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Lymphoid Hyperplasia

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142. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

cancer, and are predominantly epithelial-derived tumors (i.e., adenomas or adenocarcinomas). Transformation of any polyp into cancer goes through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Polyps that have traditionally been considered nonneoplastic include those of the hyperplastic, juvenile, hamartomatous, inflammatory, and lymphoid types. However, in certain circumstances, hamartomatous and juvenile polyps can progress into cancer. Research, however, does suggest a substantial risk of colon cancer

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

143. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

): 1659-63, 2000. [ ] Cellular Classification of Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland neoplasms are remarkable for their histologic diversity. These neoplasms include benign and malignant tumors of epithelial, mesenchymal, and lymphoid origin. Salivary gland tumors pose a particular challenge to the surgical pathologist. Differentiating benign from malignant tumors may be difficult, primarily because of the complexity of the classification and the rarity of several entities, which may exhibit a broad (...) metastasizes and has a poor prognosis. Neoplasms 4 cm or larger may have a particularly poor outcome.[ , ] Lymphoepithelial carcinoma Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma and carcinoma ex lymphoepithelial lesion, is an undifferentiated tumor that is associated with a dense lymphoid stroma. An exceptionally high incidence of this tumor is found in the Eskimo and Inuit populations.[ , ] This neoplasm has been associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

144. AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

infection does lead to an altered immunologic milieu. HIV generally infects T lymphocytes with the loss of regulation function that leads to hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B-cell hyperplasia. B cells are not the targets of HIV infection. Instead, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be at least a cofactor in the etiology of some of these lymphomas. The EBV genome has been detected in most patients with AIDS-related lymphomas; molecular analysis suggests that the cells were infected before (...) have been used, although 10 cm is recommended. Occasionally, specialized staging systems are used. The physician should be aware of the system used in a specific report. The E designation is used when extranodal lymphoid malignancies arise in tissues separate from, but near, the major lymphatic aggregates. Stage IV refers to disease that is diffusely spread throughout an extranodal site, such as the liver. If pathologic proof of involvement of one or more extralymphatic sites has been documented

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

145. Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

with mediastinal masses include thymic hyperplasia and thymic cysts. The following tests and procedures may be used in the diagnosis and staging of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: Physical examination and history. Chest x-ray. Approximately 50% of thymomas are diagnosed when they are localized within the thymic capsule and do not infiltrate surrounding tissues.[ ] Computed tomography (CT) scan. CT with intravenous contrast is useful in the diagnosis and clinical staging of thymoma. CT is usually accurate (...) for recurrence. The impact of sensitivity and specificity on clinical therapeutic decisions is yet to be defined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI can be used to distinguish TETs from other malignant and benign mediastinal lesions. Chemical-shift MRI can help differentiate TETs from thymic hyperplasia and a normal thymus. Cardiac MRI is the preferred modality to evaluate for the presence of myocardial involvement. An MRI can help identify phrenic nerve involvement and is considered superior to CT

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

146. Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The efficacy of both substances was assessed based on clinical arthritis signs, as well as cytokine (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) levels in lymphoid tissues. Additionally, the knee joints were harvested and histopathologically examined. The results showed that both substances reduced the transitional changes in the visual assessment score of arthritis symptoms compared with those in the control group, indicating their symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, E (...) . gracilis Z and paramylon significantly reduced the secretion of the cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The histopathological examination of the control group revealed edema, inflammation, cell hyperplasia, granulation tissue formation, fibrosis, and exudate in the synovial membrane, as well as pannus formation and articular cartilage destruction in the femoral trochlear groove. These changes were suppressed in both treatment groups. Particularly, the E. gracilis Z group showed no edema, inflammation

2018 PLoS ONE

147. Proposed method of histological separation between connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Full Text available with Trip Pro

regression analysis. A formula for calculating the probability of IIP and CTD-IP was constructed by the markers identified in the regression test with coefficients for each finding. The formula was confirmed using validation case group.Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasmacytosis, lymphoid follicle with germinal center, and airspace fibrin were suggestive of CTD-IP and that fibroblastic foci, smooth muscle hyperplasia, cellular IP, dense perivascular collagen, and fat metaplasia were

2018 PLoS ONE

149. Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma

for patients receiving total lymphoid irradiation and autologous blood stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2014;165(6):793-800. 33. Brice P, Divine M, Simon D, et al. Feasibility of tandem autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in induction failure or very unfavorable (UF) relapse from Hodgkin's disease (HD). SFGM/GELA Study Group. Ann Oncol. 1999;10(12):1485-1488. ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 7 Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma 34. Herbst C, Rehan FA (...) Pathologic confirmation should help differentiate between relapse, follicular hyperplasia, infection, and transformation. Recommended Treatment RT alone 2 Salvage chemotherapy alone 3 Salvage chemotherapy + RT 3 Salvage chemotherapy + SCT 7 Salvage chemotherapy + RT + SCT (CR to salvage chemotherapy) 8 Volume of RT (After CR to Chemotherapy) RT (ISRT) to site of relapse 8 Adjuvant RT to recurrent and all previously untreated nodal sites (TLI) 4 Timing of RT Primary therapy 2 Following salvage

2016 American College of Radiology

150. Celiac Disease

, this excess rate of major complications appears to resolve after 3– 5 years on a strictly gluten-free diet. The risk for asymptomatic celiac disease cases that are only detected on serological screening is poorly known. Key diagnostic findings include: ? Characteristic histopathologic changes in intestinal mucosal biopsies, including intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, and various grades of villous atrophy. ? Evidence that small-intestinal enteropathy is dependent on gluten, which can (...) for the development of celiac disease ( 25/100 epithelial cells) ? Crypt hyperplasia, with a decreased villi/crypt ratio ? Blunted or atrophic villi ? Mononuclear cell infiltration into the lamina propria ? Epithelial changes, including structural abnormalities in epithelial cells It is highly recommended that the pathologist ’s report should include changes in a structured format, including the above-mentioned histological changes, intraepithelial lymphocyte count, and interpretation in terms of the modified

2016 World Gastroenterology Organisation

152. Cometriq - cabozantinib

500 mg/kg =1000: death, weight?, ALT?, AST?, CK?, GGT?, LDH? XL184-NC-003 GLP Rat M+F/5 100, 300, 900 mg/kg Oral gavage 100 mg/kg =100: ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, total bilirubin? =300: death, histopathologic changes in adrenal gland, lung 900: prostration, coldness to touch, abnormal respiration; clinical pathology changes indicative of liver and hematopoietic toxicity, dehydration; histopathologic changes in GI tract, lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, adrenal gland, lung, testes, kidney, pancreas (...) XL184-NC-001 Dose range- finding Non-GLP Dog M/2 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 mg/kg Oral gavage >480 mg/kg =120: hypoactivity (F) =240: Ca, PO4? 480: WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts, cholesterol, ALT, AST? XL184-NC-004 GLP Dog M+F/2 400, 1000, 2000 mg/kg Oral gavage >2000 mg/kg 2000: excessive salivation Repeat dose toxicity In rats the most important target tissues for cabozantinib-related toxicity after 2 weeks of oral gavage are GI tract, bone marrow, lymphoid tissues, reproductive tract tissues

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

153. Tecfidera - dimethyl fumarate

, elevated glutathione and ATP levels and resistance against H 2 O 2 treatment. In vivo, DMF induced NQO1 in lymphoid organs and Akr1b8 in gastrointestinal tissues in wild type mice and rats for up to 24 h. The dependency of oxidative protection on Nrf2 was confirmed in vitro by silencing of Nrf2 transcription with specific siRNA and in vivo by the lack of a pharmacodynamic response in Nrf2 - / - mice. DMF also significantly diminished excitotoxic lesion volume (44 and 61 %, at DMF doses of 75 and 100 mg (...) as main target organs for toxicity in animals. Nephrotoxicity was detected in four different animal species and included renal tubule epithelial regeneration suggestive of injury. Such toxicity was also associated with renal tubular adenomas and carcinomas in mice and rats (see below). Increased liver weights were detected in mice, rats and dogs. Minimal multifocal hepatic necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia were also noted in rats. Given that no safety margins towards intended therapeutic levels

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

154. Sylvant - siltuximab

characterized by growth of lymphoid tissue (Bowne 1999). This syndrome is known by a variety of names, including giant lymph node hyperplasia, angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, angiomatous lymphoid hamartoma, lymph nodal haematoma, and lymph node hyperplasia of Castleman (Greiner 2000). CHMP assessment report EMA/CHMP/258608/2014 Page 9/92 Clinically, patients present with lymph node growth that is confined to a single location (unicentric Castleman’s disease) or occurs in multiple locations (MCD

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

155. Zydelig - idelalisib

Investigational New Drug (Application) iNHL indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma IRC independent review committee ITT intent-to-treat KM Kaplan-Meier LDH lactate dehydrogenase LPL lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma m module mAb monoclonal antibody MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MCL mantle cell lymphoma MedDRA Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities MID minimally important difference MM multiple myeloma MR minor response MRI magnetic resonance imaging MST medical search term MZL marginal zone lymphoma N or n (...) this approach is limited especially with respect to MZL and LPL/WM. In resistant and refractory stages the current treatment alternatives are very limited and often carry significant toxicities. About the product Idelalisib inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase p110d (PI3Kd), which is hyperactive in B cell malignancies and is central to multiple signalling pathways that drive proliferation, survival, homing, and retention of malignant cells in lymphoid tissues and bone marrow. Idelalisib is a selective

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

157. Mekinist - trametin

, GI damage, lymphoid organ depletion, bone marrow cellularity ?, labored breathing, killed in moribund condition, F: red blood cell parameters ? bw=body weight; M=male; F=female; GI=gastrointestinal; Hb=haemoglobin; WBC=white blood cells; P=serum inorganic phosphorus; ALP=alkaline phosphatase CHMP assessment report EMA/CHMP/675236/2013 Page 26/132 Repeat dose toxicity Table 2: Repeat-dose toxicity studies with trametinib Study ID Species/Sex/ Number/Group Dose/Route mg/kg/day Duration NOEL/ NOAEL (...) showed that trametinib was a skin sensitiser. Regarding the immunotoxicity of trametinib, in the repeated dose toxicity studies done on rats with a daily oral dosing for up to 13 weeks, it was shown that the principal immune-related adverse effect was bone marrow degeneration/necrosis and lymphoid necrosis in lymph nodes, spleen and thymus. In addition, adverse skin and gastric changes were associated with inflammation, characterized by increased cellularity (lymphocytes and plasma cells) in lymph

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

160. Entyvio - vedolizumab

-linked immunosorbent assay ET early Termination FP Finished Product GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue GI gastrointestinal GLP good laboratory practice GPI generic product identifier HAHA human anti-human antibodies HBI Harvey Bradshaw Index HBV hepatitis B virus Entyvio Assessment report EMA/CHMP/676643/2013 Page 5/166 HCV hepatitis C virus HIV human immunodeficiency virus HLT high level term HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography HRQOL health-related quality of life HRP horseradish Peroxidase (...) -02 and MLN02 MS multiple sclerosis N/A not applicable NC negative Control NEC not elsewhere classified ND not determined nHAHA neutralising HAHA NHP non-human primate NK natural killer NMSC Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer NOAEL no observed adverse effect level NOR Normal Operating Ranges NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug OD Optical Density PAHA primate antihuman antibodies Ph. Eur. European Pharmacopoeia PALS Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths PASS Post Authorisation Safety Study PBMC Peripheral

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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