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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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201. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. The importation of malaria to non-endemic countries remains a major cause of travel-related morbidity and a leading cause of travel-related hospitalizations. Currently they are three priority medications for malaria prophylaxis to West Africa: mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline. We investigate the cost effectiveness of a partial reimbursement of the cheapest effective malaria chemoprophylaxis (...) (mefloquine) for travellers to high risk areas of malaria transmission compared with the current situation of no reimbursement.This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis based on malaria cases imported from West Africa to Switzerland from the perspective of the Swiss health system. We used a decision tree model and made a literature research on the components of travel related malaria. The main outcome measure was the cost effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis reimbursement based on malaria

2010 BMC Infectious Diseases

202. Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. (Abstract)

Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. Two Australian blood donors were diagnosed with relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria 5 and 15 months, respectively, after their most recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Common features included travel to Papua New Guinea (specifically, the Kokoda Trail); full compliance with recommended malaria chemoprophylaxis; and negative results on malaria antibody testing at the time (...) of donation. Although all fresh blood components from the two donors issued on the basis of these negative results were recalled before transfusion, these cases underscore the increased potential for relapse of P. vivax in donors returning from malaria-endemic countries, as well as the inability to identify the potential for relapse using current malarial screening tests.

2010 Medical Journal of Australia

203. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis.A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis.Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently (...) recognized fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi. New data were found in the literature on the tolerability of mefloquine and the use of this medication by groups at high risk of malaria.Use of mefloquine for pregnant women in the second and third trimester is sanctioned by the WHO and some authorities (CDC) allow the use of mefloquine even in the first trimester. Inadvertent pregnancy while using mefloquine is not considered grounds for pregnancy termination. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis is allowed during

2010 Malaria journal

204. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers

the study period History of confirmed malaria diagnosis on peripheral blood smear Anticipated use during the study period, or use within the following periods prior to enrollment: Investigational malaria vaccine at any time Malaria chemoprophylaxis within 6 months Chronic systemic immunosuppressive medications within 6 months Blood products or immunoglobulins within 120 days Investigational product or vaccine within 30 days Systemic antibiotics with antimalarial effects within 30 days Receipt of a live (...) Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers (ITV) The safety and scientific

2011 Clinical Trials

205. Chloroquine for Malaria in Pregnancy

, forms that are not usually detected in the peripheral blood, accumulate in the placenta. Pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens are responsible for the increased vulnerability of pregnant women to malaria because they are unrecognized by the immune systems of women who encounter them for the first time in their first pregnancy. In subsequent pregnancies, women develop immunity to these parasite surface antigens and the parasites are cleared by the host response. Plasmodium (P) falciparum (...) pregnancy when malaria infection is more likely to cause placental infection, maternal anemia, and low infant birth weight. This is a randomized controlled trial to compare chloroquine as IPT or chloroquine as chemoprophylaxis to IPTp with SP. Women will be randomized after Screening and enrollment, and they begin the assigned treatment between Week 20 and Week 28 gestation. Specimens will be collected at every prenatal visit and any time the participant is ill to determine if malaria is present

2011 Clinical Trials

206. Arrested Oocyst Maturation in Plasmodium Parasites Lacking Type II NADH:Ubiquinone Dehydrogenase Full Text available with Trip Pro

Arrested Oocyst Maturation in Plasmodium Parasites Lacking Type II NADH:Ubiquinone Dehydrogenase The Plasmodium mitochondrial electron transport chain has received considerable attention as a potential target for new antimalarial drugs. Atovaquone, a potent inhibitor of Plasmodium cytochrome bc(1), in combination with proguanil is recommended for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of malaria. The type II NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH2) is considered an attractive drug target, as its (...) inhibition is thought to lead to the arrest of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and, as a consequence, pyrimidine biosynthesis, an essential pathway for the parasite. Using the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei as an in vivo infection model, we studied the role of NDH2 during Plasmodium life cycle progression. NDH2 can be deleted by targeted gene disruption and, thus, is dispensable for the pathogenic asexual blood stages, disproving the candidacy for an anti-malarial drug target

2011 The Journal of biological chemistry

207. Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. (Abstract)

Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic in Haiti, but epidemiological data are scarce. A total of 61 cases of malaria were diagnosed between November 2010 and February 2011 among 130 Haitian patients with undifferentiated fever. Three additional cases were diagnosed in expatriates not taking the recommended chemoprophylaxis (...) . No cases were diagnosed among aid workers using chemoprophylaxis. In conclusion, malaria is a significant health problem in Leogane, Haiti. Aid workers and visitors should use chemoprophylaxis according to existing guidelines.

2011 Euro Surveillance

208. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, respectively. Only 18.7% of the 1,573 potentially exposed travelers carried malaria tablets, all of them for self-treatment, none for prophylaxis.KAP about malaria among exposed Chinese travelers is far from satisfactory. To reduce the rate of imported malaria, specific educational tools should be developed for those at high risk to make them understand and become compliant with chemoprophylaxis.© 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine. (...) Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. To address the lack of understanding in malaria prevention among Chinese international travelers, we have conducted knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study in five different Chinese geographic areas. This survey represents one part of the background information needed to analyze imported malaria.Standardized questionnaires were distributed to Chinese international travelers in departure

2011 Journal of Travel Medicine

211. Doxycycline

highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use (...) of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after (...) treatment ( doxycycline [100 mg twice daily] plus metronidazole [400 mg three times daily] for 14 days, plus one single 500-mg ciprofloxacin dose). Of the 434 valid per protocol 2009 14. The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

212. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

considerations for malaria chemoprophylaxis in children taking ART (4, 5) Drug Reasons you might consider using this drug Reasons you may avoid using this drug Additional considerations for use in children with HIV infection Atovaquone/ Proguanil (Malarone®) paediatric formulation ! Good for last-minute travellers because the drug is started 2 days before traveling to a malarious area ! Some people prefer a daily medicine ! Good choice for shorter trips because you only have to take the medicine for 7 days (...) Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel 1 Guideline: Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel Authors: Natalie Prevatt Date of preparation: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 Contents Summary 2 Introduction to the guideline 2 General travel health and safety advice for travel 2 Traveller’s diarrhoea: prevention and treatment 4 Malaria prevention 4 Personal protection 6 Chemoprophylaxis 6 Important interactions between antimalarials and ART 7

2018 The Children's HIV Association

214. Routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals (2019 interim update)

infections and cancers and to guide chemoprophylaxis to prevent opportunistic infections. It is also used to decide when vaccination with live vaccines is safe and when to investigate for latent TB [2,3]. References 1. Mellors JW, Munoz A, Giorgi JV et al. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 946–954. 2. Geretti AM, Brook G, Cameron C et al. British HIV Association guidelines on the use of vaccines in HIV-positive adults 2015 (...) , Schistosoma serology, stool for ova, cysts and parasites (1D). Evidence Opportunistic infection immunity screening guides the prescription of chemoprophylaxis or vaccination [1]. Tuberculosis is a common co-infection in people from high prevalence areas and in people with low CD4 cell count [2]. Toxoplasma serology is only of value in patients with suspected cerebral infection or a minority of BHIVA guidelines on the routine investigation and monitoring of HIV-1-positive adults 18 patients with a low CD4

2019 British HIV Association

215. WHO recommendations on maternal health

14 Augmentation of labour 15 6. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage 15 7. Postnatal care 16 8 . Health promotion for maternal and newborn health 19 Management of maternal conditions 22 9. Postpartum haemorrhage 22 10. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia 23 11. Peripartum infections 24 12. HIV infection 24 13. Malaria 27 14. Tuberculosis 27iv Abbreviations AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral AZT zidovudine CCT controlled cord traction (...) be vaccinated with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine at any stage of pregnancy.(Strong recommendation, high quality evidence). Source Malaria prevention ¦ ¦ In malaria endemic areas, mothers and babies should sleep under insecticide-impregnated bed nets.(GDG consensus, based on existing WHO guidelines). Source7 PROMOTE, PREVENT AND PROTECT MATERNAL AND PERINATAL HEALTH Malaria prevention: intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) ¦ ¦ In malaria-endemic areas in Africa, intermittent

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

216. Statement on international travellers who intend to visit friends and relatives

to hepatitis A and B should be vaccinated prior to travel. For pediatric VFRs, opportunities to accelerate the routine schedule should be evaluated in order to provide maximal protection during travel. • VFRs should be counseled about the importance of malaria prevention when travelling to malaria-endemic countries. Recommendations should include use of personal protective measures to prevent mosquito bites, and potential use of chemoprophylaxis depending upon destination. • Safe food and water precautions (...) if VFRs have been exposed to malaria in the distant past, they have most likely lost their partial immunity and are at increased risk for clinical malaria (14). Additionally, VFRs may seek health care providers with a similar ethnic background who may share their belief about pre-existing immunity and, therefore, not recommend malaria chemoprophylaxis or other prevention strategies (24,25). While most of the above risk factors conferring higher risk of illness to VFRs can be classified as traveller

2015 CPG Infobase

217. Safety Profile of Drug Use During Pregnancy at Peripheral Health Centres in Burkina Faso: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

: 'probably safe', 'potentially risky' or 'unclassified'. A modified classification was built to take into account national malaria policy treatment guidelines and World Health Organization Malaria Treatment Guidelines recommending malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy.Out of 2371 pregnant women enrolled, 56.7% used at least one medication during the entire course of the pregnancy (excluding sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron-folic acid). A total of 101 different types of medications were used (...) of malaria during pregnancy and delivery in Burkina Faso's health facilities. It also aimed to assess factors associated with the use of potentially risky drugs over the entire course of pregnancy.We enrolled pregnant women from their first antenatal care visit and followed them up until delivery, and collected data on drug use. Based on United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) drug risk classification, drugs were classified into three groups

2018 Drugs - real world outcomes

218. Influenza - seasonal

Update on Diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenza [ ], and expert opinion in a narrative review Influenza [ ]. Differential diagnosis What else might cause symptoms of influenza-like illness? Other illnesses that present with features of influenza-like illness are more likely at times when seasonal influenza is not known to be circulating in the community (for example, outside the winter months) and include: The common cold (coryza) — causes (...) information, see the CKS topic on . Malaria — should be suspected in people presenting with fever who have recently travelled to an area where malaria is endemic. For more information, see the CKS topics on and . Basis for recommendation Basis for recommendation This information is based on expert opinion in a medical textbook Influenza in practice [ ], and the British Medical Journal (BMJ) best practice guide Influenza infection [ ]. Management Management : covers the management of people presenting

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

219. Immunizations - travel

and drink. For more information see the CKS topic on for more information. Malaria is one of the more common serious acute infectious diseases that is contracted abroad, and can be prevented with appropriate chemoprophylaxis. See the CKS topic on for more information. Zika Virus is spread by day-biting mosquitos, is present in Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, Central and South America and the Caribbean, and can pose a risk to a developing baby if contracted during pregnancy. The risk of Zika Virus can (...) risk to travellers overseas. Vaccination against these diseases may be recommended in particular circumstances: Cholera. Hepatitis B. Japanese encephalitis. Rabies. Tick-borne encephalitis. The most common infectious diseases contracted abroad cannot effectively be vaccinated against, including: Travellers' diarrhoea. Malaria. Sexually transmitted infections. Parasitic infestation. The risk of contracting an infectious disease abroad depends upon: The region visited — the risk may vary from country

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

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