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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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41. Summary of recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria by the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT)

of respected authorities on the basis of clinical experience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees Malaria Diagnosis Malaria could be the reason for any etiologically unidentified fever that develops while a traveller is in a malaria-endemic area or up to one year after leaving, irrespective of chemoprophylaxis use . If a fever occurs during this time, the traveller should seek medical attention immediately and tell the health care provider about his/her travel history. Particular attention (...) as malaria chemoprophylaxis); doxycycline (unless used as malaria chemoprophylaxis; contraindications: pregnancy, breastfeeding, age < 8 years) ; clindamycin (only if the patient is unable to take doxycycline or atovaquone-proquanil). Table 2 identifies the common antimalarial drugs and their indications. Table 2: Recommendations for common antimalarial drugs Indication Additional notes Intravenous artesunate First-line treatment of severe falciparum malaria or if intravenous quinine is not tolerated

2014 CPG Infobase

42. Summary of recommendations for the prevention of malaria by the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT)

scales for the strength and quality of the evidence. Recommendations: Used together and correctly, personal protective measures (PPM) and chemoprophylaxis very effectively protect against malaria infection. PPM include protecting accommodation areas from mosquitoes, wearing appropriate clothing, using bed nets pre-treated with insecticide and applying topical insect repellant (containing 20%–30% DEET or 20% icaridin) to exposed skin. Selecting the most appropriate chemoprophylaxis involves assessment (...) of malaria were developed with associated rating scales for the strength and quality of the evidence. CATMAT has taken into consideration both the need for protection and the potential for adverse effects of chemoprophylaxis. The guidelines also emphasize the varying degrees of endemicity in different regions. The health care provider should be properly informed to be able to provide appropriate guidance for the individual traveller. Recommendations The evidence-based CATMAT recommendations for malaria

2014 CPG Infobase

43. Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (PubMed)

Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis 23265223 2013 12 17 2018 11 13 1478-5242 62 603 2012 Oct The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners Br J Gen Pract Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. 555-6 10.3399/bjgp12X657017 Morgan Gemma S GS NHS (...) Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol, UK. gemma.morgan@nhs.net Chiodini Peter P Evans Mark M eng Case Reports Journal Article England Br J Gen Pract 9005323 0960-1643 0 Antimalarials 0 Drug Combinations 0 atovaquone, proguanil drug combination S61K3P7B2V Proguanil Y883P1Z2LT Atovaquone IM Adolescent Africa Antimalarials therapeutic use Atovaquone therapeutic use Delayed Diagnosis Drug Combinations Humans Malaria diagnosis parasitology prevention & control Male Medication Adherence Plasmodium ovale

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2012 The British Journal of General Practice

44. Point-of-care tests for malaria

of appropriate chemoprophylaxis and insect protection measures (3). For the reasons outlined above, malaria is an important differential diagnosis in febrile patients who have travelled to malaria endemic regions. Current Practice and Advantages over Existing Technology: a) Primary care assessment of patients with suspected malaria Existing Technology: Patient is clinically reviewed by General Practitioner (GP) and if malaria is suspected, liaison takes place with Infectious Diseases Registrar/medical (...) Point-of-care tests for malaria NIHR Diagnostic Evidence Cooperative Oxford www.oxford.dec.nihr.ac.uk Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative Oxford Cooperative Oxford HR Diagnostics Evidence Cooperative Oxford Clinical Question: In the primary care setting, what is the accuracy and utility of malaria point-of-care (POC) tests in the detection of parasitaemia caused by Plasmodium species, compared to standard laboratory practice using Microscopy and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? Background

2015 NIHR DEC Oxford

45. Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine Evaluating Different Dose Schedules in a Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

has been or will be exposed to an investigational or a non-investigational vaccine/product. Seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Documented HIV-positive subject. Previous vaccination against malaria. History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. Any history of malaria (for the vaccine groups). Planned travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period. History of splenectomy. Any confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive (...) Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine Evaluating Different Dose Schedules in a Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine Evaluating Different Dose Schedules in a Sporozoite Challenge Model in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting

2017 Clinical Trials

46. Prolonged protection provided by a single dose of atovaquone-proguanil for the chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a human challenge model. (PubMed)

Prolonged protection provided by a single dose of atovaquone-proguanil for the chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a human challenge model. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to establish the efficacy of atovaquone-proguanil to prevent malaria with the goal of simulating weekly dosing in a human Plasmodium falciparum challenge model.Thirty volunteers randomly received 1 of the following dose regimens: (1) 250 milligrams of atovaquone and 100 (...) success).Single-dose atovaquone-proguanil provides effective malaria chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum challenge at dosing intervals supportive of weekly dosing. Postexposure prophylaxis 4 days after challenge was 100% effective.

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2012 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

47. Malaria prophylaxis

availability Changes in product availability No changes in product availability since 1 January 2018. Goals and outcome measures Goals and outcome measures Goals Goals To support primary healthcare professionals to: Carry out a thorough risk assessment of people intending to travel to areas endemic for malaria. Give appropriate advice on malaria preventive measures including awareness of mosquito bites, bite prevention, and chemoprophylaxis. Reinforce the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment (...) of malaria. Prescribe suitable malaria chemoprophylaxis and standby emergency treatment where appropriate. Outcome measures Outcome measures No outcome measures were found during the review of this topic. Audit criteria Audit criteria No audit criteria were found during the review of this topic. QOF indicators QOF indicators No QOF indicators were found during the review of this topic. QIPP - Options for local implementation QIPP - Options for local implementation No QIPP indicators were found during

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

48. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria (...) Chemoprophylaxis Aka: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis , Malaria Prophylaxis From Related Chapters II. Precautions Malaria Prophylaxis taken exactly as prescribed does not ensure complete protection may still occur at 1 week to 1 year after infection may also recur after completing treatment III. Protocol Always check CDC for resistance before prescribing CDC Travelers Health for regional recommendations Chemoprophylaxis is for prevention only Dosing below does not apply to treatment Chemoprophylaxis Schedule Agents

2015 FP Notebook

49. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. Third edition

not be registered or may be unavailable. However prevention of transmission or the emergence of resistance are not relevant outside malaria-endemic areas. If the patient has taken chemoprophylaxis, the same medicine should not be used for treatment. Treatment of P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae malaria in travellers should be the same as for patients in endemic areas (see section 6). There may be delays in obtaining artesunate, artemether or quinine for the management of severe malaria outside endemic areas (...) haemolytic reactions. 6 | Treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae or P. knowlesi 696.5.3 | PREVENTION OF RELAPSE IN PREGNANT OR LACTATING WOMEN AND INFANTS Preventing relapse in pregnant or lactating women In women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, consider weekly chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine until delivery and breastfeeding are completed, then, on the basis of G6PD status, treat with primaquine to prevent future relapse. Conditional recommendation, moderate

2015 World Health Organisation Guidelines

50. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. (PubMed)

Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil. In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from (...) Central America, Asia and African countries. Prolonged incubation periods have been described for P. vivax malaria in temperate climates. The diversity in essential biological characteristics is traditionally considered as one possible explanation to the emergence of relapse in malaria and to the differences in the duration of the incubation period, which can also be explained by the use of chemoprophylaxis. Studying the reported cases of P. vivax malaria in Rio de Janeiro, where there is no vector

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2011 Malaria journal

51. Review: malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to latin america. (PubMed)

Review: malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to latin america. Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration (...) of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and--in selected areas--chloroquine. Primaquine

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2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

52. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries. (PubMed)

Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries. In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy (...) for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used.Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions) and malaria

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2011 Malaria journal

53. Malaria chemoprophylaxis recommendations for immigrants to Europe, visiting relatives and friends - a Delphi method study. (PubMed)

Malaria chemoprophylaxis recommendations for immigrants to Europe, visiting relatives and friends - a Delphi method study. Numbers of travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) from Europe to malaria endemic countries are increasing and include long-term and second generation immigrants, who represent the major burden of malaria cases imported back into Europe. Most recommendations for malaria chemoprophylaxis lack a solid evidence base, and often fail to address the cultural, social (...) experience of participants was rather diverse as was their selection of chemoprophylaxis regimen. A significant consensus was observed in only seven of 16 scenarios. The analysis revealed a wide variation in prescribing choices with preferences grouped by region of practice and increased prescribing seen in Northern Europe compared to Central Europe.Improving the evidence base on efficacy, adherence to chemoprophylaxis and risk of malaria and encouraging discussion among experts, using techniques

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2011 Malaria journal

54. How can interventions that target forest-goers be tailored to accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion? A systematic review of the qualitative literature. (PubMed)

How can interventions that target forest-goers be tailored to accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion? A systematic review of the qualitative literature. Despite decreases in incidence and related mortality, malaria remains a major public health challenge in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The emergence of artemisinin resistance threatens these gains and has prompted efforts to accelerate elimination in the region. In the GMS, transmission now clusters in hotspots (...) along international borders and among high-risk populations, including forest-goers. To eliminate malaria in the region, interventions must target such hard-to-reach populations. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the qualitative research on behaviours and perceptions that influence uptake of and adherence to malaria interventions among forest-goers in the GMS.A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant sources, including database (OVID SP, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge

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2019 Malaria journal

55. Imported cases of malaria in Spain: observational study using nationally reported statistics and surveillance data, 2002-2015. (PubMed)

Imported cases of malaria in Spain: observational study using nationally reported statistics and surveillance data, 2002-2015. Malaria was eliminated in Spain in 1964. Since then, more than 10,000 cases of malaria have been reported, mostly in travellers and migrants, making it the most frequently imported disease into this country. In order to improve knowledge on imported malaria cases characteristics, the two main malaria data sources were assessed: the national surveillance system (...) and the hospital discharge database (CMBD).Observational study using prospectively gathered surveillance data and CMBD records between 2002 and 2015. The average number of hospitalizations per year was calculated to assess temporal patterns. Socio-demographic, clinical and travel background information were analysed. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to evaluate hospitalization risk, fatal outcome, continent of infection and chemoprophylaxis failure and their association

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2019 Malaria journal

56. Examining community perceptions of malaria to inform elimination efforts in Southern Mozambique: a qualitative study. (PubMed)

to health facilities, and lack of transportation.Several constraints and opportunities will potentially influence malaria elimination in Magude. Malaria awareness, trust in health institutions, and the demand for chemoprophylaxis could facilitate new interventions, such as mass drug administration. A lack of awareness of asymptomatic carriers, inadequate understanding of residual transmission, and barriers to care seeking could jeopardize uptake. Hence, elimination campaigns require strong community (...) Examining community perceptions of malaria to inform elimination efforts in Southern Mozambique: a qualitative study. In a background of renewed calls for malaria eradication, several endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are contemplating malaria elimination nationally or sub-nationally. In Mozambique, a strategy to eliminate malaria in the south is underway in the context of low endemicity levels and cross-border initiatives to eliminate malaria in South Africa and Eswatini. In this context

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2019 Malaria journal

57. Barriers to malaria prevention in US-based travelers visiting friends and relatives abroad: A qualitative study of West African immigrant travelers. (PubMed)

of statements.Participants described the high cost of provider visits and chemoprophylaxis, challenges in advocating for themselves in healthcare settings and concerns about offending or inconveniencing hosts as barriers to malaria prevention. Cultural barriers to accessing pre-travel care included competing priorities when trip planning, such as purchasing gifts for family, travel logistics and safety concerns. When participants sought pre-travel care, most consulted their primary care provider. Participants expressed (...) Barriers to malaria prevention in US-based travelers visiting friends and relatives abroad: A qualitative study of West African immigrant travelers. Over half of malaria cases reported in the USA occur among people travelling to visit friends and relatives (VFRs), predominantly to West Africa. Few studies have queried VFR travellers directly on barriers to seeking pre-travel care. We aim to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of VFRs travelling to malaria-endemic countries from

2019 Journal of Travel Medicine

58. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 326335 1977 08 12 2013 11 21 0007-1447 1 6075 1977 Jun 11 British medical journal Br Med J Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 1535 Johnson F A FA eng Letter England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Hemoglobin, Sickle 886U3H6UFF Chloroquine AIM IM Chloroquine therapeutic use Hemoglobin, Sickle metabolism Humans Malaria prevention & control Plasmodium falciparum 1977 6 11 1977 6 11 0 1 1977 6 11 0 0 ppublish 326335 PMC1607227

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1977 British medical journal

59. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 837161 1977 04 30 2018 11 13 0007-1447 1 6058 1977 Feb 12 British medical journal Br Med J Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 447 Bergson V V eng Letter England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Antimalarials 0 Drug Combinations 88463U4SM5 Sulfadoxine Z3614QOX8W Pyrimethamine AIM IM Antimalarials administration & dosage therapeutic use Drug Combinations Humans Malaria prevention & control Pyrimethamine therapeutic use Sulfadoxine therapeutic use 1977 2 12 1977 2 12 0 1 1977 2

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1977 British medical journal

60. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 791446 1977 01 29 2018 11 13 0007-1447 2 6046 1976 Nov 20 British medical journal Br Med J Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. 1215-6 eng Editorial England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Antimalarials 88463U4SM5 Sulfadoxine 886U3H6UFF Chloroquine S61K3P7B2V Proguanil Z3614QOX8W Pyrimethamine AIM IM Adult Antimalarials administration & dosage Chloroquine therapeutic use Humans Malaria prevention & control Plasmodium falciparum Proguanil therapeutic use Pyrimethamine

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1976 British medical journal

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