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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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181. Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. (Abstract)

%) of participants were on malaria chemoprophylaxis at the time of the study. Female sex (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.73), immunosuppression (CD4+ cell count <350/μL vs. 600/μL, aOR=2.41, 95% CI 1.23-3.74) and non-use of ITN (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.17-2.85) predicted the occurrence of clinical malaria in patients. We report a high burden of malaria in HIV-infected patients attending a tertiary facility in urban Kano, Nigeria. Health communication, standardized protocols (...) Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. The clinical burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is well-described, but the dynamics of the interaction between the two diseases remain poorly understood. Using a cross-sectional study design, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among HIV-positive patients attending a referral center in urban Kano, northwest Nigeria. Structured questionnaires covering socio

2013 Acta Tropica

182. Importation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by Guatemalan peacekeepers returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Importation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by Guatemalan peacekeepers returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malaria elimination is being pursued in five of seven Central American countries. Military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in sub-Saharan Africa could import chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, posing a threat to elimination and to the continued efficacy of first-line chloroquine (CQ) treatment in these countries. This report (...) identified 12 cases (8%) of laboratory-confirmed P. falciparum infection within the contingent; one case was from a soldier infected with a CQ-resistant pfcrt genotype resulting in his death. None of the contingent used an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) or completely adhered to malaria chemoprophylaxis while in the DRC.This report highlights the need to promote use of malaria prevention measures, in particular ITNs and chemoprophylaxis, among peacekeepers stationed in malaria-endemic areas. Countries

2013 Malaria journal

183. Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information. Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned (...) by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum.A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa

2013 Malaria journal

184. Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country.Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations (...) Economics of Malaria Prevention in United States Travelers to West Africa. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa.The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria

2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases

185. The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. (Abstract)

platform: radiation-attenuated sporozoites (irrSPZ), chemoprophylaxis with infectious sporozoites (CPS), and genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs). In all three, SPZ are administered to the vaccinee. All three protect animals against infection when administered by injection with a needle and syringe, and irrSPZ and CPS protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans when P. falciparum SPZ (PfSPZ) are administered by mosquito bite. Metabolically active, nonreplicating (radiation attenuated (...) The whole parasite, pre-erythrocytic stage approach to malaria vaccine development: a review. The whole sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine platform provides the only established approach for inducing high-level sustained protective immunity in humans against malaria. We introduce this platform, highlight literature published since 2011, and discuss the challenges of further development.There are three major approaches to development of a whole parasite vaccine to prevent malaria infection using the SPZ

2013 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

186. Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less (...) diagnosis. A fever during the first half of the year requires investigating another aetiology, particularly a respiratory one. Malaria chemoprophylaxis is efficient and must not be overlooked. The QBC test appears to be the most reliable diagnostic test in this context.

2013 Malaria journal

187. Malaria

Presentation within the first month of return from travel to endemic region Delayed presentation beyond 2 months may occur with the use of chemoprophylaxis Initial prodrome Malaise Next (>50% of patients) Shaking chills Next Drowsiness Lethargy Other symptoms Myalgias More severe in Muscle tenderness More severe in and s Back pain VI. Signs for 1-8 hours recurs Plasmodium Vivax: 48 hour intervals (Tertian Fever) Plasmodium Malariae: 72 hour intervals (Quartan Fever) Plasmodium Falciparum: Variable (...) when patient is febrile Image Rapid blood dipstick testing (when smear not available) Tests HRP-2 detection (only detects P. falciparum) LDH detection (detects all 4 Malaria types) Precautions Decreased with low levels of mia Examples: Patients who took chemoprophylaxis, or prior exposure Negative rapid tests should be confirmed with blood smears Malaria PCR Detects low levels of parsites in blood (<5 s/ul) Distinguishes between plasmodium species May be used to monitor response to treatment at 5-8

2015 FP Notebook

188. Trial for Malaria Vaccine Candidate, PfPEBS (P. Falciparum Pre-Erythrocytic and Blood Stage)

concerning contra-indications for participation in the study Willingness to undergo screening for drugs such as amphetamines, opiates and cocaine Exclusion Criteria: Any history of malaria Known exposure to malaria in the previous 6 months, defined as a visit to a malaria endemic region. For practical purposes, all regions for which malaria chemoprophylaxis is advised by travel clinic are considered malaria endemic Planned to travel to endemic malaria areas during the study period Prior administration (...) Verified: May 2012 Keywords provided by Vac4All: Malaria Plasmodium falciparum vaccine ADCI sporozoite challenge pre-erythrocytic erythrocytic Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Malaria Protozoan Infections Parasitic Diseases Vaccines Aluminum Hydroxide Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs Adjuvants, Immunologic Antacids Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Gastrointestinal Agents

2012 Clinical Trials

189. Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. The human landing catch (HLC) has long been the gold standard for estimating malaria transmission by mosquitoes, but has come under scrutiny because of ethical concerns of exposing collectors to infectious bites. We estimated the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a cohort of 152 persons conducting HLCs and compared it with that of 147 non-collectors in western Kenya (...) . Participants were presumptively cleared of malaria with Coartem™ (artemether-lumefantrine) and tested for malaria every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The HLC collections were conducted four nights per week for six weeks. Collectors were provided chemoprophylaxis with Malarone™ (atovaquone-proguanil) during the six weeks of HLC activities and one week after HLC activities were completed. The incidence of malaria was 96.6% lower in collectors than in non-collectors (hazard ratio = 0.034, P < 0.0001). Therefore

2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

190. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. Full Text available with Trip Pro

advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers, in particular, substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, underlining the continuous need for personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis for this risk group. (...) Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009. Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travellers, including business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs

2012 Malaria journal

191. The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The demographics of travelers and the proportion of severe cases are similar to those statistics reported in previous years. Non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis remains a nearly universal modifiable risk factor among these cases. (...) The Increase of Imported Malaria Acquired in Haiti among US Travelers in 2010. From 2004 to 2009, the number of malaria cases reported in Haiti increased nearly fivefold. The effect of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath on malaria transmission in Haiti is not known. Imported malaria cases in the United States acquired in Haiti tripled from 2009 to 2010, likely reflecting both the increased number of travelers arriving from Haiti and the increased risk of acquiring malaria infection in Haiti

2012 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

192. The role of age and exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in the rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of age and exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in the rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity: a randomized controlled trial. The rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against malaria predominantly depends on transmission intensity and age, although disentangling the effects of these is difficult. We used chemoprophylaxis to selectively control exposure to P. falciparum during different periods in infancy and explore the effect of age in the build-up of NAI (...) and the CG was 1.35 (0.81-2.24, p = 0.743).After considerably interfering with exposure during the first year of life, there was a trend towards a higher risk of malaria in the second year in children who had received chemoprophylaxis, but there was no significant rebound. No evidence was found that the age of first exposure to malaria affects the rate of acquisition of NAI. Thus, the timing of administration of antimalarial interventions like malaria vaccines during infancy does not appear

2012 PloS one Controlled trial quality: predicted high

193. Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malaria suppression with fortnightly doses of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine in the Gambia As it had been shown in previous trials that very small doses of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine or dapsone were effective in eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in 2 or 3 days, small-scale field trials were carried out on children to investigate the efficacy of this combination of drugs in suppressing malaria.Doses of pyrimethamine 2 mg with sulfadoxine 40 mg, fortnightly, appeared to be completely (...) successful in suppressing seasonal hyperendemic malaria in a group of 38 Gambian children over a 6-month period. On the other hand, pyrimethamine alone at the recommended dose failed to suppress falciparum malaria in some children of another group. Parasite resistance to the sulfonamide-pyrimethamine combination was not encountered nor was there any suggestion of toxicity. It is concluded that these drugs in combination could have a place in malaria chemoprophylaxis.

1970 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

194. Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on the toxicity and action of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in avian and simian malaria Interest in the schizontocidal activity of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) and in its possible use in malaria chemoprophylaxis has recently been revived. Studies on its toxicity and action in avian and simian malaria show that its chronic toxicity in monkeys is similar to that of the established antimalarials and that it lacks causal prophylactic, gametocidal and sporontocidal activity against Plasmodium

1962 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

195. Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996-2003. Little is known about severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in industrialized countries where the disease is not endemic because most studies have been case reports or have included <200 patients. To identify factors independently associated with the severity of P. falciparum, we conducted a retrospective study using surveillance data obtained from 21,888 P. falciparum patients in France during 1996-2003; 832 were (...) classified as having severe malaria. The global case-fatality rate was 0.4% and the rate of severe malaria was ≈3.8%. Factors independently associated with severe imported P. falciparum malaria were older age, European origin, travel to eastern Africa, absence of chemoprophylaxis, initial visit to a general practitioner, time to diagnosis of 4 to 12 days, and diagnosis during the fall-winter season. Pretravel advice should take into account these factors and promote the use of antimalarial

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

196. HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Among a cohort of 1,213 cases treated for Plasmodium vivax malaria from an isolated Papua New Guinean population, seven adults with severe and sustained hemolytic anemia after clearance of the peripheral parasitemia were prospectively investigated. All the patients fulfilled the criteria for hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly and in 2 of 7 cases an IgG warm antibody was identified. Hereditary hemolytic anemia was excluded (...) in 5 of 5 patients. All treated cases improved after an initial high dose of prednisone and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The persistence of marked anemia in a patient with splenomegaly after a P. vivax attack should raise the suspicion of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

2011 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

197. High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002-2010. To estimate malaria rates in association with birth country, we analyzed routine surveillance data for US military members. During 2002-2010, rates were 44× higher for those born in western Africa than for those born in the United States. Loss of natural immunity renders persons susceptible when visiting birth countries. Pretravel chemoprophylaxis should be emphasized.

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases

198. Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults

. Prior receipt of an investigational malaria or adenovirus vaccine. Chronic use of antibiotics with antimalarial effects. History of malaria chemoprophylaxis within 60 days prior to vaccination. Any history of malaria. Planned travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by any component of the vaccine(s) including latex. History of allergic disease or reactions likely to be exacerbated by chloroquine. History of psoriasis (...) Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Against of a Combined Malaria Vaccine in Healthy Malaria-naïve Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100

2011 Clinical Trials

199. Malaria

of Virginia School of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Topic Resources Malaria is infection with Plasmodium sp. Symptoms and signs include fever (which may be periodic), chills, sweating, hemolytic anemia, and splenomegaly. Diagnosis is by seeing Plasmodium in a peripheral blood smear and rapid diagnostic tests. Treatment and prophylaxis depend on the species and drug sensitivity and include artemisinin-based combination therapy, the fixed (...) organizations and institutions). Malaria once was endemic in the US. Currently, about 1500 cases occur in the US each year. Nearly all are acquired abroad, but a small number result from blood transfusions or rarely from transmission by local mosquitoes that feed on infected immigrants or returning travelers. Pathophysiology The Plasmodium species that infect humans are P. falciparum P. vivax P. ovale P. malariae P. knowlesi (rarely) Concurrent infection with more than one Plasmodium species is uncommon

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

200. Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis for travellers' malaria is problematic. Decision modeling may help determine optimal prevention strategies for travellers' malaria. Such models can fully assess effect of drug use and disease on quality of life, and help travellers make informed values based decisions. Such models require utility values reflecting societal preferences over different health states of relevance. To date (...) , there are no published utility values relating to clinical malaria or chemoprophylaxis adverse events.Utility estimates for health states related to falciparum malaria, sequelae and drug-related adverse events were obtained using a self-administered visual analogue scale in 20 individuals. Utility values for health states related to clinical malaria were obtained from a survey of 11 malaria experts questioned about length of hospital stay or equivalent disability with simple and severe travellers' malaria.The

2010 Malaria journal

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