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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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81. A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. (PubMed)

A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. The effect of timing of exposure to first Plasmodium falciparum infections during early childhood on the induction of innate and adaptive cytokine responses and their contribution to the development of clinical malaria immunity is not well established.As part of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in Mozambique using monthly chemoprophylaxis (...) of age.Higher pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-6, TNF) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine concentrations during the second year of life were associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria up to 4 years of age, adjusting by chemoprophylaxis and prior malaria exposure. Significantly lower concentrations of antigen-specific TH1 (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-) and TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) cytokines by 2 years of age were measured in children under chemoprophylaxis compared to children receiving placebo (p<0.03).Selective

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

82. Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. (PubMed)

and treat); (3) SUFI + indoor residual spraying (IRS); (4) SUFI + seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC); and, (5) SUFI + SMC + IRS. This study estimates the cost effectiveness of each of these packages to provide the NMCP with data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making.This study is a retrospective analysis for the period 2013-2014 covering all 76 Senegal districts. The yearly implementation cost for each intervention was estimated and the information was aggregated (...) Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. Senegal's National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) implements control interventions in the form of targeted packages: (1) scale-up for impact (SUFI), which includes bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, rapid diagnostic tests, and artemisinin combination therapy; (2) SUFI + reactive case investigation (focal test

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2018 Malaria journal

83. High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting: comparison of diagnostic tools and patient outcome during a four-year survey (2013-2017). (PubMed)

except 6. Plasmodial DNA was revealed in the 87 cases and in 2 additional cases showing P. falciparum-specific bands by ICT, as follows: 75 P. falciparum, 2 P. vivax, 6 P. ovale curtisi, 3 P. ovale wallikeri, 1 P. malariae, and 2 mixed infections. 72 patients were foreigners and 17 Italians travelling for tourism or business. The majority of these patients presented with fever at blood collection and did not have chemoprophylaxis. No fatal cases were observed and the drug mostly used was quinine (...) High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting: comparison of diagnostic tools and patient outcome during a four-year survey (2013-2017). Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy since 1970 when the World Health Organization declared Italy malaria-free, but it is now the most commonly imported disease. The aim of the study was to analyse the trend of imported malaria cases in Parma, Italy, during January 2013-June 2017, reporting also the treatment and the outcome of cases, exploring

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2018 Malaria journal

84. Status of imported malaria on Réunion Island in 2016. (PubMed)

analysed according to historical data and to the exchanges with malaria-affected areas (estimated by airport data).Form 2013 to 2016, 95 imported malaria cases have been detected in Reunion Island: 42% of cases occurred in the area of repartition of Anopheles arabiensis, but Anopheles mosquitoes were present only around seven cases including one gametocyte carrier. No autochthonous or introduced case has occurred during this period. The lack of chemoprophylaxis or poor adherence was found (...) , which travel to malaria endemic countries (mainly Madagascar) to visit their friends and relatives (VFRs) represent a high-risk group of contracting malaria. VFRs, low adherence to pre-travel recommendations, in particular, the compliance on the use of chemoprophylaxis are the main drivers of imported malaria in Reunion Island. Furthermore as previously described, some general practitioners in Reunion Island are always not sufficiently aware of the official recommendations for prescriptions

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2018 Malaria journal

85. Changes in malaria epidemiology in Germany, 2001-2016: a time series analysis. (PubMed)

malaria infections were reportedly acquired in Thailand between 2012 and 2016. Total numbers of malaria notifications among native Germans and residents with migration background showed an increasing trend since 2007. Chemoprophylaxis use was reported for 24.3% (1695/6984) of cases and showed a declining trend. Native German cases took significantly more frequently chemoprophylaxis than cases with migration background (32.6% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001).The steep rise in vivax malaria notifications in 2014 (...) and 2015 was mainly due to newly arriving refugees from Eritrea but also from other countries of the Horn of Africa and South Asia. Clinicians should include malaria in their differential diagnosis in case of a febrile illness in the respective population and consider vivax malaria even if arrival to Germany dates back several months. Over the past 10 years, malaria notifications among native Germans and residents with migration background showed an increasing trend. Use of chemoprophylaxis

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2018 Malaria journal

86. Safety and Protective Efficacy of IV Immunization With Cryopreserved PfSPZ Under A/P Chemoprophylaxis

, healthy, malaria naïve volunteers will receive three injections by Direct Venous Inoculation (DVI) of either placebo (n = 10), 51,200 PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) (n = 10), or 150,000 PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) (n = 10) under chemoprophylaxis with A/P at 4 week intervals. The placebo will be NaCl 0.9%. Ten weeks after the last dose of PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) for immunization, volunteers will undergo first CHMI and followed until asexual blood stage parasitemia, detected by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR (...) chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) at 4 week intervals Drug: atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) Combination drug for chemo-prophylaxis or treatment of malaria Other Name: Malarone Biological: PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) cryo-preserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites injected by venous inoculation Experimental: 150,000 PfSPZ Three injections of 150,000 PfSPZ Challenge (P. falciparum strain: NF54) under chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) at 4 week intervals

2016 Clinical Trials

87. Target Antigens Induced by Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoite Immunization Under Chemoprophylaxis

with a homologous parasite by immunization with Plasmodium parasites while taking chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (ChemoProphylaxis and Sporozoites, CPS-immunization). The unprecedented efficacy of CPS-immunization makes it a unique model to identify pre-erythrocytic target antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine. Identification of antigens that play a significant role in the development of sterile protection against malaria will provide a basis for the development and evaluation of more effective sub (...) Target Antigens Induced by Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoite Immunization Under Chemoprophylaxis Target Antigens Induced by Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoite Immunization Under Chemoprophylaxis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one

2014 Clinical Trials

88. Safety and Protective Efficacy of Intravenous Immunization With Cryopreserved Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chemoprophylaxis

: Benjamin Mordmüller, MD Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tuebingen More Information Go to Publications of Results: Layout table for additonal information Responsible Party: Sanaria Inc. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: TUCHMI-002 2013-003900-38 ( EudraCT Number ) First Posted: April 16, 2014 Last Update Posted: May 15, 2017 Last Verified: February 2016 Keywords provided by Sanaria Inc.: Malaria Plasmodium falciparum malaria Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis PfSPZ (...) Safety and Protective Efficacy of Intravenous Immunization With Cryopreserved Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chemoprophylaxis Safety and Protective Efficacy of Intravenous Immunization With Cryopreserved Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chemoprophylaxis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning

2014 Clinical Trials

89. Chemoprophylaxis and Plasmodium Falciparum NF54 Sporozoite Immunization Challenged by Heterologous Infection

countries. Ultimately, the key to malaria control, and hopefully eradication, would be an effective vaccine. Though a number of vaccine-candidates have entered the pipeline of pre-clinical and clinical development, they have yet to achieve the level of efficacy necessary for effective malaria prevention. It has been shown previously that if healthy human volunteers taking chloroquine chemoprophylaxis are repeatedly exposed to Plasmodium parasites through the bites of infected mosquitoes, they are fully (...) protected against a later challenge infection with a 'homologous' (genetically similar) Plasmodium parasite. This process is known as ChemoProphylaxis and Sporozoites, or CPS-immunization. One of the obstacles to developing an effective vaccine is the genetic heterogeneity of malaria parasites. To further consider the development of whole-parasite based vaccines against malaria and in order to better understand the protective immunity induced by CPS-immunization, it is essential to investigate whether

2014 Clinical Trials

90. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan. (PubMed)

% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (...) Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan. Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY

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2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

91. Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Pyrimethamine Chemoprophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac Approach): Phase 1 Trial to Determine Safety and Protective Efficacy of Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Concurrent Pyrimethamine Treatment That Inhibits Development of Asexual B...

. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria Drug: Chloroquine (CQ) Drug: Pyrimethamine (PYR) Biological: Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) Phase 1 Detailed Description: Human studies have shown that immunization by the bite PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes under drug coverage with chloroquine, an approach called chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites (CPS), infection treatment vaccination (ITV), or chemoprophylaxis vaccination (CVac) can provide high level, long term protection against homologous (...) will contribute to understanding the targets and mechanisms of immunity against Pf malaria infection. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 57 participants Allocation: Non-Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Pyrimethamine Chemoprophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac Approach): Phase 1 Trial to Determine Safety and Protective

2015 Clinical Trials

92. Tropical Travel Trouble 007 Mega Malaria Extravaganza

as new safety data is about to emerge). To eradicate P. ovale and P. vivax in pregnant or breast feeding women, consider weekly chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine until delivery and breastfeeding is complete, on the basis of G6PD status treat with primaquine to prevent a future relapse. Children < 5kg get dosed at 5kg for ACT. HIV patients , avoid artesunate + SP if on co-trimoxazole. Or artesunate + amodiaquine if they are also on efavirenz or zidovudine. HIV patient Severe Malaria: Intravenous (...) Tropical Travel Trouble 007 Mega Malaria Extravaganza Mega Malaria Extravaganza • LITFL • Tropical Traveler Clinical Cases Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog Search LITFL ... | | | Mega Malaria Extravaganza , last update March 1, 2019 aka 007 When you think tropical medicine, malaria has to be near the top. It can be fairly complex and fortunately treatment has become a lot simpler. This post is designed to walk you through the basic principals with links to more

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

93. Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine. (PubMed)

-attenuated, cryopreserved PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Vaccine'); or by infectious PfSPZ inoculated by mosquitoes to volunteers taking chloroquine or mefloquine (chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites). We assessed immunization by direct venous inoculation of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved, non-irradiated PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Challenge') to malaria-naive, healthy adult volunteers taking chloroquine for antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (vaccine approach denoted as PfSPZ-CVac). Three doses of 5.12 × 104 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Challenge at 28 (...) Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine. A highly protective malaria vaccine would greatly facilitate the prevention and elimination of malaria and containment of drug-resistant parasites. A high level (more than 90%) of protection against malaria in humans has previously been achieved only by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) inoculated by mosquitoes; by intravenous injection of aseptic, purified, radiation

2017 Nature Controlled trial quality: uncertain

94. Malaria Surveillance — United States, 2014 (PubMed)

% reported that they initiated and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-two cases were among pregnant women, none of whom had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 17.0% were classified as severe illness, and five persons with malaria died. CDC received 137 P. falciparum-positive samples for the detection of antimalarial resistance markers (although some loci for chloroquine and mefloquine were untestable for up (...) cases and prevent infections. VFR travelers continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFR travelers need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact on the number of imported malaria cases in the United States. Fewer U.S. resident patients reported taking chemoprophylaxis in 2014 (27.2%) compared with 2013 (28.6%), and adherence was poor among those who did take

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2017 MMWR Surveillance Summaries

95. Prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria (PubMed)

chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Nigeria when he worked there as a construction worker between 2009 and 2014. The patient had three episodes of malaria in Nigeria and had a splenectomy due to a traffic accident 8 years ago from the time he was admitted to hospital. The patient was orally administrated a total of 320 mg/2.56 g dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 2 days and intravenously administrated a total of 3 000 mg artesunate for 18 days. The axillary temperature of the patient ranged between 37.0 (...) Prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria The spleen plays a pivotal role in the rapid clearance of parasitized red blood cells in patients with falciparum malaria after artemisinin treatment. Prolonged parasite clearance can be found in patients who have had a splenectomy, or those with hemoglobin abnormalities and/or reduced immunity, which are all distinguishable from artemisinin resistance. This paper reports on a case

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2017 Infectious diseases of poverty

96. The need for preventive and curative services for malaria when the military is deployed in endemic overseas territories: a case study and lessons learned (PubMed)

also conducted.One hundred twenty male Air Force personnel were interviewed (out of a group of 122 officers and airmen). All participants were deployed in the CAR for 14 months and were aware of the existence of chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The majority of the subjects (92.5%, 111/120) also knew that prophylaxis should be started prior to departure. However, the regular use of chemoprophylaxis was reported by only 61.7% (74/120) of the sample. Overall, 30.8% of the participants (37/120) had 44 (...) symptomatic episodes of malaria during deployment, and one person succumbed to severe malaria. All cases were associated with noncompliance with chemoprophylaxis.Better coordination with overseas healthcare services and the establishment of directly observed chemoprophylaxis may help to avoid similar outbreaks in the future.

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2017 Military Medical Research

97. Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study. (PubMed)

Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study. Guidelines in several European countries recommend standby emergency treatment (SBET) for travellers to regions with low or medium malaria transmission instead of continuous chemoprophylaxis: travellers are advised to seek medical assistance within 24 h in case of fever and to self-administer SBET only if they are not able to consult a doctor (...) within the time period specified. Data on healthcare-seeking behaviour of febrile travellers and utilization of SBET is however scarce as only two studies were performed in the mid-1990s. Since tourism is constantly increasing and malaria epidemiology has dramatically changed in the meantime more knowledge is urgently needed.Some 876 travellers to destinations in South and Southeast Asia with low or medium malaria transmission were recruited in the travel clinic of the University Medical Center

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2017 Malaria journal

98. Grammomys surdaster, the Natural Host for Plasmodium berghei Parasites, as a Model to Study Whole-Organism Vaccines against Malaria. (PubMed)

-organism vaccines to induce sterile immunity, and compared the thicket rat model to conventional mouse models. Using P. berghei ANKA radiation-attenuated sporozoites, and P. berghei ANKA and P. yoelii chemoprophylaxis vaccination approaches, we found that standard doses of vaccine sufficient to protect laboratory mice for a long duration against malaria challenge, are insufficient to protect thicket rats, which require higher doses of vaccine to achieve even short-term sterile immunity. Thicket rats (...) Grammomys surdaster, the Natural Host for Plasmodium berghei Parasites, as a Model to Study Whole-Organism Vaccines against Malaria. AbstractInbred mice are commonly used to test candidate malaria vaccines, but have been unreliable for predicting efficacy in humans. To establish a more rigorous animal model, we acquired African woodland thicket rats of the genus Grammomys, the natural hosts for Plasmodium berghei. Thicket rats were acquired and identified as Grammomys surdaster by skull

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2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

99. A report of cerebral malaria treated with automated red blood cell exchange. (PubMed)

A report of cerebral malaria treated with automated red blood cell exchange. Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated (...) with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement.An 84-year-old Somali woman presented with a 3-day history of altered mental status, spiking fevers, chills, bilateral leg pain and weakness, and intermittent diarrhea. Her travel history included a recent trip to Kenya for 1 month without antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. During the hospital stay, her health declined, and she became obtunded. Physical examination revealed fever, tachypnea, hypertension, hypoxia, and no response

2017 Transfusion

100. Epidemiological and clinical assessment of a shared territorial malaria guideline in the 10 years of its implementation (Barcelona, North Metropolitan Area, Catalonia, Spain, 2007-2016). (PubMed)

Epidemiological and clinical assessment of a shared territorial malaria guideline in the 10 years of its implementation (Barcelona, North Metropolitan Area, Catalonia, Spain, 2007-2016). Malaria remains a major source of morbi-mortality among travellers. In 2007, a consensual multicenter Primary Care-Hospital shared guideline on travel-prior chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis and clinical management of imported malaria was set up in the Barcelona North Metropolitan area. The aim of the study (...) (13.7%) as well as those with prescribed chemoprophylaxis (10%). Severe malaria was diagnosed in 34 (17.9%) patients and ICU admittance was required in 2.6% of them. Organ sequelae (two renal failures and one post-acute distress respiratory syndrome) were recorded in 3 patients at hospital discharge, although all three were recovered at 30 days. None of the patients died. Patients complying with severity criteria were significantly males (p = 0.04), came from Africa (p = 0.02), were mainly non

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2017 Malaria journal

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