire was developed and disseminated among 17 of the 18 partner countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN).All 14 countries that responded to the survey identified key populations at higher risk of malaria in their respective countries. Thirteen countries engage in the dissemination of malaria

2016 Malaria journal

111. Malaria prophylaxis

Malaria prophylaxis MALARIA PROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 MALARIA PROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: February 2019 , Version: 3 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite, Plasmodium (...) , mefloquine, proguanil, Malarone® (atovaquone-proguanil combination) and doxycycline. Choice of medication for effective chemoprophylaxis is guided by the existing patterns of parasite resistance in the area of travel, the possibility of adverse maternal side effects and patient-specific medical history. Please refer to the specific UKTIS monographs on individual antimalarials for further information. Considering the maternal and fetal risks posed by gestational malaria infection, antimalarials should

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

112. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more (...) surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed

2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

113. Malaria

Presentation within the first month of return from travel to endemic region Delayed presentation beyond 2 months may occur with the use of chemoprophylaxis Initial prodrome Malaise Next (>50% of patients) Shaking chills Next Drowsiness Lethargy Other symptoms Myalgias More severe in Muscle tenderness More severe in and s Back pain VI. Signs for 1-8 hours recurs Plasmodium Vivax: 48 hour intervals (Tertian Fever) Plasmodium Malariae: 72 hour intervals (Quartan Fever) Plasmodium Falciparum: Variable (...) when patient is febrile Image Rapid blood dipstick testing (when smear not available) Tests HRP-2 detection (only detects P. falciparum) LDH detection (detects all 4 Malaria types) Precautions Decreased with low levels of mia Examples: Patients who took chemoprophylaxis, or prior exposure Negative rapid tests should be confirmed with blood smears Malaria PCR Detects low levels of parsites in blood (<5 s/ul) Distinguishes between plasmodium species May be used to monitor response to treatment at 5-8

2018 FP Notebook

114. Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and international climactic data.All confirmed and notified cases of malaria in the UK (n=50,187) from 1987 to 2013, focusing on 12,769 cases of vivax malaria.Mortality, sociodemographic details (age, UK region, country of birth and residence, and purpose of travel), destination, and latency (time between arrival in the UK and onset of symptoms).Of the malaria cases notified, 25.4% (n=12,769) were due to Plasmodium vivax, of which 78.6% were imported from India and Pakistan. Most affected patients (53.5%) had (...) advice but also for the control of malaria in India and Pakistan. A reduced incidence of vivax malaria in travellers may mean further areas of South Asia can be considered not to need malaria chemoprophylaxis.© Broderick et al 2015.

2015 BMJ

115. Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session

per day compared to 9.0/100,000 in rural Aweil, where access to appropriate healthcare is more difficult. One strategy to deliver malaria treatment, which MSF has early on implemented in multiple sites, is seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC). SMC consists of This regimen works in regions with seasonal malaria, generally those where >60% of the annual rainfall occurs over a 3 month period. : 24.9 north of the equator (Sahel region) and 14.1 south of the equator (East and South Africa (...) Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session Epicentre/ Médecins Sans Frontières Scientific Day 2017: Research and Discussion from the Malaria Session | PLOS Blogs Network PLOS Blogs Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Diverse perspectives on science and medicine Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life

2017 PLOS Blogs Network

116. Doxycycline for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Treatment: Report from the CDC Expert Meeting on Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Doxycycline for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Treatment: Report from the CDC Expert Meeting on Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. Doxycycline, a synthetically derived tetracycline, is a partially efficacious causal prophylactic (liver stage of Plasmodium) drug and a slow acting blood schizontocidal agent highly effective for the prevention of malaria. When used in conjunction with a fast acting schizontocidal agent, it is also highly effective for malaria treatment. Doxycycline is especially useful (...) as a prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although not recommended for pregnant women and children < 8 years of age, severe adverse events are rarely reported for doxycycline. This report examines the evidence behind current recommendations for the use of doxycycline for malaria and summarizes the available literature on its safety and tolerability.

2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

117. An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

occurred in patients reporting chemoprophylaxis use was higher than for Plasmodium falciparum (OR 7.56; p<0.0001) or P vivax (OR 1.82; p<0.0001).These findings provide the first difference of epidemiological significance observed between the two parasites which cause ovale malaria, and suggest that control measures aimed at P falciparum may not be adequate for reducing the burden of malaria caused by P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri. (...) An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency. Ovale malaria is caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasite: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Although clearly distinct genetically, there have been no studies comparing the morphology, life cycle or epidemiology of these parasites. We tested the hypothesis that the two species differ

2013 BMJ open

118. Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria ex Pakistan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria ex Pakistan. According to WHO, 1.5 million cases of malaria are reported annually in Pakistan. Malaria distribution in Pakistan is heterogeneous, and some areas, including Punjab, are considered at low risk for malaria. The aim of this study is to describe the trend of imported malaria cases from Pakistan reported to the international surveillance systems from 2005 to 2012.Clinics reporting malaria cases acquired after a stay in Pakistan between January 1, 2005 (...) in Pakistan were retrieved in six countries over three continents. A statistically significant increasing trend in imported Plasmodium vivax malaria cases acquired in Pakistan, particularly for those exposed in Punjab, was observed over time (p = 0.006).Our observation may herald a variation in malaria incidence in the Punjab province of Pakistan. This is in contrast with the previously described decreasing incidence of malaria in travelers to the Indian subcontinent, and with reports that describe Punjab

2014 Journal of Travel Medicine

119. Impact of age of first exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of age of first exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique. The impact of the age of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify (...) of infected erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Factors affecting antibody responses in relation to chemoprophylaxis and malaria incidence were evaluated.Generally, antibody responses did not vary significantly between exposure groups except for levels of IgM to EBA-175, and seropositivity of IgG1 and IgG3 to MSP-1(19). Previous and current malaria infections were strongly associated with increased IgG against MSP-1(19), EBA-175 and AMA-1 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for exposure, only higher levels of anti

2014 Malaria journal Controlled trial quality: predicted high

120. Blood oxidative stress markers and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune African children. (Abstract)

Blood oxidative stress markers and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune African children. Converging in vitro evidence and clinical data indicate that oxidative stress may play important roles in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, notably in the pathogenesis of severe anaemia. However, oxidative modifications of the red blood cell (RBC)-membrane by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and haemoglobin-binding, previously hypothesized to contribute mechanistically to the pathogenesis of clinical malaria (...) , have not yet been tested for clinical significance. In 349 non-immune Mozambican newborns recruited in a double-blind placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial, oxidative markers including 4-HNE-conjugates and membrane-bound haemoglobin were longitudinally assessed from 2·5 to 24 months of age, at first acute malaria episode and in convalescence. During acute malaria, 4-HNE-conjugates were shown to increase significantly in parasitized and non-parasitized RBCs. In parallel, advanced oxidation

2014 British journal of haematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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