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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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21. Factors associated with malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance among French service members deployed in Central African Republic. (Full text)

Factors associated with malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance among French service members deployed in Central African Republic. Malaria is a public health concern in the French armed forces, with 400-800 cases reported every year and three deaths in the past 2 years. However, lack of chemoprophylaxis (CP) compliance is often reported among service members. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with CP compliance.A retrospective study (1296 service members) was carried out among (...) individual preventive measures against mosquito bites (bed net use, OR (odds ratio) = 1.41 (95% CI [1.08-1.84]), and insecticide on clothing, OR = 1.90 ([1.43-2.51]) and malaria-related behaviours (taking chemoprophylaxis at the same time every day, OR = 2.37 ([1.17-4.78]) and taking chemoprophylaxis with food, OR = 1.45 ([1.11-1.89])). High perceived risk of contracting malaria, OR = 1.59 ([1.02-2.50]), positive perception of CP effectiveness, OR = 1.62 ([1.09-2.40]) and the practice of peer-to-peer

2016 Malaria journal

22. Repetitive live sporozoites inoculation under arteether chemoprophylaxis confers protection against subsequent sporozoite challenge in rodent malaria model. (PubMed)

Repetitive live sporozoites inoculation under arteether chemoprophylaxis confers protection against subsequent sporozoite challenge in rodent malaria model. Inoculation with live sporozoites under prophylactic antimalarial cover (CPS-immunization) represents an alternate approach to develop sterile, reproducible, and long-term protection against malaria. Here, we have employed arteether (ART), a semi synthetic derivative of artemisinin to explore its potential as a chemoprophylaxis candidate (...) in CPS approach and systematically compared the protective potential of arteether with mefloquine, azithromycin and primaquine. Blood stage patency and quantitative RT-PCR of liver stage parasite load were monitored as primary key end-points for protection against malaria challenge infection. For this purpose, sequential exposures of Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites under prophylactic treatment with arteether (ART), mefloquine (MFQ), azithromycin (AZ) or primaquine (PQ) was conducted in experimental

2016 Acta Tropica

23. Large contractors in Africa: conundrums with malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Full text)

Large contractors in Africa: conundrums with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Despite high levels of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI) within local communities in malaria high transmission settings in Africa, such people often experience clinical disease during peak transmission months due to high parasite challenge. Major recruiters of unskilled labour in high-transmission malaria settings in Africa generally withhold chemoprophylactic medication from this large component of their labour force, which (...) malaria elimination objectives, community well-being, and reduced absence from work. Such chemoprophylaxis could be by way of standard daily or weekly supervised administration of prophylactics during peak transmission months, or occasional intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), all aimed at reducing parasite burden and clinical disease. However, challenges exist regarding compliance with drug regimens over extended periods and high parasite resistance to recommended IPT drugs over much of Africa

2016 Malaria journal

24. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Self-Reported Impact on Ability to Work: Mefloquine Versus Doxycycline. (Full text)

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Self-Reported Impact on Ability to Work: Mefloquine Versus Doxycycline. It is well known that both mefloquine and doxycycline are commonly associated with adverse effects when taken for malaria chemoprophylaxis. However, the relative impact of these on travelers' ability to work is not so well understood. The aim of this study was to identify which drug has a lesser impact on the ability to work as measured by self-reported severity of adverse effects via (...) were common in those that responded and, while the true background rate of adverse effects (off any medication) is unknown, doxycycline had a significantly increased rate compared with mefloquine and was associated with a greater occupational impact. Therefore, this study supports the view that, for organizations which provide malaria chemoprophylaxis to employees free of charge, mefloquine should be the first-choice antimalarial drug where the only alternative is doxycycline.© 2015 Crown copyright

2015 Journal of Travel Medicine

25. DSM265 Chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

DSM265 Chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria DSM265 Chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. DSM265 Chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium (...) post-inoculum (daily) ] Blood samples will be taken for assessment of malaria parasitemia by thick blood smear (TBS) daily on Days: D6 to D28 or early termination Secondary Outcome Measures : Number of Participants with Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety & tolerability of DSM265 [ Time Frame: From first dose (Day -1 in Cohort 1a, Day -7 in Cohort 2 and Day -X in Cohort 3) to Day 60 post-inoculum ] Safety & tolerability of DSM265 for causal and suppressive chemoprophylaxis in non-immune healthy

2015 Clinical Trials

26. Chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys confers protection and elicits sporozoite-specific memory T cells in the liver. (Full text)

Chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys confers protection and elicits sporozoite-specific memory T cells in the liver. Whole malaria sporozoite vaccine regimens are promising new strategies, and some candidates have demonstrated high rates of durable clinical protection associated with memory T cell responses. Little is known about the anatomical distribution of memory T cells following whole sporozoite vaccines, and immunization of nonhuman primates can (...) be used as a relevant model for humans. We conducted a chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite (CPS) immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys and challenged via mosquito bites. Half of CPS immunized animals developed complete protection, with a marked delay in parasitemia demonstrated in the other half. Antibody responses to whole sporozoites, CSP, and AMA1, but not CelTOS were detected. Peripheral blood T cell responses to whole sporozoites, but not CSP and AMA1 peptides were observed. Unlike peripheral

2017 PLoS ONE

27. Blood schizonticidal activity and safety of tafenoquine when administered as chemoprophylaxis to healthy, non-immune participants followed by blood stage Plasmodium falciparum challenge: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase 1b study. (Full text)

Blood schizonticidal activity and safety of tafenoquine when administered as chemoprophylaxis to healthy, non-immune participants followed by blood stage Plasmodium falciparum challenge: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase 1b study. Tafenoquine was recently approved as a chemoprophylaxis for malaria (all species). Its activity against liver and blood stages has been separately characterized in animals but not in humans.In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (...) study, 16 malaria naïve, G6PD-normal participants aged 20-42 years received tafenoquine chemoprophylaxis prior to challenge with blood stage P. falciparum. Participants were randomly assigned to either tafenoquine (n=12) or placebo (n=4) and took blinded study medication (single 200 mg dose) on days 1, 2, 3 and 10, followed by intravenous inoculation with ~2,800 P.falciparum parasitized erythrocytes on day 13. The primary endpoint was the number of participants requiring rescue treatment

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

28. Low uptake of preventive interventions among malaria cases in Swaziland: towards malaria elimination (Full text)

Low uptake of preventive interventions among malaria cases in Swaziland: towards malaria elimination Settings: Swaziland is striving to achieve sustainable malaria elimination. Three preventive interventions are vital for reaching this goal: 1) effective household utilisation of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS), and 3) provision of chemoprophylaxis for those travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Objectives: To assess the uptake of preventive intervention (...) travellers to areas at high malaria risk, 59 (4%) used any form of malaria prevention, including chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion: The uptake of all three key malaria prevention interventions is low, and could threaten the progress made thus far toward malaria elimination. Efforts to improve this situation, including qualitative research to understand the reasons for low uptake, are urgently needed.

2018 Public health action

29. Deaths and parasuicides associated with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis: A systematic review. (Full text)

Deaths and parasuicides associated with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis: A systematic review. Mefloquine is recommended in international health guidelines for preventing malaria in travellers. Reports of psychosis and suicide are often alluded to but are not clearly established.We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify and critically appraise any reported death or parasuicide associated with mefloquine prophylaxis. We developed a comprehensive search that included

2017 Travel medicine and infectious disease

30. Pharmaceutical interactions between antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs used in chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical interactions between antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs used in chemoprophylaxis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The pandemic is believed to have originated within the Northern Congo basin covering large parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Gabon. Although over decades, HIV-1 has spread throughout the World leaving no country (...) unaffected, sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with more than 80% of all infected individuals. The HIV-2 epidemic has largely remained restricted to West Africa along the Upper Guinean forests. Co-incident with these regions of highest HIV distribution is a part of the malaria belt and therefore, co-infections are common. In this review we carve out the consequences of HIV transmission prevention and synchronous malaria prophylaxis during occupational or leisure travelling activities within this World

2017 Acta Tropica

31. Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge With Pyrimethamine Chemoprophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac Approach): Trial to Determine Safety and Development of Protective Efficacy After Exposure to Only Pre-erythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium Falciparum

called chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites (CPS) or infection treatment vaccination (ITV), can provide high level, long term protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). The Sanaria PfSPZ chemoprophylaxis vaccination (PfSPZ CVac) approach duplicates this with an injectable SPZ regimen. In both approaches, whether mosquitoes or syringes are used for SPZ administration, when chloroquine is used as the chemoprophylactic agent, transient, limited, asexual erythrocytic stage (...) the abnormality is not clinically significant . BMI < 17 or BMI > 35 Anticipated use during the study period, or use within the following periods prior to enrollment: Investigational malaria vaccine within the last five years Malaria chemoprophylaxis within 6 months Chronic systemic immunosuppressive medications (>14 days) within 6 months (e.g.cytotoxic medications, oral/parental corticosteroids >0.5 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent). Corticosteroid nasal spray for allergic rhinitis and topical

2017 Clinical Trials

32. Severity of imported malaria: protective effect of taking malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Full text)

Severity of imported malaria: protective effect of taking malaria chemoprophylaxis. Although chemoprophylaxis remains an important strategy for preventing malaria in travellers, its effectiveness may be compromised by lack of adherence. Inappropriate use of chemoprophylaxis is likely to increase the risk of acquiring malaria, but may probably also worsen the severity of imported cases. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of use of malaria chemoprophylaxis on clinical features (...) and outcome of imported malaria.Demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients included in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort between 1998 and 2011 were systematically collected and analysed. Patients were classified as self-reported compliant or non-compliant users or as non-users of chemoprophylaxis. Severe malaria was defined using the 2010 WHO criteria.Details on chemoprophylaxis were available for 559 of the 604 patients, of which 64.6% were non-users, 17.9% were inadequate users and 17.5% reported

2013 Malaria journal

33. Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas. (Full text)

Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas. The burden of imported malaria is predominantly in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in sub-Saharan Africa. The failure of this group to use chemoprophylaxis is recognized as the most important risk factor for the high incidence of disease. Understanding the reasons for failure to follow national recommendations may relate to knowledge, risk (...) knowledge among the UK population (score 58.6) was significantly lower than that of individuals who had previously travelled or were travelling (63.8 and 70.7 respectively). Malaria knowledge was similar in individuals who had and had not sought pre-travel advice and travellers using and not using chemoprophylaxis for their journey. Leisure travellers to Ghana and Nigeria were predominantly VFRs (74%), whilst 66% of travellers to Kenya were tourists. Despite similar high knowledge scores and perceived

2013 Malaria journal

34. Does public subsidy of the cost of malaria chemoprophylaxis reduce imported malaria? A comparative policy analysis. (Full text)

Does public subsidy of the cost of malaria chemoprophylaxis reduce imported malaria? A comparative policy analysis. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK's Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully (...) responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy

2013 Malaria journal

35. Systematic review: Cochrane Review highlights the need for more targeted research on the tolerability of malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers (Full text)

Systematic review: Cochrane Review highlights the need for more targeted research on the tolerability of malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers Cochrane Review highlights the need for more targeted research on the tolerability of malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please (...) see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Cochrane Review highlights the need for more targeted research on the tolerability of malaria chemoprophylaxis

2010 Evidence-Based Medicine

36. Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (Full text)

Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis 23265223 2013 12 17 2018 11 13 1478-5242 62 603 2012 Oct The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners Br J Gen Pract Relapsing malaria: two cases of malaria presenting 8 months after return from Africa despite adherence to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. 555-6 10.3399/bjgp12X657017 Morgan Gemma S GS NHS (...) Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol, UK. gemma.morgan@nhs.net Chiodini Peter P Evans Mark M eng Case Reports Journal Article England Br J Gen Pract 9005323 0960-1643 0 Antimalarials 0 Drug Combinations 0 atovaquone, proguanil drug combination S61K3P7B2V Proguanil Y883P1Z2LT Atovaquone IM Adolescent Africa Antimalarials therapeutic use Atovaquone therapeutic use Delayed Diagnosis Drug Combinations Humans Malaria diagnosis parasitology prevention & control Male Medication Adherence Plasmodium ovale

2012 The British Journal of General Practice

37. Point-of-care tests for malaria

of appropriate chemoprophylaxis and insect protection measures (3). For the reasons outlined above, malaria is an important differential diagnosis in febrile patients who have travelled to malaria endemic regions. Current Practice and Advantages over Existing Technology: a) Primary care assessment of patients with suspected malaria Existing Technology: Patient is clinically reviewed by General Practitioner (GP) and if malaria is suspected, liaison takes place with Infectious Diseases Registrar/medical (...) Point-of-care tests for malaria NIHR Diagnostic Evidence Cooperative Oxford www.oxford.dec.nihr.ac.uk Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative Oxford Cooperative Oxford HR Diagnostics Evidence Cooperative Oxford Clinical Question: In the primary care setting, what is the accuracy and utility of malaria point-of-care (POC) tests in the detection of parasitaemia caused by Plasmodium species, compared to standard laboratory practice using Microscopy and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? Background

2015 NIHR DEC Oxford

38. The risk of malaria in travelers to India. (Full text)

The risk of malaria in travelers to India. Several countries have reported a decline in malaria cases imported by travelers returning from India.We collected data on imported malaria for the period 1992 to 2005 from nine countries. Traveler statistics denominator data were obtained from the Indian Ministry of Tourism.The malaria case numbers declined from 93 cases per 100,000 travelers in 1992 to 19 cases per 100,000 travelers in 2005. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum decreased steadily (...) throughout the years. The proportion of Plasmodium vivax accounts for more than 80% of all cases of malaria in travelers to India. Deaths due to malaria were rare; only the UK and the United States reported deaths, a total of 16, between 1992 and 2005. The high-risk areas for malaria in India can be clearly identified using endemic malaria data. High-risk states are Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Goa (mainly P vivax), and the states east of Bangladesh.The decreasing incidence of malaria

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

39. Variability in malaria prophylaxis prescribing across europe: a delphi method analysis. (Full text)

Variability in malaria prophylaxis prescribing across europe: a delphi method analysis. The indications for prescribing malaria chemoprophylaxis lack a solid evidence base that results in subjectivity and wide variation of practice across countries and among professionals.European experts in travel medicine, who are members of TropNetEurop, participated in a survey conducted using the Delphi method. This technique aims at evaluating and developing a consensus through iterations (...) that improving the evidence base on efficacy and tolerability and risk of malaria for prescribing chemoprophylaxis is needed as is further discussion across Europe to achieve harmonization of prescribing practice.

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

40. Remote sensing and malaria risk for military personnel in Africa. (Full text)

Remote sensing and malaria risk for military personnel in Africa. Nonimmune travelers in malaria-endemic areas are exposed to transmission and may experience clinical malaria attacks during or after their travel despite using antivectorial devices or chemoprophylaxis. Environment plays an essential role in the epidemiology of this disease. Remote-sensed environmental information had not yet been tested as an indicator of malaria risk among nonimmune travelers.A total of 1,189 personnel from 10 (...) the missions.Age, the lack of compliance with the chemoprophylaxis, and staying in areas with an average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index higher than 0.35 were risk factors for clinical malaria.Remotely sensed environmental data can provide important planning information on the likely level of malaria risk among nonimmune travelers who could be briefly exposed to malaria transmission and could be used to standardize for the risk of malaria transmission when evaluating the efficacy of antimalaria

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

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