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Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

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1. The efficacy of chemoprophylaxis against malaria with chloroquine plus proguanil, mefloquine, and atovaquone plus proguanil in travelers from Denmark. (PubMed)

The efficacy of chemoprophylaxis against malaria with chloroquine plus proguanil, mefloquine, and atovaquone plus proguanil in travelers from Denmark. The risk of malaria infection in travelers is seldom known in detail and neither is the efficacy of different prophylactic regimens, due to a lack of controlled trials. Surveillance of malaria diagnosed after return can provide data on risk and efficacy.An open case-control study was initiated. Imported cases were notified to our department (...) and were studied in 320 permanent residents in Denmark, returning from abroad with malaria from 1997 to 1999. These were compared with a group of 600 travelers who were not infected with malaria and matched by age, sex, and destination. Information on the use of chemoprophylaxis and the length of stay in malarious areas were obtained by questionnaire.Two hundred cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria were notified of which 103 had used chloroquine and proguanil, 16 mefloquine, and 3 atovaquone

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Early Diagnosis for Korean Soldiers in Malaria Risk Regions (Full text)

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Early Diagnosis for Korean Soldiers in Malaria Risk Regions Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished.To predict the incidence of malaria according to a control strategy, we proposed (...) . Although chemoprophylaxis would be more effective at reducing the incidence of malaria than early diagnosis, it is less economical due to the higher cost.Our results support the introduction of early diagnosis with a RDT kit to control malaria in the Republic of Korea Army.© 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

2018 Journal of Korean medical science

3. Tafenoquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis: a systematic review

Tafenoquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr

2019 PROSPERO

4. Approval of Tafenoquine for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. (PubMed)

Approval of Tafenoquine for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis has become increasingly prominent now that it is used for vulnerable populations in endemic regions in addition to nonimmune travelers to those regions. The objective would be a drug with > 95% efficacy and that is easily tolerated, including in children and pregnant women. For individuals who prefer weekly rather than daily drug administration, a further objective is a product that is administered weekly

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

5. Drug-free holidays: Compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of a 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis in Australian travellers. (Full text)

Drug-free holidays: Compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of a 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis in Australian travellers. Poor compliance with chemoprophylaxis is a major contributing factor to the risk of malaria in travellers. Pre-travel chemoprophylaxis may improve compliance by enabling 'drug-free holidays'. The standard treatment dose of atovaquone/proguanil (250mg/100mg, 4 tablets/day for 3 days) provides protection against malaria (...) for at least 4 weeks, and could therefore potentially be used for pre-travel chemoprophylaxis. In this study, we assessed the compliance, tolerability, and acceptability of the 3-day atovaquone/proguanil schedule for malarial chemoprophylaxis.233 participants were recruited from four specialised travel medicine clinics in Australia. Adults travelling to malaria-endemic areas with low/medium risk for ≤4 weeks were enrolled, and prescribed the 3-day schedule of atovaquone/proguanil, completed at least one

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

6. Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than (...) as intermittent therapy did not provide better protection from malaria and related adverse effects compared with intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a setting of high resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Chloroquine chemoprophylaxis might provide benefit in protecting against malaria during pregnancy, but studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results.US National Institutes of Health.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

7. Malaria control and chemoprophylaxis policy in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces for the previous 20 years (1997-2016). (Full text)

Malaria control and chemoprophylaxis policy in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces for the previous 20 years (1997-2016). Vivax malaria reemerged along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), Republic of Korea (ROK), in 1993. While it was hypothesized that vivax malaria would spread throughout the peninsula, nearly all cases were due to exposure near the DMZ. To reduce spillover of vivax malaria to the civilian community, the ROK Ministry of National Defense (MND) initiated malaria prevention policies (...) including a large-scale chemoprophylaxis programme in malaria high-risk areas in 1997. The present study investigated the overall changes in the incidence of malaria among ROK soldiers and the mass chemoprophylaxis program from 1997 to 2016.Peak numbers of vivax malaria were reported in 2000, with most cases reported near the DMZ, before declining to the current levels. To combat the rapid increase in the number of malaria cases and its expansion throughout the ROK, the MND implemented mosquito control

2018 Malaria journal

8. Monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination versus daily proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in sickle cell disease: a randomized controlled study at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. (PubMed)

Monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination versus daily proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in sickle cell disease: a randomized controlled study at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Malaria carries a high case fatality among patients with sickle cell disease. In Jos University Teaching Hospital, at the time of this study, the use of Proguanil was the acceptable mode of chemoprophylaxis for preventing malaria in these patients. Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT (...) ) with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] has shown great potential for reducing the prevalence of malaria and anaemia among pregnant women, infants and travellers. We hypothesised that monthly SP was superior to daily Proguanil in reducing malaria parasitaemia, clinical malaria attacks and sickle cell crises in such patients.To assess the efficacy and affordability of monthly SP versus daily Proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in patients attending Sickle Cell Clinic at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau

2018 Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil (Full text)

Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil 28314384 2018 11 13 1475-2875 16 1 2017 03 17 Malaria journal Malar. J. Erratum to: Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. 120 10.1186/s12936-017-1739-6 Chaves Tânia do Socorro Souza TD Parasitology Section, Evandro Chagas Institute, Rodovia BR-316, Km 7 s/n, Levilândia, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-300, Brazil

2017 Malaria journal

10. Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. (Full text)

Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world and represents a threat to travellers visiting endemic areas. Chemoprophylaxis is the prevention measure used in travel medicine, avoiding clinical manifestations and protecting against the development of severe disease and death.Retrospective and descriptive analysis of malaria prevention data in travellers was recorded (...) were tourism and work. The most common destinations were Africa (24.5%), Europe (21.2%), Asia (16.6%) and locations within Brazil (14.9%). In general prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3% of all the consultations. African destinations vs Asian, Brazilian and other destinations and length of stay ≤30 days were independently associated with the higher odds of chemoprophylaxis recommendation after the logistic regression.The prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3

2017 Malaria journal

11. Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point. (Full text)

Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point. Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis (...) traveller to India acquiring malaria ranged from 5.25 per 100,000 travellers in 2012 to 13.45 per 100,000 travellers in 2010. If 50% of cases were missed by the Sri Lankan healthcare system, then the risk of acquiring malaria in India among returning Sri Lankans would double. The 95% confidence intervals for both risks are small. As chloroquine is the chemoprophylactic drug recommended for travellers to India by the Anti Malaria Campaign of Sri Lanka, the costs of chemoprophylaxis for travellers for a 1

2017 Malaria journal

12. Malaria prevention strategies and recommendations, from chemoprophylaxis to stand-by emergency treatment: a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic. (Full text)

Malaria prevention strategies and recommendations, from chemoprophylaxis to stand-by emergency treatment: a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic. There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk.To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees (...) with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations.All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included. Country-specific malaria preventive recommendations provided and medicines prescribed over time were analysed.In total, 64 858 client-trips were recorded. 91% of travellers planned to visit a malaria endemic country. Among those clients, 42% were prescribed an antimalarial medicine as CP only, 36% as SBET only, and 3% both

2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

13. Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling from Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study. (PubMed)

Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling from Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study. There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pretravel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 years old traveling from Greece to international destinations.We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. A standard questionnaire (...) ), while the hepatitis A vaccine and the tetanus-diphtheria vaccine accounted for most routine vaccinations (18% and 14.2%, respectively). The rabies and the typhoid fever vaccines were administered inadequately to adolescents traveling to endemic areas. Malaria chemoprophylaxis should have been prescribed in many cases traveling to sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent.Only a small number of adolescents from Greece traveling abroad seek pretravel counseling. We found significant gaps

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

14. DSM265 for Plasmodium falciparum chemoprophylaxis: a randomised, double blinded, phase 1 trial with controlled human malaria infection. (Full text)

DSM265 for Plasmodium falciparum chemoprophylaxis: a randomised, double blinded, phase 1 trial with controlled human malaria infection. A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed (...) the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI).At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA). An additional group received daily atovaquone

2017 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

15. Vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis: the role of Atovaquone-proguanil, compared to other options. (Full text)

Vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis: the role of Atovaquone-proguanil, compared to other options. Atovaquone-proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum; however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for Plasmodium vivax is not known. Travelers returning to nonendemic areas provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis.In a retrospective observational study, for 11 years, Israeli rafters who had traveled to the Omo River (...) in Ethiopia, a highly malaria-endemic area, were followed for at least 1 year after their return. Malaria prophylaxis used during this period included mefloquine, doxycycline, primaquine, and atovaquone-proguanil. Prophylaxis failure was divided into early (within a month of exposure) and late malaria.Two hundred fifty-two travelers were included in the study. Sixty-two (24.6%) travelers developed malaria, 56 (91.9%) caused by P. vivax, with 54 (87.1%) cases considered as late malaria. Among travelers

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

16. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Malaria Chemoprophylaxis Malaria (...) Chemoprophylaxis Aka: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis , Malaria Prophylaxis From Related Chapters II. Precautions Malaria Prophylaxis taken exactly as prescribed does not ensure complete protection may still occur at 1 week to 1 year after infection may also recur after completing treatment III. Protocol Always check CDC for resistance before prescribing CDC Travelers Health for regional recommendations Chemoprophylaxis is for prevention only Dosing below does not apply to treatment Chemoprophylaxis Schedule Agents

2018 FP Notebook

17. Efficacy of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis for travelers. (Full text)

Efficacy of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis for travelers. Nine of 26 French tourists developed malaria after a 2-week stay under field conditions in a highly endemic place in Burkina Faso. A study of their preventive antimalarial measures identified a strong association of malaria attack with absence or inadequacy of chemoprophylaxis but not with mechanic measures.

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

18. Malaria infection

Malaria infection Malaria infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Malaria infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary In Western countries, almost all malaria occurs in travellers; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed if a history of travel is not elicited. Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, sweats, headache, and myalgia (...) . Examination of a Giemsa-stained blood film remains the diagnostic test of choice. Once the diagnosis of malaria is confirmed, treatment should be started urgently, as a delay may be associated with disease progression and complications. Management should be undertaken in conjunction with an infectious diseases specialist. Definition Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium . Five species are known to infect humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most life-threatening. Snow

2019 BMJ Best Practice

19. Malaria infection

Malaria infection Malaria infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Malaria infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary In Western countries, almost all malaria occurs in travellers; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed if a history of travel is not elicited. Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, sweats, headache, and myalgia (...) . Examination of a Giemsa-stained blood film remains the diagnostic test of choice. Once the diagnosis of malaria is confirmed, treatment should be started urgently, as a delay may be associated with disease progression and complications. Management should be undertaken in conjunction with an infectious diseases specialist. Definition Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium . Five species are known to infect humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most life-threatening. Snow

2018 BMJ Best Practice

20. The conundrum of malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Full text)

The conundrum of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Alternative approaches to malaria chemoprophylaxis are discussed in light of the difficulties of executing clinical trials within limits of infection rates and ethics.© International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2016 Journal of Travel Medicine

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