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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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81. Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and treat); (3) SUFI + indoor residual spraying (IRS); (4) SUFI + seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC); and, (5) SUFI + SMC + IRS. This study estimates the cost effectiveness of each of these packages to provide the NMCP with data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making.This study is a retrospective analysis for the period 2013-2014 covering all 76 Senegal districts. The yearly implementation cost for each intervention was estimated and the information was aggregated (...) Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. Senegal's National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) implements control interventions in the form of targeted packages: (1) scale-up for impact (SUFI), which includes bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, rapid diagnostic tests, and artemisinin combination therapy; (2) SUFI + reactive case investigation (focal test

2018 Malaria journal

82. High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting: comparison of diagnostic tools and patient outcome during a four-year survey (2013-2017). Full Text available with Trip Pro

the comparison of the three diagnostic tests used for malaria diagnosis: microscopy, immunochromatographic assay (ICT) (BinaxNOW®) and Real-time PCR assays detecting Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium knowlesi.Of the 288 patients with suspected malaria, 87 were positive by microscopy: 73 P. falciparum, 2 P. vivax, 8 P. ovale, 1 P. vivax/P. ovale, 1 P. malariae and 2 Plasmodium sp. All samples were positive by ICT (...) except 6. Plasmodial DNA was revealed in the 87 cases and in 2 additional cases showing P. falciparum-specific bands by ICT, as follows: 75 P. falciparum, 2 P. vivax, 6 P. ovale curtisi, 3 P. ovale wallikeri, 1 P. malariae, and 2 mixed infections. 72 patients were foreigners and 17 Italians travelling for tourism or business. The majority of these patients presented with fever at blood collection and did not have chemoprophylaxis. No fatal cases were observed and the drug mostly used was quinine

2018 Malaria journal

83. A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. The effect of timing of exposure to first Plasmodium falciparum infections during early childhood on the induction of innate and adaptive cytokine responses and their contribution to the development of clinical malaria immunity is not well established.As part of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in Mozambique using monthly chemoprophylaxis (...) of age.Higher pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-6, TNF) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine concentrations during the second year of life were associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria up to 4 years of age, adjusting by chemoprophylaxis and prior malaria exposure. Significantly lower concentrations of antigen-specific TH1 (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-) and TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) cytokines by 2 years of age were measured in children under chemoprophylaxis compared to children receiving placebo (p<0.03).Selective

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

84. Long-acting injectable atovaquone nanomedicines for malaria prophylaxis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-acting injectable atovaquone nanomedicines for malaria prophylaxis Chemoprophylaxis is currently the best available prevention from malaria, but its efficacy is compromised by non-adherence to medication. Here we develop a long-acting injectable formulation of atovaquone solid drug nanoparticles that confers long-lived prophylaxis against Plasmodium berghei ANKA malaria in C57BL/6 mice. Protection is obtained at plasma concentrations above 200 ng ml-1 and is causal, attributable to drug (...) activity against liver stage parasites. Parasites that appear after subtherapeutic doses remain atovaquone-sensitive. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis indicates protection can translate to humans at clinically achievable and safe drug concentrations, potentially offering protection for at least 1 month after a single administration. These findings support the use of long-acting injectable formulations as a new approach for malaria prophylaxis in travellers and for malaria control in the field.

2018 Nature communications

85. Persistence of imported Malaria into the UK: an epidemiological review of risk factors and at risk groups. Full Text available with Trip Pro

% respectively. 60% of patients took no prophylaxis. Of those that did, none of the patients finished their chemoprophylaxis regime.A significant number of travellers to malarious countries still take no chemoprophylaxis. Health advice about prophylaxis pre-travel to malarious countries should be targeted not only at those visiting family in their country of origin but also to those travelling for holiday and work/business. (...) Persistence of imported Malaria into the UK: an epidemiological review of risk factors and at risk groups. The UK documented a fall of over 30% in imported cases of malaria annually between 1996-2003 however there are still around 1700 cases and 5-10 deaths each year. Prophylaxis health messages focus on families returning to their country of origin as being at particular risk.We reviewed 225 paper records including demographic data of patients seen in Addenbrooke's hospital (Cambridge

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

86. Safety and Protective Efficacy of IV Immunization With Cryopreserved PfSPZ Under A/P Chemoprophylaxis

chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) at 4 week intervals Drug: atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) Combination drug for chemo-prophylaxis or treatment of malaria Other Name: Malarone Biological: PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) cryo-preserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites injected by venous inoculation Experimental: 150,000 PfSPZ Three injections of 150,000 PfSPZ Challenge (P. falciparum strain: NF54) under chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) at 4 week intervals (...) Drug: atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) Combination drug for chemo-prophylaxis or treatment of malaria Other Name: Malarone Biological: PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) cryo-preserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites injected by venous inoculation Placebo Comparator: Placebo Three injections of NaCl 0,9% solution under chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) at 4 week intervals Drug: atovaquone/proguanil 250mg/100mg (A/P) Combination drug for chemo-prophylaxis or treatment

2016 Clinical Trials

87. Trial Evaluating Chemoprophylaxis Against Travelers' Diarrhea

Trial Evaluating Chemoprophylaxis Against Travelers' Diarrhea Trial Evaluating Chemoprophylaxis Against Travelers' Diarrhea - Prevent TD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Trial Evaluating (...) Chemoprophylaxis Against Travelers' Diarrhea - Prevent TD The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02498301 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : July 15, 2015 Last Update Posted : January 21, 2019 See Sponsor

2015 Clinical Trials

88. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac) confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites (SPZ) under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ) induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to SPZ and T-cell responses to liver stage (LS) parasites (...) . The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on LS parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb LS development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium

2015 Frontiers in microbiology

89. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (...) Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan. Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY

2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

90. Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Pyrimethamine Chemoprophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac Approach): Phase 1 Trial to Determine Safety and Protective Efficacy of Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Concurrent Pyrimethamine Treatment That Inhibits Development of Asexual B...

. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria Drug: Chloroquine (CQ) Drug: Pyrimethamine (PYR) Biological: Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge (NF54) Phase 1 Detailed Description: Human studies have shown that immunization by the bite PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes under drug coverage with chloroquine, an approach called chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites (CPS), infection treatment vaccination (ITV), or chemoprophylaxis vaccination (CVac) can provide high level, long term protection against homologous (...) will investigate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy following liver stage only parasite exposure of direct venous inoculation (DVI) with aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge), under chloroquine and pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis, to induce stage specific sterile protection. By adding pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis to chloroquine, liver stages will develop but should be killed before merozoites are released into the blood

2015 Clinical Trials

91. Tropical Travel Trouble 007 Mega Malaria Extravaganza

Malaria is a protozoan parasite transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito. Like many vectors in tropical medicine it is the female who is responsible, they require blood meals in order to produce their eggs. Males feed exclusively on fruit. There are 5 types known to infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum (most dangerous form and associated with death). Plasmodium vivax (causes relapsing fevers due to hypnozoites that hide in the liver). Plasmodium ovale (causes relapsing fevers due to hypnozoites (...) that hide in the liver). Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi appear identical under microscopy and require PCR to differentiate them. Q2. What is the life cycle of malaria? Answer and interpretation Malaria Life Cycle Q3. Where are the different types of malaria, and why is this important to know for my patient? Answer and interpretation Falciparum: throughout tropics, sub-Saharan Africa, SE Asia and S.America. Vivax: Central/S America, African horn, India/Pakistan, SE Asia. Ovale: Only in West

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

92. Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study. Guidelines in several European countries recommend standby emergency treatment (SBET) for travellers to regions with low or medium malaria transmission instead of continuous chemoprophylaxis: travellers are advised to seek medical assistance within 24 h in case of fever and to self-administer SBET only if they are not able to consult a doctor (...) within the time period specified. Data on healthcare-seeking behaviour of febrile travellers and utilization of SBET is however scarce as only two studies were performed in the mid-1990s. Since tourism is constantly increasing and malaria epidemiology has dramatically changed in the meantime more knowledge is urgently needed.Some 876 travellers to destinations in South and Southeast Asia with low or medium malaria transmission were recruited in the travel clinic of the University Medical Center

2017 Malaria journal

93. A report of cerebral malaria treated with automated red blood cell exchange. (Abstract)

A report of cerebral malaria treated with automated red blood cell exchange. Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated (...) with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement.An 84-year-old Somali woman presented with a 3-day history of altered mental status, spiking fevers, chills, bilateral leg pain and weakness, and intermittent diarrhea. Her travel history included a recent trip to Kenya for 1 month without antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. During the hospital stay, her health declined, and she became obtunded. Physical examination revealed fever, tachypnea, hypertension, hypoxia, and no response

2017 Transfusion

94. Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine. (Abstract)

Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine. A highly protective malaria vaccine would greatly facilitate the prevention and elimination of malaria and containment of drug-resistant parasites. A high level (more than 90%) of protection against malaria in humans has previously been achieved only by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) inoculated by mosquitoes; by intravenous injection of aseptic, purified, radiation (...) -attenuated, cryopreserved PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Vaccine'); or by infectious PfSPZ inoculated by mosquitoes to volunteers taking chloroquine or mefloquine (chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites). We assessed immunization by direct venous inoculation of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved, non-irradiated PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Challenge') to malaria-naive, healthy adult volunteers taking chloroquine for antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (vaccine approach denoted as PfSPZ-CVac). Three doses of 5.12 × 104 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Challenge at 28

2017 Nature Controlled trial quality: uncertain

95. Modelling the benefits of long-acting or transmission-blocking drugs for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission by case management or by mass treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modelling the benefits of long-acting or transmission-blocking drugs for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission by case management or by mass treatment. Anti-malarial drugs are an important tool for malaria control and elimination. Alongside their direct benefit in the treatment of disease, drug use has a community-level effect, clearing the reservoir of infection and reducing onward transmission of the parasite. Different compounds potentially have different impacts on transmission (...) -with some providing periods of prolonged chemoprophylaxis whilst others have greater transmission-blocking potential. The aim was to quantify the relative benefit of such properties for transmission reduction to inform target product profiles in the drug development process and choice of first-line anti-malarial treatment in different endemic settings.A mathematical model of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology was used to estimate the transmission reduction that can be achieved by using drugs of varying

2017 Malaria journal

96. Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection (...) against heterologous strains.We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 clones. Cellular and humoral immune assays were performed as well as genetic characterization of the parasite clones.NF54-CPS immunization

2017 BMC Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

97. Efficacy of standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in Improving Iron Status of Adults in Malaria Endemic Area: A Randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

when concurrently used with malaria chemoprophylaxis in malaria endemic areas.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Efficacy of standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in Improving Iron Status of Adults in Malaria Endemic Area: A Randomized controlled trial. Indigenous community of Mkuranga district have been using aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. for treating anemia. However, there have been neither safety nor efficacy studies to validate this medicinal product in anemia.The purpose of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L

2017 Journal of Ethnopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

98. Malaria after international travel: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with severe malaria; 31 children had severe malaria. Twelve travellers died.Malaria remains a serious threat to international travellers. Efforts must focus on preventive strategies aimed on children and VFRs, and chemoprophylaxis access and preventive measure adherence should be emphasized. (...) Malaria after international travel: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016. More than 30,000 malaria cases are reported annually among international travellers. Despite improvements in malaria control, malaria continues to threaten travellers due to inaccurate perception of risk and sub-optimal pre-travel preparation.Records with a confirmed malaria diagnosis after travel from January 2003 to July 2016 were obtained from GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network of travel and tropical medicine

2017 Malaria journal

99. Epidemiological and clinical assessment of a shared territorial malaria guideline in the 10 years of its implementation (Barcelona, North Metropolitan Area, Catalonia, Spain, 2007-2016). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiological and clinical assessment of a shared territorial malaria guideline in the 10 years of its implementation (Barcelona, North Metropolitan Area, Catalonia, Spain, 2007-2016). Malaria remains a major source of morbi-mortality among travellers. In 2007, a consensual multicenter Primary Care-Hospital shared guideline on travel-prior chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis and clinical management of imported malaria was set up in the Barcelona North Metropolitan area. The aim of the study (...) is to assess the evolution of malaria cases in the area as well as its clinical management over the 10 years of its implementation.A total of 190 malaria cases, all them imported, have been recorded. The overall estimated malaria crude incidence was of 0.47 cases per 10,000 population/year (95% CI 0.34-0.59) with a slight significant positive slope especially at the expense of an increase in Indian sub-continent Plasmodium vivax cases. The number of patients who attended the pre-travel consultation was low

2017 Malaria journal

100. Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century. Full Text available with Trip Pro

contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis. (...) Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century. Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

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