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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Early Diagnosis for Korean Soldiers in Malaria Risk Regions (PubMed)

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Early Diagnosis for Korean Soldiers in Malaria Risk Regions Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished.To predict the incidence of malaria according to a control strategy, we proposed (...) . Although chemoprophylaxis would be more effective at reducing the incidence of malaria than early diagnosis, it is less economical due to the higher cost.Our results support the introduction of early diagnosis with a RDT kit to control malaria in the Republic of Korea Army.© 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

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2018 Journal of Korean medical science

2. Malaria control and chemoprophylaxis policy in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces for the previous 20 years (1997-2016). (PubMed)

Malaria control and chemoprophylaxis policy in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces for the previous 20 years (1997-2016). Vivax malaria reemerged along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), Republic of Korea (ROK), in 1993. While it was hypothesized that vivax malaria would spread throughout the peninsula, nearly all cases were due to exposure near the DMZ. To reduce spillover of vivax malaria to the civilian community, the ROK Ministry of National Defense (MND) initiated malaria prevention policies (...) including a large-scale chemoprophylaxis programme in malaria high-risk areas in 1997. The present study investigated the overall changes in the incidence of malaria among ROK soldiers and the mass chemoprophylaxis program from 1997 to 2016.Peak numbers of vivax malaria were reported in 2000, with most cases reported near the DMZ, before declining to the current levels. To combat the rapid increase in the number of malaria cases and its expansion throughout the ROK, the MND implemented mosquito control

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2018 Malaria journal

3. Drug-free holidays: Compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of a 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis in Australian travellers. (PubMed)

Drug-free holidays: Compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of a 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis in Australian travellers. Poor compliance with chemoprophylaxis is a major contributing factor to the risk of malaria in travellers. Pre-travel chemoprophylaxis may improve compliance by enabling 'drug-free holidays'. The standard treatment dose of atovaquone/proguanil (250mg/100mg, 4 tablets/day for 3 days) provides protection against malaria (...) for at least 4 weeks, and could therefore potentially be used for pre-travel chemoprophylaxis. In this study, we assessed the compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of the 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for malarial chemoprophylaxis.233 participants were recruited from four specialised travel medicine clinics in Australia. Adults travelling to malaria-endemic areas with low/medium risk for ≤4 weeks were enrolled, and prescribed the 3-day schedule of atovaquone/proguanil, completed at least one

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

4. Monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination versus daily proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in sickle cell disease: a randomized controlled study at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. (PubMed)

Monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination versus daily proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in sickle cell disease: a randomized controlled study at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Malaria carries a high case fatality among patients with sickle cell disease. In Jos University Teaching Hospital, at the time of this study, the use of Proguanil was the acceptable mode of chemoprophylaxis for preventing malaria in these patients. Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT (...) ) with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] has shown great potential for reducing the prevalence of malaria and anaemia among pregnant women, infants and travellers. We hypothesised that monthly SP was superior to daily Proguanil in reducing malaria parasitaemia, clinical malaria attacks and sickle cell crises in such patients.To assess the efficacy and affordability of monthly SP versus daily Proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in patients attending Sickle Cell Clinic at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau

2018 Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5. Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than (...) as intermittent therapy did not provide better protection from malaria and related adverse effects compared with intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a setting of high resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Chloroquine chemoprophylaxis might provide benefit in protecting against malaria during pregnancy, but studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results.US National Institutes of Health.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

6. Malaria prevention strategies and recommendations, from chemoprophylaxis to stand-by emergency treatment: a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic. (PubMed)

Malaria prevention strategies and recommendations, from chemoprophylaxis to stand-by emergency treatment: a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic. There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk.To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees (...) with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations.All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included. Country-specific malaria preventive recommendations provided and medicines prescribed over time were analysed.In total, 64 858 client-trips were recorded. 91% of travellers planned to visit a malaria endemic country. Among those clients, 42% were prescribed an antimalarial medicine as CP only, 36% as SBET only, and 3% both

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

7. Vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis: the role of Atovaquone-proguanil, compared to other options. (PubMed)

Vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis: the role of Atovaquone-proguanil, compared to other options. Atovaquone-proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum; however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for Plasmodium vivax is not known. Travelers returning to nonendemic areas provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis.In a retrospective observational study, for 11 years, Israeli rafters who had traveled to the Omo River (...) in Ethiopia, a highly malaria-endemic area, were followed for at least 1 year after their return. Malaria prophylaxis used during this period included mefloquine, doxycycline, primaquine, and atovaquone-proguanil. Prophylaxis failure was divided into early (within a month of exposure) and late malaria.Two hundred fifty-two travelers were included in the study. Sixty-two (24.6%) travelers developed malaria, 56 (91.9%) caused by P. vivax, with 54 (87.1%) cases considered as late malaria. Among travelers

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

8. Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling from Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study. (PubMed)

Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling from Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study. There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pretravel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 years old traveling from Greece to international destinations.We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. A standard questionnaire (...) ), while the hepatitis A vaccine and the tetanus-diphtheria vaccine accounted for most routine vaccinations (18% and 14.2%, respectively). The rabies and the typhoid fever vaccines were administered inadequately to adolescents traveling to endemic areas. Malaria chemoprophylaxis should have been prescribed in many cases traveling to sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent.Only a small number of adolescents from Greece traveling abroad seek pretravel counseling. We found significant gaps

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

9. Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point. (PubMed)

Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point. Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis (...) traveller to India acquiring malaria ranged from 5.25 per 100,000 travellers in 2012 to 13.45 per 100,000 travellers in 2010. If 50% of cases were missed by the Sri Lankan healthcare system, then the risk of acquiring malaria in India among returning Sri Lankans would double. The 95% confidence intervals for both risks are small. As chloroquine is the chemoprophylactic drug recommended for travellers to India by the Anti Malaria Campaign of Sri Lanka, the costs of chemoprophylaxis for travellers for a 1

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2017 Malaria journal

10. Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. (PubMed)

Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world and represents a threat to travellers visiting endemic areas. Chemoprophylaxis is the prevention measure used in travel medicine, avoiding clinical manifestations and protecting against the development of severe disease and death.Retrospective and descriptive analysis of malaria prevention data in travellers was recorded (...) were tourism and work. The most common destinations were Africa (24.5%), Europe (21.2%), Asia (16.6%) and locations within Brazil (14.9%). In general prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3% of all the consultations. African destinations vs Asian, Brazilian and other destinations and length of stay ≤30 days were independently associated with the higher odds of chemoprophylaxis recommendation after the logistic regression.The prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3

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2017 Malaria journal

11. Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil (PubMed)

Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil 28314384 2018 11 13 1475-2875 16 1 2017 03 17 Malaria journal Malar. J. Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. 120 10.1186/s12936-017-1739-6 Chaves Tânia do Socorro Souza TD Parasitology Section, Evandro Chagas Institute, Rodovia BR-316, Km 7 s/n, Levilândia, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-300, Brazil

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2017 Malaria journal

12. The efficacy of chemoprophylaxis against malaria with chloroquine plus proguanil, mefloquine, and atovaquone plus proguanil in travelers from Denmark. (PubMed)

The efficacy of chemoprophylaxis against malaria with chloroquine plus proguanil, mefloquine, and atovaquone plus proguanil in travelers from Denmark. The risk of malaria infection in travelers is seldom known in detail and neither is the efficacy of different prophylactic regimens, due to a lack of controlled trials. Surveillance of malaria diagnosed after return can provide data on risk and efficacy.An open case-control study was initiated. Imported cases were notified to our department (...) and were studied in 320 permanent residents in Denmark, returning from abroad with malaria from 1997 to 1999. These were compared with a group of 600 travelers who were not infected with malaria and matched by age, sex, and destination. Information on the use of chemoprophylaxis and the length of stay in malarious areas were obtained by questionnaire.Two hundred cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria were notified of which 103 had used chloroquine and proguanil, 16 mefloquine, and 3 atovaquone

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

13. DSM265 for Plasmodium falciparum chemoprophylaxis: a randomised, double blinded, phase 1 trial with controlled human malaria infection. (PubMed)

DSM265 for Plasmodium falciparum chemoprophylaxis: a randomised, double blinded, phase 1 trial with controlled human malaria infection. A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed (...) the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI).At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA). An additional group received daily atovaquone

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2017 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

14. The conundrum of malaria chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

The conundrum of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Alternative approaches to malaria chemoprophylaxis are discussed in light of the difficulties of executing clinical trials within limits of infection rates and ethics.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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2016 Journal of Travel Medicine

15. Factors associated with malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance among French service members deployed in Central African Republic. (PubMed)

Factors associated with malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance among French service members deployed in Central African Republic. Malaria is a public health concern in the French armed forces, with 400-800 cases reported every year and three deaths in the past 2 years. However, lack of chemoprophylaxis (CP) compliance is often reported among service members. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with CP compliance.A retrospective study (1296 service members) was carried out among (...) individual preventive measures against mosquito bites (bed net use, OR (odds ratio) = 1.41 (95% CI [1.08-1.84]), and insecticide on clothing, OR = 1.90 ([1.43-2.51]) and malaria-related behaviours (taking chemoprophylaxis at the same time every day, OR = 2.37 ([1.17-4.78]) and taking chemoprophylaxis with food, OR = 1.45 ([1.11-1.89])). High perceived risk of contracting malaria, OR = 1.59 ([1.02-2.50]), positive perception of CP effectiveness, OR = 1.62 ([1.09-2.40]) and the practice of peer-to-peer

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2016 Malaria journal

16. Repetitive live sporozoites inoculation under arteether chemoprophylaxis confers protection against subsequent sporozoite challenge in rodent malaria model. (PubMed)

Repetitive live sporozoites inoculation under arteether chemoprophylaxis confers protection against subsequent sporozoite challenge in rodent malaria model. Inoculation with live sporozoites under prophylactic antimalarial cover (CPS-immunization) represents an alternate approach to develop sterile, reproducible, and long-term protection against malaria. Here, we have employed arteether (ART), a semi synthetic derivative of artemisinin to explore its potential as a chemoprophylaxis candidate (...) in CPS approach and systematically compared the protective potential of arteether with mefloquine, azithromycin and primaquine. Blood stage patency and quantitative RT-PCR of liver stage parasite load were monitored as primary key end-points for protection against malaria challenge infection. For this purpose, sequential exposures of Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites under prophylactic treatment with arteether (ART), mefloquine (MFQ), azithromycin (AZ) or primaquine (PQ) was conducted in experimental

2016 Acta Tropica

17. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria (...) Chemoprophylaxis Aka: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis , Malaria Prophylaxis From Related Chapters II. Precautions Malaria Prophylaxis taken exactly as prescribed does not ensure complete protection may still occur at 1 week to 1 year after infection may also recur after completing treatment III. Protocol Always check CDC for resistance before prescribing CDC Travelers Health for regional recommendations Chemoprophylaxis is for prevention only Dosing below does not apply to treatment Chemoprophylaxis Schedule Agents

2018 FP Notebook

18. Large contractors in Africa: conundrums with malaria chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

Large contractors in Africa: conundrums with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Despite high levels of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI) within local communities in malaria high transmission settings in Africa, such people often experience clinical disease during peak transmission months due to high parasite challenge. Major recruiters of unskilled labour in high-transmission malaria settings in Africa generally withhold chemoprophylactic medication from this large component of their labour force, which (...) malaria elimination objectives, community well-being, and reduced absence from work. Such chemoprophylaxis could be by way of standard daily or weekly supervised administration of prophylactics during peak transmission months, or occasional intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), all aimed at reducing parasite burden and clinical disease. However, challenges exist regarding compliance with drug regimens over extended periods and high parasite resistance to recommended IPT drugs over much of Africa

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2016 Malaria journal

19. Malaria infection

Malaria infection Malaria infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Malaria infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary In Western countries, almost all malaria occurs in travellers; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed if a history of travel is not elicited. Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, sweats, headache, and myalgia (...) . Examination of a Giemsa-stained blood film remains the diagnostic test of choice. Once the diagnosis of malaria is confirmed, treatment should be started urgently, as a delay may be associated with disease progression and complications. Management should be undertaken in conjunction with an infectious diseases specialist. Definition Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium . Five species are known to infect humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most life-threatening. Snow

2019 BMJ Best Practice

20. Malaria infection

Malaria infection Malaria infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Malaria infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary In Western countries, almost all malaria occurs in travellers; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed if a history of travel is not elicited. Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, sweats, headache, and myalgia (...) . Examination of a Giemsa-stained blood film remains the diagnostic test of choice. Once the diagnosis of malaria is confirmed, treatment should be started urgently, as a delay may be associated with disease progression and complications. Management should be undertaken in conjunction with an infectious diseases specialist. Definition Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium . Five species are known to infect humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most life-threatening. Snow

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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