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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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181. Trial for Malaria Vaccine Candidate, PfPEBS (P. Falciparum Pre-Erythrocytic and Blood Stage)

concerning contra-indications for participation in the study Willingness to undergo screening for drugs such as amphetamines, opiates and cocaine Exclusion Criteria: Any history of malaria Known exposure to malaria in the previous 6 months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic Planned to travel to endemic malaria areas during the study period Prior administration (...) Trial for Malaria Vaccine Candidate, PfPEBS (P. Falciparum Pre-Erythrocytic and Blood Stage) Trial for Malaria Vaccine Candidate, PfPEBS (P. Falciparum Pre-Erythrocytic and Blood Stage) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more

2012 Clinical Trials

182. Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) After Immunization With Cryopreserved Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis

or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria Plasmodium Falciparum Biological: PfSPZ Challenge Biological: Normal Saline (NS) Phase 1 Detailed Description: The study is a single centre, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. Volunteers, investigators and laboratory personnel will be blinded. A maximum of 30 volunteers will be randomly divided into four groups. All volunteers will receive standard weekly chloroquine chemoprophylaxis for a period of 14 weeks (98 days). During this period (...) : November 20, 2012 Last Update Posted: May 15, 2017 Last Verified: May 2014 Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by Sanaria Inc.: Malaria Plasmodium falciparum PfSPZ Challenge Chemoprophylaxis PfSPZ-CVac Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Malaria Protozoan Infections Parasitic Diseases Vaccines Chloroquine Chloroquine diphosphate Immunologic Factors Physiological

2012 Clinical Trials

183. Malaria

Presentation within the first month of return from travel to endemic region Delayed presentation beyond 2 months may occur with the use of chemoprophylaxis Initial prodrome Malaise Next (>50% of patients) Shaking chills Next Drowsiness Lethargy Other symptoms Myalgias More severe in Muscle tenderness More severe in and s Back pain VI. Signs for 1-8 hours recurs Plasmodium Vivax: 48 hour intervals (Tertian Fever) Plasmodium Malariae: 72 hour intervals (Quartan Fever) Plasmodium Falciparum: Variable (...) when patient is febrile Image Rapid blood dipstick testing (when smear not available) Tests HRP-2 detection (only detects P. falciparum) LDH detection (detects all 4 Malaria types) Precautions Decreased with low levels of mia Examples: Patients who took chemoprophylaxis, or prior exposure Negative rapid tests should be confirmed with blood smears Malaria PCR Detects low levels of parsites in blood (<5 s/ul) Distinguishes between plasmodium species May be used to monitor response to treatment at 5-8

2015 FP Notebook

184. Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. (PubMed)

Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Over thirty years have passed since the Alma-Ata Declaration on primary health care in 1978. Many governments in the first decade following the declaration responded by developing national programmes of community health workers (CHWs), but evaluations of these often (...) demonstrated poor outcomes. As many CHW programmes have responded to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, international interest in them has returned and their role in the response to other diseases should be examined carefully so that lessons can be applied to their new roles. Over half of the deaths in African children under five years of age are due to malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia - a situation which could be addressed through the use of cheap and effective interventions delivered by CHWs. However, to date

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2011 Human resources for health

185. Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. (PubMed)

classified as having severe malaria. The global case-fatality rate was 0.4% and the rate of severe malaria was ≈3.8%. Factors independently associated with severe imported P. falciparum malaria were older age, European origin, travel to eastern Africa, absence of chemoprophylaxis, initial visit to a general practitioner, time to diagnosis of 4 to 12 days, and diagnosis during the fall-winter season. Pretravel advice should take into account these factors and promote the use of antimalarial (...) Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. Little is known about severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in industrialized countries where the disease is not endemic because most studies have been case reports or have included <200 patients. To identify factors independently associated with the severity of P. falciparum, we conducted a retrospective study using surveillance data obtained from 21,888 P. falciparum patients in France during 1996-2003; 832 were

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2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

186. Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. (PubMed)

Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic in Haiti, but epidemiological data are scarce. A total of 61 cases of malaria were diagnosed between November 2010 and February 2011 among 130 Haitian patients with undifferentiated fever. Three additional cases were diagnosed in expatriates not taking the recommended chemoprophylaxis (...) . No cases were diagnosed among aid workers using chemoprophylaxis. In conclusion, malaria is a significant health problem in Leogane, Haiti. Aid workers and visitors should use chemoprophylaxis according to existing guidelines.

2011 Euro Surveillance

187. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers

the study period History of confirmed malaria diagnosis on peripheral blood smear Anticipated use during the study period, or use within the following periods prior to enrollment: Investigational malaria vaccine at any time Malaria chemoprophylaxis within 6 months Chronic systemic immunosuppressive medications within 6 months Blood products or immunoglobulins within 120 days Investigational product or vaccine within 30 days Systemic antibiotics with antimalarial effects within 30 days Receipt of a live (...) Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers (ITV) The safety and scientific

2011 Clinical Trials

188. Chloroquine for Malaria in Pregnancy

pregnancy when malaria infection is more likely to cause placental infection, maternal anemia, and low infant birth weight. This is a randomized controlled trial to compare chloroquine as IPT or chloroquine as chemoprophylaxis to IPTp with SP. Women will be randomized after Screening and enrollment, and they begin the assigned treatment between Week 20 and Week 28 gestation. Specimens will be collected at every prenatal visit and any time the participant is ill to determine if malaria is present (...) . Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 900 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Chloroquine as Chemoprophylaxis Versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi Study Start Date : February 2012 Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2014

2011 Clinical Trials

189. HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. (PubMed)

HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Among a cohort of 1,213 cases treated for Plasmodium vivax malaria from an isolated Papua New Guinean population, seven adults with severe and sustained hemolytic anemia after clearance of the peripheral parasitemia were prospectively investigated. All the patients fulfilled the criteria for hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly and in 2 of 7 cases an IgG warm antibody was identified. Hereditary hemolytic anemia was excluded (...) in 5 of 5 patients. All treated cases improved after an initial high dose of prednisone and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The persistence of marked anemia in a patient with splenomegaly after a P. vivax attack should raise the suspicion of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

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2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

190. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. (PubMed)

, respectively. Only 18.7% of the 1,573 potentially exposed travelers carried malaria tablets, all of them for self-treatment, none for prophylaxis.KAP about malaria among exposed Chinese travelers is far from satisfactory. To reduce the rate of imported malaria, specific educational tools should be developed for those at high risk to make them understand and become compliant with chemoprophylaxis.© 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine. (...) Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. To address the lack of understanding in malaria prevention among Chinese international travelers, we have conducted knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study in five different Chinese geographic areas. This survey represents one part of the background information needed to analyze imported malaria.Standardized questionnaires were distributed to Chinese international travelers in departure

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2011 Journal of Travel Medicine

191. Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria (PubMed)

Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria Interest in the schizontocidal activity of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) and in its possible use in malaria chemoprophylaxis has recently been revived. Studies on its toxicity and action in avian and simian malaria show that its chronic toxicity in monkeys is similar to that of the established antimalarials and that it lacks causal prophylactic, gametocidal and sporontocidal activity against Plasmodium

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1962 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

192. Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia (PubMed)

successful in suppressing seasonal hyperendemic malaria in a group of 38 Gambian children over a 6-month period. On the other hand, pyrimethamine alone at the recommended dose failed to suppress falciparum malaria in some children of another group. Parasite resistance to the sulfonamide-pyrimethamine combination was not encountered nor was there any suggestion of toxicity. It is concluded that these drugs in combination could have a place in malaria chemoprophylaxis. (...) Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia As it had been shown in previous trials that very small doses of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine or dapsone were effective in eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in 2 or 3 days, small-scale field trials were carried out on children to investigate the efficacy of this combination of drugs in suppressing malaria.Doses of pyrimethamine 2 mg with sulfadoxine 40 mg, fortnightly, appeared to be completely

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1970 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

193. Malaria

for decades and lead to immune complex–mediated nephritis or nephrosis or tropical splenomegaly; when symptomatic, fever tends to occur at 72-h intervals—a quartan pattern. Manifestations in patients taking chemoprophylaxis In patients who have been taking chemoprophylaxis (see Table: ), malaria may be atypical. The incubation period may extend weeks to months after the drug is stopped. Those infected may develop headache, backache, and irregular fever, but parasites may initially be difficult to find (...) is contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, unless the infant has been shown not to be G6PD deficient. In pregnant women, chemoprophylaxis with weekly chloroquine can be given for the remainder of pregnancy, and after delivery, women can be given primaquine , provided they are not G6PD deficient. Prevention Travelers to endemic regions should be given chemoprophylaxis (see Table: ). Information about countries where malaria is endemic is available from the CDC (see and ); the information includes

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

194. Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas. (PubMed)

Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas. Anti-malarial drugs can make a significant contribution to the control of malaria in endemic areas when used for prevention as well as for treatment. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in preventing deaths and morbidity from malaria, but it is difficult to sustain for prolonged periods, may interfere with the development of naturally acquired immunity and will facilitate the emergence and spread of drug (...) resistant strains if applied to a whole community. However, chemoprophylaxis targeted to groups at high risk, such as pregnant women, or to periods of the year when the risk from malaria is greatest, can be an effective and cost effective malaria control tool and has fewer drawbacks. Intermittent preventive treatment, which involves administration of anti-malarials at fixed time points, usually when a subject is already in contact with the health services, for example attendance at an antenatal

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2010 Malaria journal

195. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator? (PubMed)

The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator? The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate (...) in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis recommendations to minimize use of chemoprophylaxis for low risk exposure during visits to S-E Asia. Policy needs to be adjusted regularly to reflect the changing risk.

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2010 Malaria journal

196. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area. (PubMed)

Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area. Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas.In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility (...) and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were

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2009 Malaria journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

197. Malaria

Malaria Malaria - Wikipedia Malaria From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with . Malaria Malaria parasite connecting to a Pronunciation Symptoms Fever, vomiting, headache , , Usual onset 10–15 days post exposure Causes Plasmodium spread by Examination of the blood, Prevention , , , medications Medication Frequency 216 million (2016) Deaths 445,000 to 731,000 Malaria is a that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes that typically include , , , and . In severe cases (...) it can cause , , , or . Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected . If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an , reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria. It is caused by of the group. The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the from

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2012 Wikipedia

198. Pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine and its clinical implications in the chemoprophylaxis against vivax malaria. (PubMed)

Pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine and its clinical implications in the chemoprophylaxis against vivax malaria. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug used as chemoprophylaxis against malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA). In this study, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of HCQ and its metabolites and the relationship between the PK of HCQ and the effect of treatment of HCQ on vivax malaria in South Koreans. Three PK studies of HCQ were (...) conducted with 91 healthy subjects and patients with vivax malaria. Plasma concentrations were analyzed by noncompartmental and mixed-effect modeling approaches. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the data. The clearance and the central and peripheral volumes of distribution were 15.5 liters/h, 733 liters, and 1,630 liters, respectively. We measured the plasma concentrations of HCQ in patients with prophylactic failure of HCQ and compared them with the prediction

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2009 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

199. Evaluation of mood profiles during malaria chemoprophylaxis: a randomized, double-blind, four-arm study. (PubMed)

Evaluation of mood profiles during malaria chemoprophylaxis: a randomized, double-blind, four-arm study. To objectively compare the mood profiles of users of malaria chemoprophylaxis regimens (atovaquone-proguanil, chloroquine-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine) in a group of nonimmune tourists to sub-Saharan Africa.In a randomized, double-blind, four-arm study with placebo run-in phase conducted at travel clinics in Switzerland, Germany, and Israel, we compared moods and feelings (...) " scales in that less "tension" (p= .045) and less "fatigue" (p= .000) were noted in those aged 34 years and older. Younger participants, aged <34 years, reported more "confusion" (p= .013) at T2 than at T1 and T4.Although the overall mood profiles were similar for the users of any of the standard malaria chemoprophylaxis regimens, we found that women using mefloquine showed more fatigue and confusion than men and that younger persons aged less than 34 years, regardless of chemoprophylaxis used

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2009 Journal of Travel Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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