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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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181. Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Full text)

Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis for travellers' malaria is problematic. Decision modeling may help determine optimal prevention strategies for travellers' malaria. Such models can fully assess effect of drug use and disease on quality of life, and help travellers make informed values based decisions. Such models require utility values reflecting societal preferences over different health states of relevance. To date (...) , there are no published utility values relating to clinical malaria or chemoprophylaxis adverse events.Utility estimates for health states related to falciparum malaria, sequelae and drug-related adverse events were obtained using a self-administered visual analogue scale in 20 individuals. Utility values for health states related to clinical malaria were obtained from a survey of 11 malaria experts questioned about length of hospital stay or equivalent disability with simple and severe travellers' malaria.The

2010 Malaria journal

182. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. (Full text)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers to West-Africa. The importation of malaria to non-endemic countries remains a major cause of travel-related morbidity and a leading cause of travel-related hospitalizations. Currently they are three priority medications for malaria prophylaxis to West Africa: mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline. We investigate the cost effectiveness of a partial reimbursement of the cheapest effective malaria chemoprophylaxis (...) (mefloquine) for travellers to high risk areas of malaria transmission compared with the current situation of no reimbursement.This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis based on malaria cases imported from West Africa to Switzerland from the perspective of the Swiss health system. We used a decision tree model and made a literature research on the components of travel related malaria. The main outcome measure was the cost effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis reimbursement based on malaria

2010 BMC Infectious Diseases

183. Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. (PubMed)

Relapsing vivax malaria despite chemoprophylaxis in two blood donors who had travelled to Papua New Guinea. Two Australian blood donors were diagnosed with relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria 5 and 15 months, respectively, after their most recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Common features included travel to Papua New Guinea (specifically, the Kokoda Trail); full compliance with recommended malaria chemoprophylaxis; and negative results on malaria antibody testing at the time (...) of donation. Although all fresh blood components from the two donors issued on the basis of these negative results were recalled before transfusion, these cases underscore the increased potential for relapse of P. vivax in donors returning from malaria-endemic countries, as well as the inability to identify the potential for relapse using current malarial screening tests.

2010 Medical Journal of Australia

184. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Full text)

The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis.A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis.Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently (...) recognized fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi. New data were found in the literature on the tolerability of mefloquine and the use of this medication by groups at high risk of malaria.Use of mefloquine for pregnant women in the second and third trimester is sanctioned by the WHO and some authorities (CDC) allow the use of mefloquine even in the first trimester. Inadvertent pregnancy while using mefloquine is not considered grounds for pregnancy termination. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis is allowed during

2010 Malaria journal

185. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. (Full text)

, respectively. Only 18.7% of the 1,573 potentially exposed travelers carried malaria tablets, all of them for self-treatment, none for prophylaxis.KAP about malaria among exposed Chinese travelers is far from satisfactory. To reduce the rate of imported malaria, specific educational tools should be developed for those at high risk to make them understand and become compliant with chemoprophylaxis.© 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine. (...) Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Malaria Prevention Among Chinese International Travelers. To address the lack of understanding in malaria prevention among Chinese international travelers, we have conducted knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study in five different Chinese geographic areas. This survey represents one part of the background information needed to analyze imported malaria.Standardized questionnaires were distributed to Chinese international travelers in departure

2011 Journal of Travel Medicine

186. Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. (Full text)

classified as having severe malaria. The global case-fatality rate was 0.4% and the rate of severe malaria was ≈3.8%. Factors independently associated with severe imported P. falciparum malaria were older age, European origin, travel to eastern Africa, absence of chemoprophylaxis, initial visit to a general practitioner, time to diagnosis of 4 to 12 days, and diagnosis during the fall-winter season. Pretravel advice should take into account these factors and promote the use of antimalarial (...) Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. Little is known about severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in industrialized countries where the disease is not endemic because most studies have been case reports or have included <200 patients. To identify factors independently associated with the severity of P. falciparum, we conducted a retrospective study using surveillance data obtained from 21,888 P. falciparum patients in France during 1996-2003; 832 were

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

187. HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. (Full text)

HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Among a cohort of 1,213 cases treated for Plasmodium vivax malaria from an isolated Papua New Guinean population, seven adults with severe and sustained hemolytic anemia after clearance of the peripheral parasitemia were prospectively investigated. All the patients fulfilled the criteria for hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly and in 2 of 7 cases an IgG warm antibody was identified. Hereditary hemolytic anemia was excluded (...) in 5 of 5 patients. All treated cases improved after an initial high dose of prednisone and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The persistence of marked anemia in a patient with splenomegaly after a P. vivax attack should raise the suspicion of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

188. Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. (Full text)

Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Over thirty years have passed since the Alma-Ata Declaration on primary health care in 1978. Many governments in the first decade following the declaration responded by developing national programmes of community health workers (CHWs), but evaluations of these often (...) demonstrated poor outcomes. As many CHW programmes have responded to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, international interest in them has returned and their role in the response to other diseases should be examined carefully so that lessons can be applied to their new roles. Over half of the deaths in African children under five years of age are due to malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia - a situation which could be addressed through the use of cheap and effective interventions delivered by CHWs. However, to date

2011 Human resources for health

189. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers

the study period History of confirmed malaria diagnosis on peripheral blood smear Anticipated use during the study period, or use within the following periods prior to enrollment: Investigational malaria vaccine at any time Malaria chemoprophylaxis within 6 months Chronic systemic immunosuppressive medications within 6 months Blood products or immunoglobulins within 120 days Investigational product or vaccine within 30 days Systemic antibiotics with antimalarial effects within 30 days Receipt of a live (...) Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Malaria Challenge in Healthy Volunteers (ITV) The safety and scientific

2011 Clinical Trials

190. Chloroquine for Malaria in Pregnancy

pregnancy when malaria infection is more likely to cause placental infection, maternal anemia, and low infant birth weight. This is a randomized controlled trial to compare chloroquine as IPT or chloroquine as chemoprophylaxis to IPTp with SP. Women will be randomized after Screening and enrollment, and they begin the assigned treatment between Week 20 and Week 28 gestation. Specimens will be collected at every prenatal visit and any time the participant is ill to determine if malaria is present (...) . Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 900 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Chloroquine as Chemoprophylaxis Versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi Study Start Date : February 2012 Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2014

2011 Clinical Trials

191. Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. (PubMed)

Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 - a prospective observational study. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic in Haiti, but epidemiological data are scarce. A total of 61 cases of malaria were diagnosed between November 2010 and February 2011 among 130 Haitian patients with undifferentiated fever. Three additional cases were diagnosed in expatriates not taking the recommended chemoprophylaxis (...) . No cases were diagnosed among aid workers using chemoprophylaxis. In conclusion, malaria is a significant health problem in Leogane, Haiti. Aid workers and visitors should use chemoprophylaxis according to existing guidelines.

2011 Euro Surveillance

193. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel 1 Guideline: Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel Authors: Natalie Prevatt Date of preparation: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 Contents Summary 2 Introduction to the guideline 2 General travel health and safety advice for travel 2 Traveller’s diarrhoea: prevention and treatment 4 Malaria prevention 4 Personal protection 6 Chemoprophylaxis 6 Important interactions between antimalarials and ART 7 (...) including fever, cough, coryzal symptoms and vomiting/diarrhoea. 2. Avoid being Bitten by mosquitoes, especially between dusk and dawn. This means using personal protection such as wearing protective clothing or repellents from dusk till dawn, and sleeping under treated bed nets. 3. Take Chemoprophylaxis as prescribed. 4. Seek Diagnosis and treatment if a fever develops 1 week or more after entering a malaria risk area and up to 12 months after departure, explaining to the healthcare professional

2018 The Children's HIV Association

194. Doxycycline

highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use (...) of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails. However, doxycycline is not used in young children under 8 years of age due to its contraindication due to the risk of yellow tooth discolouration and dental enamel hypoplasia. Doxycycline was developed after (...) treatment ( doxycycline [100 mg twice daily] plus metronidazole [400 mg three times daily] for 14 days, plus one single 500-mg ciprofloxacin dose). Of the 434 valid per protocol 2009 14. The end of a dogma: the safety of doxycycline use in young children for malaria treatment. Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

196. Routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals (2019 interim update)

infections and cancers and to guide chemoprophylaxis to prevent opportunistic infections. It is also used to decide when vaccination with live vaccines is safe and when to investigate for latent TB [2,3]. References 1. Mellors JW, Munoz A, Giorgi JV et al. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 946–954. 2. Geretti AM, Brook G, Cameron C et al. British HIV Association guidelines on the use of vaccines in HIV-positive adults 2015 (...) , Schistosoma serology, stool for ova, cysts and parasites (1D). Evidence Opportunistic infection immunity screening guides the prescription of chemoprophylaxis or vaccination [1]. Tuberculosis is a common co-infection in people from high prevalence areas and in people with low CD4 cell count [2]. Toxoplasma serology is only of value in patients with suspected cerebral infection or a minority of BHIVA guidelines on the routine investigation and monitoring of HIV-1-positive adults 18 patients with a low CD4

2019 British HIV Association

197. WHO recommendations on maternal health

14 Augmentation of labour 15 6. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage 15 7. Postnatal care 16 8 . Health promotion for maternal and newborn health 19 Management of maternal conditions 22 9. Postpartum haemorrhage 22 10. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia 23 11. Peripartum infections 24 12. HIV infection 24 13. Malaria 27 14. Tuberculosis 27iv Abbreviations AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral AZT zidovudine CCT controlled cord traction (...) be vaccinated with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine at any stage of pregnancy.(Strong recommendation, high quality evidence). Source Malaria prevention ¦ ¦ In malaria endemic areas, mothers and babies should sleep under insecticide-impregnated bed nets.(GDG consensus, based on existing WHO guidelines). Source7 PROMOTE, PREVENT AND PROTECT MATERNAL AND PERINATAL HEALTH Malaria prevention: intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) ¦ ¦ In malaria-endemic areas in Africa, intermittent

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

198. Statement on international travellers who intend to visit friends and relatives

to hepatitis A and B should be vaccinated prior to travel. For pediatric VFRs, opportunities to accelerate the routine schedule should be evaluated in order to provide maximal protection during travel. • VFRs should be counseled about the importance of malaria prevention when travelling to malaria-endemic countries. Recommendations should include use of personal protective measures to prevent mosquito bites, and potential use of chemoprophylaxis depending upon destination. • Safe food and water precautions (...) if VFRs have been exposed to malaria in the distant past, they have most likely lost their partial immunity and are at increased risk for clinical malaria (14). Additionally, VFRs may seek health care providers with a similar ethnic background who may share their belief about pre-existing immunity and, therefore, not recommend malaria chemoprophylaxis or other prevention strategies (24,25). While most of the above risk factors conferring higher risk of illness to VFRs can be classified as traveller

2015 CPG Infobase

199. Safety Profile of Drug Use During Pregnancy at Peripheral Health Centres in Burkina Faso: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study (Full text)

: 'probably safe', 'potentially risky' or 'unclassified'. A modified classification was built to take into account national malaria policy treatment guidelines and World Health Organization Malaria Treatment Guidelines recommending malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy.Out of 2371 pregnant women enrolled, 56.7% used at least one medication during the entire course of the pregnancy (excluding sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron-folic acid). A total of 101 different types of medications were used (...) of malaria during pregnancy and delivery in Burkina Faso's health facilities. It also aimed to assess factors associated with the use of potentially risky drugs over the entire course of pregnancy.We enrolled pregnant women from their first antenatal care visit and followed them up until delivery, and collected data on drug use. Based on United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) drug risk classification, drugs were classified into three groups

2018 Drugs - real world outcomes

200. Immunizations - travel

and drink. For more information see the CKS topic on for more information. Malaria is one of the more common serious acute infectious diseases that is contracted abroad, and can be prevented with appropriate chemoprophylaxis. See the CKS topic on for more information. Zika Virus is spread by day-biting mosquitos, is present in Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, Central and South America and the Caribbean, and can pose a risk to a developing baby if contracted during pregnancy. The risk of Zika Virus can (...) risk to travellers overseas. Vaccination against these diseases may be recommended in particular circumstances: Cholera. Hepatitis B. Japanese encephalitis. Rabies. Tick-borne encephalitis. The most common infectious diseases contracted abroad cannot effectively be vaccinated against, including: Travellers' diarrhoea. Malaria. Sexually transmitted infections. Parasitic infestation. The risk of contracting an infectious disease abroad depends upon: The region visited — the risk may vary from country

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

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