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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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241. Framework towards tuberculosis elimination in low-incidence countries

the TB incidence among the elderly is still very high, such as Japan (101). Treatment of active TB in the elderly presents special challenges because of comorbid conditions and general age-related vulnerability. Side-effects of TB medicines and other complications are also more common, warranting close clinical monitoring. While the elderly have higher risks for both LTBI 15 and progression to active disease than younger people, chemoprophylaxis is problematic, as the risk for severe side-effects

2014 World Health Organisation Guidelines

242. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations

and Malaria, Switzerland), Fabienne Hariga (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Austria), Michel Kazatchkine (UN Secretary General’s Special Envoy on HIV/AIDS in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Switzerland) and Mariângela Simão (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Switzerland). WHO staff and consultants The following WHO staff members contributed to developing these guidelines: Avni Amin (Department of Reproductive Health and Research), Annabel Baddeley (Global Tuberculosis Programme (...) , Tuberculosis and Malaria provided funding for the background work on transgender populations. These guidelines are dedicated to Glenn Thomas from the WHO Department of Communications who died tragically on flight MH17 as he was travelling to the International AIDS Conference in Australia to help launch this document.xi ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 3TC lamivudine ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral (drug) AZT zudovudine EFO efavirenz FTC emtricitabine GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment

2014 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

243. Encouraging Travellers to take Preventive Measures Against Travel-Related Communicable Diseases: A Rapid Review of the Literature

(quality: A-II). 3,iii Information presented in both verbal and written form can increase compliance with preventive measures (quality: A-II). 3, iv Health education for travellers should be tailored based on travel itinerary. Topics include 3, v : ? vaccine-preventable illness. ? avoidance of insects. ? malaria chemoprophylaxis. ? prevention and self-treatment of traveller’s diarrhoea. ? responsible personal behaviour. ? sexually transmitted infections and safety. ? travel medical insurance. ? access (...) audiences. 4 Executive Summary What population-level communication interventions will result in health behaviour change among travellers? Context International travel among Canadians is increasing rapidly and, in Peel region, the burden of travel-related communicable diseases is significant. Enhanced surveillance of travel-related hepatitis A, malaria, paratyphoid and typhoid fever cases revealed that only 13% of cases sought pre-travel medical advice. This information complements published research

2013 Peel Health Library

244. Mefloquine: strengthened warnings on neuropsychiatric side effects

with active or a history of psychiatric disturbances such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, or other psychiatric disorders. If neuropsychiatric reactions or changes to mental state occur during mefloquine chemoprophylaxis, the patient should be advised to stop taking mefloquine and seek medical advice as soon as possible so that it can be replaced by another medicine for malaria prevention Published 11 December 2014 From: Therapeutic area: , , Article date: November 2013 Mefloquine (brand (...) name Lariam) is used for prophylaxis and treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Official guidance on the appropriate use of antimalarial medicines and the prevalence of resistance should be considered when prescribing mefloquine (see further information links below). Although the potential for neuropsychiatric side effects with mefloquine is a well-established risk, a recent review of the prescribing information has led to strengthened warnings and new measures to help minimise risks

2013 MHRA Drug Safety Update

245. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

preventive therapy 156 8.1.2 Tuberculosis 158 8.1.3 Cryptococcal infection 165 8.1.4 Hepatitis B and C 166 8.1.5 Malaria 167 8.1.6 Sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer 168 8.1.7 Vaccines for people living with HIV 169 8.2 Preventing and managing other comorbidities and chronic care for people living with HIV 170 8.2.1 Screening for and care of noncommunicable diseases 170 8.2.2 Mental health 171 8.2.3 Drug use and drug use disorders 171 8.2.4 Nutritional care and support 172 8.2.5 (...) of Health, Malawi), Bui Duc Duong (Ministry of Health, Viet Nam), Ade Fakoya (Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Switzerland), Robert Ferris (United States Agency for International Development, USA), Ronaldo Hallal (Departamento de DST, Aids e Hepatites Virais, Brazil), Eihab Ali Hassan (Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan), David Hoos (International Centre for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Columbia University, USA), Barbara Milani (Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Switzerland

2013 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

246. Journée Scientific Niger

and the free distribution of insecticide treated bednets, seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) is one of the main malaria control strategies in Niger. Children under 5 years receive annually 4 rounds of 3 days sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (SP/AQ) during the malaria season. of this strategy include: suboptimal coverage, adherence to the 12 dose-regimen, and the cost of around $4/child/season, which some of the participants considered too high. When initially implemented in 2013, adherence (...) Scientific Niger Posted January 31, 2018 by post-info PLOS Medicine Specialty Consulting Editor Lorenz von Seidlein presents some highlights from the first Epicentre scientific day in Niger Epicentre, the research arm of Médecins Sans Frontières, organised its first scientific day in Niger on 24 th January in the Blue Zone Hippodrome, Niamey. The goals were to discuss and encourage biomedical research specifically in Niger and francophone Africa at large. Malaria Besides appropriate case management

2018 PLOS Blogs Network

248. Travel Characteristics and Pretravel Health Care Among Pregnant or Breastfeeding U.S. Women Preparing for International Travel. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. We also evaluated use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines, because these are widely recommended in pregnancy.Of 21,138 female travelers of childbearing age in Global TravEpiNet, 170 (0.8%) were pregnant and 139 (...) (0.7%) were breastfeeding. Many traveled to destinations endemic for mosquito-borne illnesses, including malaria (pregnant: 95%; breastfeeding: 94%), dengue (pregnant: 87%; breastfeeding: 81%), or yellow fever (pregnant: 35%; breastfeeding: 50%). Compared with nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers, eligible pregnant travelers were less likely to be vaccinated against hepatitis A (28% compared with 51%, P<.001) and typhoid (35% compared with 74%, P<.001). More than 20% of eligible

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

249. Portuguese expatriates' health in Angola and Mozambique-a cross-sectional study: increasing awareness and need for more surveillance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on malaria chemoprophylaxis. Having chronic health conditions doubled the reporting of new health problems. Increasing length of expatriation was associated with decreasing reporting of general psychological symptoms. Directors and executive managers and expatriates living alone tended to report more general psychological symptoms.Expatriate communities deserve enhanced surveillance for the health issues that affect them. This will improve evidence-based preparation and intervention by public and travel (...) Portuguese expatriates' health in Angola and Mozambique-a cross-sectional study: increasing awareness and need for more surveillance. Increasing numbers of expatriates are working in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little published data on the complex population and this survey aimed at understanding expatriate morbidity by accessing self-reported health problems and malaria preventive practices.A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted targeting Portuguese expatriates in Angola

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

250. Effect of a package of health and nutrition services on sustained recovery in children after moderate acute malnutrition and factors related to sustaining recovery: a cluster-randomized trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and nutrition counseling, the intervention group received a package of health and nutrition interventions that consisted of a lipid nutrient supplement, deworming medication, zinc supplementation, a bed net, and malaria chemoprophylaxis. A survival analysis was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention as well as to identify factors associated with sustained recovery.Results: Of 1383 children who returned for the full 12-mo follow-up period, 407 children (56%) and 347 children (53%) sustained

2017 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

251. Chloroquine

of malaria. It is also used in the treatment of amoebic hepatitis/abscess, lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. This document covers data relating to use of chloroquine as an antimalarial only. Travel to areas where malaria is endemic should be avoided during pregnancy wherever possible. If travel to such areas is unavoidable, insect repellents, bed nets, appropriate clothing to prevent mosquito bites and adequate chemoprophylaxis should be used. Human pregnancy data relating to both prophylaxis (...) Chloroquine USE OF CHLOROQUINE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF CHLOROQUINE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: February 2019 , Version: 3 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Chloroquine is used for chemoprophylaxis and treatment

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

252. Malarone

Malarone USE OF MALARONE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF MALARONE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: November 2018 , Version: 2.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . Summary Atovaquone:proguanil (Malarone®) is a fixed-dose combination product used in malaria chemoprophylaxis and in the treatment of falciparum (...) malaria. A separate UKTIS monograph regarding the use of proguanil-only preparations in pregnancy is also available. Travel to areas where malaria is endemic should be avoided during pregnancy wherever possible. If travel to such areas is necessary, insect repellents, bed nets and appropriate clothing to prevent mosquito bites should be used. The limited available data on atovaquone:proguanil use in human pregnancy relate mainly to its use in the treatment rather than in the chemoprophylaxis

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

253. Proguanil

or used in combination with atovaquone (as Malarone®) for malaria prophylaxis. Malaria in pregnancy presents a high risk to both mother and fetus. Travel to areas where malaria is endemic should be avoided during pregnancy wherever possible. If travel to such areas is unavoidable, insect repellents, bed nets and appropriate clothing to prevent mosquito bites should be used. Pregnant women should also be advised to use the most effective malaria chemoprophylaxis for that area and the available (...) risk assessments. Important: Please ensure that the selected antimalarial will provide appropriate prophylaxis for the area of travel. Up-to-date advice is available from a number of sources (e.g. BNF,[1] Fit For Travel,[2] NathNAC,[3] TRAVAX[4]). For further advice on malaria prevention in pregnancy please refer to the relevant UKTIS document below. This document is regularly reviewed and updated. Only use full UKTIS monographs downloaded directly from TOXBASE.org to be sure you are using the most

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

254. Mefloquine

Mefloquine USE OF MEFLOQUINE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF MEFLOQUINE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: February 2019 , Version: 3 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Mefloquine is used primarily for malaria prophylaxis in regions (...) of chloroquine/proguanil resistance and is recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists as a first-line option for prophylaxis during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (in non-resistant regions). Due to increased mefloquine resistance in some locations and the risk of neuropsychiatric side effects, it is now rarely used to treat malaria in monotherapy but may still be used on occasion in combination with artemisinin-based therapies. Travel to areas where malaria is endemic

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

255. Reproducibility of Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers

falciparum sporozoites) Phase 1 Detailed Description: This study is designed to demonstrate the ability to inoculate malaria naive human volunteers with the Plasmodium falciparum strain of malaria sporozoites by the bite of infected mosquitoes under controlled conditions. Subjects are monitored closely for development of malaria and treated with standard doses of anti-malarial medications which the Plasmodium falciparum strain of malaria is known to be sensitive. Study participants will undergo malaria (...) by: Seattle Biomedical Research Institute Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This is a prospective, single arm, single intervention safety and immunogenicity study in 6 healthy, malaria-naive adults, conducted to demonstrate the successful implementation of the well-established malaria challenge model at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (Seattle BioMed). Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Healthy Biological: Malaria challenge (wild-type NF54 strain Plasmodium

2010 Clinical Trials

256. Availability and utilization of malaria prevention strategies in pregnancy in eastern India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and bednets.All participating facilities were equipped to perform malaria blood smears; none used rapid diagnostic tests. Chloroquine, endorsed for chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy by the government at the time of the study, was stocked regularly at all facilities although the quantity stocked varied. Availability of alternative antimalarials for use in pregnancy was less consistent. In Jharkhand, no health worker recommended bednet use during the antenatal visit yet over 90% of pregnant women had bednets (...) Availability and utilization of malaria prevention strategies in pregnancy in eastern India. Malaria in pregnancy in India, as elsewhere, is responsible for maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth.It is not known whether prevention and treatment strategies for malaria in pregnancy (case management, insecticide-treated bednets, intermittent preventive therapy) are widely utilized in India.This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2006-2008

2010 BMC Public Health

257. Doxycycline-chloroquine vs. doxycycline-placebo for malaria prophylaxis in nonimmune soldiers: a double-blind randomized field trial in sub-Saharan Africa. (Abstract)

Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases were diagnosed in the doxycycline group and seven in the doxycycline-chloroquine group. The efficacy of the two chemoprophylaxis regimens was similar. Our study was the first randomized field trial to assess a doxycycline-chloroquine combination as malaria prophylaxis and showed no significant decrease of overall tolerability of the combination compared with doxycycline alone. Our results showed that a doxycycline-chloroquine combination could be a safe combination (...) Doxycycline-chloroquine vs. doxycycline-placebo for malaria prophylaxis in nonimmune soldiers: a double-blind randomized field trial in sub-Saharan Africa. Failures of malaria chemoprophylaxis have been related to a lack of compliance with doxycycline due to its short elimination half-life. Adding a molecule with a long half-life to doxycycline could be useful to take over from this drug in case of occasional missed doses. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized field trial was designed

2010 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Controlled trial quality: uncertain

258. Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants. Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) is a new malaria control tool. However, it is uncertain whether IPTi works mainly through chemoprophylaxis or treatment of existing infections. Understanding the mechanism is essential for development of replacements for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) where it is no longer effective. This study investigated how (...) of age. There was no evidence of either long-term protection or increased risk of malaria for any of the regimens.Post-treatment chemoprophylaxis appears to be the main mechanism by which IPTi protects children against malaria. Long-acting antimalarials are therefore likely to be the most effective drugs for IPTi, but as monotherapies could be vulnerable to development of drug resistance. Due to concerns about tolerability, the mefloquine formulation used in this study is not suitable for IPTi

2010 PloS one Controlled trial quality: predicted high

259. Imported malaria in children: a comparative study between recent immigrants and immigrant travelers (VFRs). Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Fourteen cases were VFRs; none of them used appropriate malaria chemoprophylaxis. Fever and thrombocytopenia were significantly more common among VFRs. They also had significantly higher parasite density. Twelve cases were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis; all of them were recent immigrants.VFRs account for a significant number of childhood malarial cases. These patients had not taken malaria chemoprophylaxis and malarial cases were more severe. VFR children are a high-risk group, and pretravel (...) Imported malaria in children: a comparative study between recent immigrants and immigrant travelers (VFRs). In Europe, imported malarial cases occur in returning travelers and immigrants mostly from African countries. There have been an increasing number of cases in the past years in Spain.An analysis of all cases of malaria who attended at the Hospital of Mostoles in the Southwest of Madrid from 1995 to 2007 was performed. Clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and parasitological findings

2010 Journal of Travel Medicine

260. Declining incidence of imported malaria in the Netherlands, 2000-2007. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Declining incidence of imported malaria in the Netherlands, 2000-2007. To describe the epidemiology and trends of imported malaria in the Netherlands from 2000 through 2007.Based on national surveillance data regarding all reported infections of imported malaria, diagnosed 2000 through 2007, incidence and trends of imported malaria in the Netherlands were estimated. Travellers statistics were used to estimate incidence, and data on malaria chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were used to estimate (...) the number of unprotected travellers.Importation of malaria to the Netherlands is declining even as more travellers visit malaria-endemic countries. On average, 82% were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa, and 75% were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The overall incidence in imported falciparum malaria fell from 21.5 to 6.6/10,000 of unprotected travellers. The percentage of unprotected travellers rose from 47% to 52% of all travellers. The incidence of imported falciparum infections is greatest from Middle

2010 Malaria journal

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