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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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581. [Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis of malaria in the Brazilian Amazonia]. (Abstract)

[Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis of malaria in the Brazilian Amazonia]. In a randomised double-blind study 122 volunteers living in an endemic malarious area in Amazonian Rondônia state were divided into 4 groups to study malaria suppression. . The first group received 500 mg of mefloquine every month, group II 250 mg every two weeks, group III a tablet of Fansidar (500 mg sulphadoxine + 25mg pyrimethamine) a week and group IV placebo. Acute attacks of malaria occurred in one individual in group I (...) , 2 subject in group II, and 6 individuals in groups III and IV. Protection with mefloquine was significant compared with the placebo group. Both treatment regimens with mefloquine were effective suppressants in an area of high prevalence of drug multiresistant Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

1994 Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical Controlled trial quality: uncertain

582. Malaria chemoprophylaxis using proguanil/dapsone combinations on the Thai-Cambodian border. (Abstract)

Malaria chemoprophylaxis using proguanil/dapsone combinations on the Thai-Cambodian border. The Thai-Cambodian border is a difficult area in which to provide adequate malaria chemoprophylaxis because of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. In 1990-1991, Thai soldiers were randomly selected to receive proguanil (200 mg/day) combined with dapsone (4 mg or 12.5 mg/day) (n = 184) or pyrimethamine/dapsone (12.5 mg and 100 mg/week) (n = 177). Doxycycline (100 mg/day) was given to men (...) . Hematologic toxicity was not observed with the proguanil/dapsone combination. We conclude that proguanil/dapsone is not a useful alternative for malaria chemoprophylaxis on the Thai-Cambodian border.

1992 The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Controlled trial quality: uncertain

583. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 5. Design and implementation of the trial. (Abstract)

A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 5. Design and implementation of the trial. A large-scale malaria intervention programme using insecticide-treated bed nets and chemoprophylaxis administered to children was introduced into a rural area of The Gambia. The operation was carried out using the existing primary health care (PHC) service in the region. Training of the village health workers (...) heavier fabrics tended to absorb more insecticide than those made from lighter materials. Four months after dipping, 89% of the insecticide had been lost from treated nets. This was probably due mainly to women washing their nets, an activity carried out on average once every 2 months during the rainy season. The high number of insecticide-treated bed nets in the study area demonstrated that a malaria control programme operated through a PHC system can be implemented successfully.

1993 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Controlled trial quality: uncertain

584. Malaria chemoprophylaxis, birth weight and child survival. (Abstract)

Malaria chemoprophylaxis, birth weight and child survival. Study of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis given during pregnancy on birthweight and investigation of the influence of birthweight on child survival suggest that, in a rural area of The Gambia, chemoprophylaxis given during pregnancy might reduce infant mortality by about one-fifth in the children of primigravidae but by less than 5% in the children of multigravidae. In malaria endemic areas, primigravidae should be protected (...) against malaria not only for their own sake but also for that of their infants.

1993 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Controlled trial quality: uncertain

585. Severe morbidity among children in a trial malaria chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine or chloroquine in Ibarapa, Nigeria. (Abstract)

Severe morbidity among children in a trial malaria chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine or chloroquine in Ibarapa, Nigeria. In a controlled trial of weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine and pyrimethamine there were no significant differences in type and frequency of severe morbidity during chemoprophylaxis. Administration of chemoprophylaxis during the current and immediately preceding month was associated with significantly fewer episodes of severe morbidity in the chloroquine (...) and pyrimethamine groups when each was compared with the control multivite group. After chemoprophylaxis had been stopped, significantly more episodes of severe morbidity occurred in the chloroquine group than the control group, but a similar trend in the pyrimethamine group was not statistically significant. In the control group most of the episodes of severe morbidity, including those episodes which were associated with heavy parasitaemia, occurred below the age of 4 years. In contrast, the children who

1993 African journal of medicine and medical sciences

586. Tolerability of doxycycline monohydrate salt vs. chloroquine-proguanil in malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Abstract)

Tolerability of doxycycline monohydrate salt vs. chloroquine-proguanil in malaria chemoprophylaxis. The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the chloroquine-proguanil association (C/P) as antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is becoming increasingly common in Africa. Daily oral doxycycline hyclate 100 mg is effective as malaria prophylaxis. But the hyclate salt's adverse effects combined with the capsule's galenic form are incompatible with good chemoprophylaxis compliance. We conducted a randomized (...) group study of 522 French soldiers deployed in Gabon and Chad for 4 months to determine the tolerability of short-term malaria chemoprophylaxis with a 100-mg daily tablet of a monohydrate doxycycline salt compared with a daily C/P capsule. At days 7 and 120, compliance was better in the doxycycline group [respectively 98.5%vs. 73.9% (P < 0.001) and 90.5%vs. 74% (P < 0.001)]. No major event (evacuation, hospitalization) was related to the medications. Epigastralgia, diarrhoea, urticaria, mouth ulcers

2002 Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH Controlled trial quality: uncertain

587. Randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies among pregnant women in Kigoma, Tanzania: I. Rationale and design. (Abstract)

Randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies among pregnant women in Kigoma, Tanzania: I. Rationale and design. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of alternative strategies of malaria chemoprophylaxis on the reduction of malaria episodes and prevalence of parasitaemia among pregnant women in Kigoma urban district in western Tanzania.Randomised antimalarial prophylactic trial.The study was conducted in an urban maternal and child health (MCH) clinic (...) in Kigoma town.All pregnant women attending antenatal care services at Kigoma urban MCH clinic were eligible. Informed consent was sought from each pregnant woman for participation in the study. INTERVENTION MEASURES: The intervention measures were intermittent and continuous malaria chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine and proguanil.Reduction of malaria episodes and parasitaemia and haemoglobin levels among participating pregnant women in Kigoma urban district.Baseline data indicates that the overall

2000 East African medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

588. Double-blind study to assess the efficacy of chlorproguanil given alone or in combination with chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in an area with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. (Abstract)

Double-blind study to assess the efficacy of chlorproguanil given alone or in combination with chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in an area with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. In this study the efficacy of chlorproguanil (20 mg base weekly) was compared in schoolchildren with that of chloroquine (200 mg base weekly) and that of both drugs combined (20 mg base + 200 mg base weekly). The double blind trial was performed in the rice field (...) area of the Ruzizi valley in Burundi, where Plasmodium falciparum is widely resistant to chloroquine, and where pyrimethamine resistance with cycloguanil cross-resistance had been demonstrated. After 17 weeks, when the trial was ended, 60% breakthroughs had been observed among the children taking chloroquine, 72% among those under chlorproguanil and 61% among those under chlorproguanil and chloroquine. In children weighing between 15 and 24 kg, the failure rate was significantly higher in those

1987 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

589. Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Abstract)

Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. Gambian children who had received malaria chemoprophylaxis for a variable period of time during their first 5 years of life were followed to determine whether they experienced a rebound in mortality or in morbidity from malaria during the period after chemoprophylaxis was stopped. The risk of dying between the ages of 5 years, when chemoprophylaxis was stopped, and 10 years was no higher among children who had (...) received chemoprophylaxis with Maloprim (pyrimethamine plus dapsone) for some period during their first 5 years of life than among children who had received placebo (21 vs. 24 deaths) and the beneficial effect of chemoprophylaxis on mortality observed during the first 5 years of life was sustained. The incidence of clinical attacks of malaria during the year after medication was stopped was significantly higher among children who had previously received Maloprim for several years than among children

1996 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

590. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. (Abstract)

The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. We examined the impact of chemoprophylaxis on the cellular and humoral immune responses to polypeptides of the asexual Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens, the glutamate rich protein GLURP and Pf155/RESA, both of which in previous field studies have been identified as potentially (...) season, both during the period of chemoprophylaxis and during the follow-up. The antibody response rate to the GLURP was lower in the Maloprim group than in the placebo group during the intervention phase. The lymphoproliferative response rate to the malaria antigens was significantly lower at the end of the rainy season than at the end of the dry season, but the difference between the experimental group and the control group of schoolchildren was not statistically significant. These results suggest

1994 Acta tropica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

591. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 2. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in the study area. (Abstract)

A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa. 2. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in the study area. Background data on child mortality and morbidity from malaria were obtained in a new study area in the centre of The Gambia, south of the river, chosen as the site for a malaria intervention trial. Infant and child mortality rates were 120 and 41 per 1000 respectively. Results obtained using post-mortem (...) questionnaires suggested that malaria was an uncommon cause of death in children under the age of one year but responsible for about 40% of deaths in children aged 1-4 years. Ninety-two percent of deaths attributed to malaria occurred during or immediately after the rainy season. Parasite and spleen rates in children aged 1-5 years at the end of the malaria transmission season were 66% and 64% respectively. Malariometric indices were similar in primary health care (PHC) villages, selected as sites

1993 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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