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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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61. Changes in malaria epidemiology in Germany, 2001-2016: a time series analysis. (PubMed)

malaria infections were reportedly acquired in Thailand between 2012 and 2016. Total numbers of malaria notifications among native Germans and residents with migration background showed an increasing trend since 2007. Chemoprophylaxis use was reported for 24.3% (1695/6984) of cases and showed a declining trend. Native German cases took significantly more frequently chemoprophylaxis than cases with migration background (32.6% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001).The steep rise in vivax malaria notifications in 2014 (...) and 2015 was mainly due to newly arriving refugees from Eritrea but also from other countries of the Horn of Africa and South Asia. Clinicians should include malaria in their differential diagnosis in case of a febrile illness in the respective population and consider vivax malaria even if arrival to Germany dates back several months. Over the past 10 years, malaria notifications among native Germans and residents with migration background showed an increasing trend. Use of chemoprophylaxis

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2018 Malaria journal

62. Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. (PubMed)

and treat); (3) SUFI + indoor residual spraying (IRS); (4) SUFI + seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC); and, (5) SUFI + SMC + IRS. This study estimates the cost effectiveness of each of these packages to provide the NMCP with data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making.This study is a retrospective analysis for the period 2013-2014 covering all 76 Senegal districts. The yearly implementation cost for each intervention was estimated and the information was aggregated (...) Scaling up malaria intervention "packages" in Senegal: using cost effectiveness data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. Senegal's National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) implements control interventions in the form of targeted packages: (1) scale-up for impact (SUFI), which includes bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, rapid diagnostic tests, and artemisinin combination therapy; (2) SUFI + reactive case investigation (focal test

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2018 Malaria journal

63. Status of imported malaria on Réunion Island in 2016. (PubMed)

analysed according to historical data and to the exchanges with malaria-affected areas (estimated by airport data).Form 2013 to 2016, 95 imported malaria cases have been detected in Reunion Island: 42% of cases occurred in the area of repartition of Anopheles arabiensis, but Anopheles mosquitoes were present only around seven cases including one gametocyte carrier. No autochthonous or introduced case has occurred during this period. The lack of chemoprophylaxis or poor adherence was found (...) , which travel to malaria endemic countries (mainly Madagascar) to visit their friends and relatives (VFRs) represent a high-risk group of contracting malaria. VFRs, low adherence to pre-travel recommendations, in particular, the compliance on the use of chemoprophylaxis are the main drivers of imported malaria in Reunion Island. Furthermore as previously described, some general practitioners in Reunion Island are always not sufficiently aware of the official recommendations for prescriptions

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2018 Malaria journal

64. High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting: comparison of diagnostic tools and patient outcome during a four-year survey (2013-2017). (PubMed)

except 6. Plasmodial DNA was revealed in the 87 cases and in 2 additional cases showing P. falciparum-specific bands by ICT, as follows: 75 P. falciparum, 2 P. vivax, 6 P. ovale curtisi, 3 P. ovale wallikeri, 1 P. malariae, and 2 mixed infections. 72 patients were foreigners and 17 Italians travelling for tourism or business. The majority of these patients presented with fever at blood collection and did not have chemoprophylaxis. No fatal cases were observed and the drug mostly used was quinine (...) High prevalence of malaria in a non-endemic setting: comparison of diagnostic tools and patient outcome during a four-year survey (2013-2017). Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy since 1970 when the World Health Organization declared Italy malaria-free, but it is now the most commonly imported disease. The aim of the study was to analyse the trend of imported malaria cases in Parma, Italy, during January 2013-June 2017, reporting also the treatment and the outcome of cases, exploring

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2018 Malaria journal

65. Long-acting injectable atovaquone nanomedicines for malaria prophylaxis (PubMed)

Long-acting injectable atovaquone nanomedicines for malaria prophylaxis Chemoprophylaxis is currently the best available prevention from malaria, but its efficacy is compromised by non-adherence to medication. Here we develop a long-acting injectable formulation of atovaquone solid drug nanoparticles that confers long-lived prophylaxis against Plasmodium berghei ANKA malaria in C57BL/6 mice. Protection is obtained at plasma concentrations above 200 ng ml-1 and is causal, attributable to drug (...) activity against liver stage parasites. Parasites that appear after subtherapeutic doses remain atovaquone-sensitive. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis indicates protection can translate to humans at clinically achievable and safe drug concentrations, potentially offering protection for at least 1 month after a single administration. These findings support the use of long-acting injectable formulations as a new approach for malaria prophylaxis in travellers and for malaria control in the field.

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2018 Nature communications

66. Malaria Surveillance — United States, 2015 (PubMed)

any chemoprophylaxis in 2015 (26.5%) compared with 2014 (32.5%), and adherence was poor in this group. Among the U.S residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region were known, 95.3% of patients with malaria did not adhere to or did not take a CDC-recommended chemoprophylaxis regimen. Among women with malaria, 32 were pregnant, and none had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. A total of 23 malaria cases occurred among U.S. military personnel in 2015. Three cases of malaria were (...) cases from 2014 to 2015 is associated with a decrease in imported cases from West Africa. This finding might be related to altered or curtailed travel to Ebola-affected countries in in this region. Despite progress in reducing malaria worldwide, the disease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate.The best way to prevent malaria is to take chemoprophylaxis medication during travel to a country where malaria is endemic

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2018 MMWR Surveillance Summaries

67. The Complement System Contributes to Functional Antibody-Mediated Responses Induced by Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Sporozoites (PubMed)

The Complement System Contributes to Functional Antibody-Mediated Responses Induced by Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Sporozoites Long-lasting and sterile homologous protection against malaria can be achieved by the exposure of malaria-naive volunteers under chemoprophylaxis to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite [CPS] immunization). While CPS-induced antibodies neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro and in vivo, antibody-mediated

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2018 Infection and immunity

68. Co-morbidity of malnutrition with falciparum malaria parasitaemia among children under the aged 6–59 months in Somalia: a geostatistical analysis (PubMed)

MUAC measurement in surveys. Shared spatial distribution and distinct hotspots present opportunities for targeted seasonal chemoprophylaxis and other forms of malaria prevention integrated within nutrition programmes. (...) Co-morbidity of malnutrition with falciparum malaria parasitaemia among children under the aged 6–59 months in Somalia: a geostatistical analysis Malnutrition and malaria are both significant causes of morbidity and mortality in African children. However, the extent of their spatial comorbidity remains unexplored and an understanding of their spatial correlation structure would inform improvement of integrated interventions. We aimed to determine the spatial correlation between both wasting

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2018 Infectious diseases of poverty

69. Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac in Indonesian Adults Against Naturally-Transmitted Malaria

to Brief Summary: The study is a single site, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that will assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy (VE) of PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac against naturally occurring malaria in Indonesian soldiers deployed to eastern Indonesia. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria Biological: PfSPZ Vaccine Biological: PfSPZ Challenge under chloroquine (CQ) chemoprophylaxis Other: Normal Saline Phase 2 Detailed (...) Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac in Indonesian Adults Against Naturally-Transmitted Malaria Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac in Indonesian Adults Against Naturally-Transmitted Malaria - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved

2018 Clinical Trials

70. Case Report: A Cluster of <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> Malaria Cases among Thai Workers in Gembu, Nigeria. (PubMed)

Case Report: A Cluster of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Cases among Thai Workers in Gembu, Nigeria. Although falciparum malaria is an important risk among travelers to sub-Saharan Africa, many travelers remain unaware of this risk. In October 2015, we found a cluster of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases among Thai gem mine workers in Nigeria; none had received malaria chemoprophylaxis or information regarding malaria risk. The index case developed fever and visited our (...) hospital on arrival day in Thailand after his 3-week stay in Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum was found in his blood. He recovered completely 3 days post-admission. After we requested he contact his colleagues in Nigeria regarding malaria risk, we found that three of his five colleagues currently had fever, were diagnosed with malaria, and were being treated in a local hospital. Two were successfully treated in Nigeria. Although their blood films were negative for malaria, we could confirm

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

71. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria with a single intravenous or subcutaneous whole-parasite immunization (PubMed)

protective as immunization with non-attenuated sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis. Both immunization regimens delayed the development of blood-stage parasites, but differences in cellular and humoral immune mechanisms were observed. Single-dose whole-parasite vaccination might serve as a relatively simple and feasible immunization approach to prevent life-threatening cerebral malaria. (...) Protection from experimental cerebral malaria with a single intravenous or subcutaneous whole-parasite immunization Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodia infection and a major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We report that protection from experimental cerebral malaria in the rodent model is obtained by a single intravenous or subcutaneous whole-parasite immunization. Whole-parasite immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites was equally

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2018 Scientific reports

72. Persistence of imported Malaria into the UK: an epidemiological review of risk factors and at risk groups. (PubMed)

Persistence of imported Malaria into the UK: an epidemiological review of risk factors and at risk groups. The UK documented a fall of over 30% in imported cases of malaria annually between 1996-2003 however there are still around 1700 cases and 5-10 deaths each year. Prophylaxis health messages focus on families returning to their country of origin as being at particular risk.We reviewed 225 paper records including demographic data of patients seen in Addenbrooke's hospital (Cambridge (...) University Hospital Foundation Trust - CUHFT) a tertiary referral centre in Cambridge, England. All the records of the patients seen in CUHFT over the period 2002-2016 were analysed and assessed in the context of national figures from Public Health England.Over the period 2004-2016 there was no perceptible decrease in imported cases of malaria locally or nationally. Local figures largely reflected national trends. P.falciparum remains responsible for most imported infections (66.7%), P.vivax contributed

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

73. A comparative study of azithromycin and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as prophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy. (PubMed)

A comparative study of azithromycin and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as prophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy. The benefit of malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy is threatened by emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial agents for chemoprophylaxis and treatment.This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin (AZ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prevention.A prospective comparative study of antenatal clinic attendees at the University College (...) Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants were randomised to receive SP or AZ.The subjects were antenatal attendees and Samples for malaria parasitaemia were collected and repeated at follow-up visits; maternal peripheral blood film, placental and cord blood samples were collected at delivery.Chi-square test and t-test in a per-protocol analysis.Of 200 participants (100 in each group), 166 (83.0%) completed the study: 86 (86.0%) of SP and 80 (80.0%) of AZ groups, respectively (P = 0.26). Four (4.7

2018 The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

74. A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. (PubMed)

A balanced pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine signature in young African children is associated with lower risk of clinical malaria. The effect of timing of exposure to first Plasmodium falciparum infections during early childhood on the induction of innate and adaptive cytokine responses and their contribution to the development of clinical malaria immunity is not well established.As part of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in Mozambique using monthly chemoprophylaxis (...) of age.Higher pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-6, TNF) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine concentrations during the second year of life were associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria up to 4 years of age, adjusting by chemoprophylaxis and prior malaria exposure. Significantly lower concentrations of antigen-specific TH1 (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-) and TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) cytokines by 2 years of age were measured in children under chemoprophylaxis compared to children receiving placebo (p<0.03).Selective

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

75. Review: malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to latin america. (PubMed)

Review: malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to latin america. Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration (...) of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and--in selected areas--chloroquine. Primaquine

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2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

76. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. (PubMed)

Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from (...) Central America, Asia and African countries. Prolonged incubation periods have been described for P. vivax malaria in temperate climates. The diversity in essential biological characteristics is traditionally considered as one possible explanation to the emergence of relapse in malaria and to the differences in the duration of the incubation period, which can also be explained by the use of chemoprophylaxis. Studying the reported cases of P. vivax malaria in Rio de Janeiro, where there is no vector

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2011 Malaria journal

77. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries. (PubMed)

Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries. In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy (...) for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used.Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions) and malaria

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2011 Malaria journal

78. Malaria chemoprophylaxis recommendations for immigrants to Europe, visiting relatives and friends - a Delphi method study. (PubMed)

Malaria chemoprophylaxis recommendations for immigrants to Europe, visiting relatives and friends - a Delphi method study. Numbers of travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) from Europe to malaria endemic countries are increasing and include long-term and second generation immigrants, who represent the major burden of malaria cases imported back into Europe. Most recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis lack a solid evidence base, and often fail to address the cultural, social (...) experience of participants was rather diverse as was their selection of chemoprophylaxis regimen. A significant consensus was observed in only seven of 16 scenarios. The analysis revealed a wide variation in prescribing choices with preferences grouped by region of practice and increased prescribing seen in Northern Europe compared to Central Europe.Improving the evidence base on efficacy, adherence to chemoprophylaxis and risk of malaria and encouraging discussion among experts, using techniques

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2011 Malaria journal

79. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 791446 1977 01 29 2018 11 13 0007-1447 2 6046 1976 Nov 20 British medical journal Br Med J Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 1215-6 eng Editorial England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Antimalarials 88463U4SM5 Sulfadoxine 886U3H6UFF Chloroquine S61K3P7B2V Proguanil Z3614QOX8W Pyrimethamine AIM IM Adult Antimalarials administration & dosage Chloroquine therapeutic use Humans Malaria prevention & control Plasmodium falciparum Proguanil therapeutic use Pyrimethamine

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1976 British medical journal

80. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 326335 1977 08 12 2013 11 21 0007-1447 1 6075 1977 Jun 11 British medical journal Br Med J Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 1535 Johnson F A FA eng Letter England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Hemoglobin, Sickle 886U3H6UFF Chloroquine AIM IM Chloroquine therapeutic use Hemoglobin, Sickle metabolism Humans Malaria prevention & control Plasmodium falciparum 1977 6 11 1977 6 11 0 1 1977 6 11 0 0 ppublish 326335 PMC1607227

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1977 British medical journal

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