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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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181. Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less (...) diagnosis. A fever during the first half of the year requires investigating another aetiology, particularly a respiratory one. Malaria chemoprophylaxis is efficient and must not be overlooked. The QBC test appears to be the most reliable diagnostic test in this context.

2013 Malaria journal

182. Prednisone Plus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly

Medical Centre Information provided by (Responsible Party): Oriol Mitja, Lihir Medical Centre Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This randomized clinical trial will address a complication related to recurrent episodes of malaria in endemic areas - hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. We aim to assess the efficacy of chloroquine after prednisone-induction therapy compared to standard treatment of chloroquine alone in the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed hyper-reactive (...) malarial splenomegaly. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly Malaria Anaemia Drug: prednisone induction - chloroquine Drug: Chloroquine Phase 3 Detailed Description: Hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly (HMS) is a known chronic autoimmune complication in areas where malaria is endemic. Patients with HMS complain most commonly of abdominal swelling or pain from the enlarged spleen and the condition is defined using clear clinical and laboratory criteria

2013 Clinical Trials

183. Immunization With Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine or Chloroquine/Azithromycin Prophylaxis

: February 4, 2013 Last Update Posted : November 13, 2014 Sponsor: Radboud University Collaborators: Leiden University Medical Center Medicines for Malaria Venture Information provided by (Responsible Party): Radboud University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will assess the superior protective immunity of the combination of chloroquine and azithromycin prophylaxis under Chemoprophylaxis Sporozoites (CPS) immunization versus a standard chloroquine prophylactic regimen (...) . Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria, Falciparum Drug: Azithromycin capsules Drug: Placebo Biological: Immunization with falciparum Phase 1 Phase 2 Detailed Description: This study assesses the superiority of protective immunity of the combination of chloroquine and azithromycin prophylaxis under Chemoprophylaxis Sporozoites (CPS) immunization versus a standard chloroquine prophylactic regimen. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional

2013 Clinical Trials

184. Evaluating the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid

for decision-making; decrease decisional conflict; and affect levels of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. The hypotheses of this study are that: A decision aid will improve the quality of decision-making about malaria chemoprophylaxis by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge about malaria and malaria pills. Better decision quality will result in a greater level of adherence to prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Malaria (...) (the Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid), in addition to standard medical care. Other: Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid The Ottawa Malaria Decision Aid is a tool that helps patients become involved in decision making about which malaria prophylaxis pill is right for them to take. The decision aid provides information about the options for malaria chemoprophylaxis, information about the financial costs and time required to adhere to the course of preventative medication, and clarifies personal values. The decision aid

2013 Clinical Trials

185. Safety And Immunogenicity Of Novel Candidate Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine P27A : Phase Ia/Ib

History of living in a malaria endemic area for more than five (5) years OR living in a malaria endemic area in early childhood. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic (cf. www.safetravel.ch). Known exposure to malaria in the previous six (6) months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region P27A ELISA positive OR parasite ELISA antibody positive AND Known exposure to malaria in a malaria endemic area P27A (...) 18, 2018 Last Verified: July 2018 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: Yes Keywords provided by François Spertini, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois: plasmodium falciparum long synthetic peptide antibody T cell cytokine vaccine safety phase 1 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Malaria Protozoan Infections Parasitic Diseases Vaccines Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs Adjuvants

2013 Clinical Trials

186. Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and Algeria (1%), and highest in rural Senegal (15%). Co-infections with R. felis and Plasmodium spp. and occurrences of R. felis relapses or reinfections were identified. This study demonstrates a correlation between malaria and R. felis infection regarding geographic distribution, seasonality, asymptomatic infections, and a potential vector. R. felis infection should be suspected in these geographical areas where malaria is endemic. Doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against malaria in travelers to sub (...) Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (p<0.0001) of increasing risk for R. felis infection. The risks were lowest in France, Tunisia

2013 Emerging Infectious Diseases

187. Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. (Abstract)

%) of participants were on malaria chemoprophylaxis at the time of the study. Female sex (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.73), immunosuppression (CD4+ cell count <350/μL vs. 600/μL, aOR=2.41, 95% CI 1.23-3.74) and non-use of ITN (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.17-2.85) predicted the occurrence of clinical malaria in patients. We report a high burden of malaria in HIV-infected patients attending a tertiary facility in urban Kano, Nigeria. Health communication, standardized protocols (...) Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. The clinical burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is well-described, but the dynamics of the interaction between the two diseases remain poorly understood. Using a cross-sectional study design, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among HIV-positive patients attending a referral center in urban Kano, northwest Nigeria. Structured questionnaires covering socio

2013 Acta Tropica

188. Importation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by Guatemalan peacekeepers returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Importation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by Guatemalan peacekeepers returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malaria elimination is being pursued in five of seven Central American countries. Military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in sub-Saharan Africa could import chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, posing a threat to elimination and to the continued efficacy of first-line chloroquine (CQ) treatment in these countries. This report (...) identified 12 cases (8%) of laboratory-confirmed P. falciparum infection within the contingent; one case was from a soldier infected with a CQ-resistant pfcrt genotype resulting in his death. None of the contingent used an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) or completely adhered to malaria chemoprophylaxis while in the DRC.This report highlights the need to promote use of malaria prevention measures, in particular ITNs and chemoprophylaxis, among peacekeepers stationed in malaria-endemic areas. Countries

2013 Malaria journal

189. Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned (...) by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum.A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa

2013 Malaria journal

190. Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country.Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations (...) Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa.The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria

2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases

191. Malaria

Presentation within the first month of return from travel to endemic region Delayed presentation beyond 2 months may occur with the use of chemoprophylaxis Initial prodrome Malaise Next (>50% of patients) Shaking chills Next Drowsiness Lethargy Other symptoms Myalgias More severe in Muscle tenderness More severe in and s Back pain VI. Signs for 1-8 hours recurs Plasmodium Vivax: 48 hour intervals (Tertian Fever) Plasmodium Malariae: 72 hour intervals (Quartan Fever) Plasmodium Falciparum: Variable (...) when patient is febrile Image Rapid blood dipstick testing (when smear not available) Tests HRP-2 detection (only detects P. falciparum) LDH detection (detects all 4 Malaria types) Precautions Decreased with low levels of mia Examples: Patients who took chemoprophylaxis, or prior exposure Negative rapid tests should be confirmed with blood smears Malaria PCR Detects low levels of parsites in blood (<5 s/ul) Distinguishes between plasmodium species May be used to monitor response to treatment at 5-8

2015 FP Notebook

192. Trial for Malaria Vaccine Candidate, PfPEBS (P. Falciparum Pre-Erythrocytic and Blood Stage)

concerning contra-indications for participation in the study Willingness to undergo screening for drugs such as amphetamines, opiates and cocaine Exclusion Criteria: Any history of malaria Known exposure to malaria in the previous 6 months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic Planned to travel to endemic malaria areas during the study period Prior administration (...) Verified: May 2012 Keywords provided by Vac4All: Malaria Plasmodium falciparum vaccine ADCI sporozoite challenge pre-erythrocytic erythrocytic Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Malaria Protozoan Infections Parasitic Diseases Vaccines Aluminum Hydroxide Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs Adjuvants, Immunologic Antacids Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Gastrointestinal Agents

2012 Clinical Trials

193. The role of age and exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in the rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of age and exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in the rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity: a randomized controlled trial. The rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against malaria predominantly depends on transmission intensity and age, although disentangling the effects of these is difficult. We used chemoprophylaxis to selectively control exposure to P. falciparum during different periods in infancy and explore the effect of age in the build-up of NAI (...) and the CG was 1.35 (0.81-2.24, p = 0.743).After considerably interfering with exposure during the first year of life, there was a trend towards a higher risk of malaria in the second year in children who had received chemoprophylaxis, but there was no significant rebound. No evidence was found that the age of first exposure to malaria affects the rate of acquisition of NAI. Thus, the timing of administration of antimalarial interventions like malaria vaccines during infancy does not appear

2012 PloS one Controlled trial quality: predicted high

194. Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. The human landing catch (HLC) has long been the gold standard for estimating malaria transmission by mosquitoes, but has come under scrutiny because of ethical concerns of exposing collectors to infectious bites. We estimated the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a cohort of 152 persons conducting HLCs and compared it with that of 147 non-collectors in western Kenya (...) . Participants were presumptively cleared of malaria with Coartem™ (artemether-lumefantrine) and tested for malaria every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The HLC collections were conducted four nights per week for six weeks. Collectors were provided chemoprophylaxis with Malarone™ (atovaquone-proguanil) during the six weeks of HLC activities and one week after HLC activities were completed. The incidence of malaria was 96.6% lower in collectors than in non-collectors (hazard ratio = 0.034, P < 0.0001). Therefore

2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

195. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. Full Text available with Trip Pro

advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers, in particular, substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, underlining the continuous need for personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis for this risk group. (...) Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travellers, including business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs

2012 Malaria journal

196. The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The demographics of travelers and the proportion of severe cases are similar to those statistics reported in previous years. Non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis remains a nearly universal modifiable risk factor among these cases. (...) The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting both the increased number of travelers arriving from Haiti and the increased risk of acquiring malaria infection in Haiti

2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

197. Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia As it had been shown in previous trials that very small doses of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine or dapsone were effective in eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in 2 or 3 days, small-scale field trials were carried out on children to investigate the efficacy of this combination of drugs in suppressing malaria.Doses of pyrimethamine 2 mg with sulfadoxine 40 mg, fortnightly, appeared to be completely (...) successful in suppressing seasonal hyperendemic malaria in a group of 38 Gambian children over a 6-month period. On the other hand, pyrimethamine alone at the recommended dose failed to suppress falciparum malaria in some children of another group. Parasite resistance to the sulfonamide-pyrimethamine combination was not encountered nor was there any suggestion of toxicity. It is concluded that these drugs in combination could have a place in malaria chemoprophylaxis.

1970 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

198. Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria Interest in the schizontocidal activity of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) and in its possible use in malaria chemoprophylaxis has recently been revived. Studies on its toxicity and action in avian and simian malaria show that its chronic toxicity in monkeys is similar to that of the established antimalarials and that it lacks causal prophylactic, gametocidal and sporontocidal activity against Plasmodium

1962 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

199. HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Among a cohort of 1,213 cases treated for Plasmodium vivax malaria from an isolated Papua New Guinean population, seven adults with severe and sustained hemolytic anemia after clearance of the peripheral parasitemia were prospectively investigated. All the patients fulfilled the criteria for hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly and in 2 of 7 cases an IgG warm antibody was identified. Hereditary hemolytic anemia was excluded (...) in 5 of 5 patients. All treated cases improved after an initial high dose of prednisone and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The persistence of marked anemia in a patient with splenomegaly after a P. vivax attack should raise the suspicion of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

200. High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. To estimate malaria rates in association with birth country, we analyzed routine surveillance data for US military members. During 2002-2010, rates were 44× higher for those born in western Africa than for those born in the United States. Loss of natural immunity renders persons susceptible when visiting birth countries. Pretravel chemoprophylaxis should be emphasized.

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

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