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Lymphoid Hyperplasia

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141. ILC2 activation by keratinocyte-derived IL-25 drives IL-13 production at sites of allergic skin inflammation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

ILC2 activation by keratinocyte-derived IL-25 drives IL-13 production at sites of allergic skin inflammation. Atopic dermatitis skin lesions demonstrate increased expression of IL-25 by keratinocytes and increased numbers of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that express high levels of IL-25 receptor (IL-25R). IL-13 is expressed in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and plays an important role in pathogenesis of the disease.Our aim was to determine the role of IL-25 and ILC2s in a mouse model (...) expression was quantitated by RT quantitative PCR.In both acute and chronic antigen-driven allergic skin inflammation, signaling by keratinocyte-derived IL-25 in ILC2s is important for epidermal hyperplasia, dermal infiltration by CD4+ T cells, and cutaneous expression of Il13 and the IL-13-dependent TH2-cell-attracting chemokines Cc17 and Ccl22. ILCs are the major source of IL-13 in acutely sensitized mouse skin, whereas T cells are its major source in chronically sensitized mouse skin.ILC2 activation

2020 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

142. Clinical analysis of Kimura's disease in 24 cases from China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 65 years. Lesion diameter ranged from 0.6 cm to 7 cm with unilateral involvement being more popular (79%). Imaging examination had a high detection rate for KD involving the parotid gland and subcutaneous but had low specificity. Microscopic analysis indicated that KD mainly involved subcutaneous soft tissue and lymph nodes. The prominent feature of lymphoid tissue was germinal center hyperplasia surrounded by several lobules associated with hyperplastic vascular structures. Out of the 24

2020 BMC Surgery

143. The immunology of the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome; what can the tonsils reveal. A literature review. (Abstract)

with PFAPA displayed chronic tonsillar inflammation with lymphoid hyperplasia. No uniform immunological pattern was identified, but some studies found fewer B-lymphocytes and smaller germinal centers in PFAPA compared to controls. A difference in tonsillar microbiota between PFAPA and controls was found in one study.A uniform immunological or microbiological pattern explaining the clinical effect of TE in children with PFAPA has not been revealed. Future targeted immunological studies of tonsils in PFAPA

2020 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

144. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

can lead to infection. The skin-associated lymphoid tissue is one of the largest arms of the immune system. It may also be important in immune surveillance against cancer. Immunosuppression, which occurs during organ transplant, is a significant risk factor for skin cancer. The skin is significant for communication through facial expression and hand movements. Unfortunately, areas of specialized function, such as the area around the eyes and ears, are common places for cancer to occur. Even small

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

145. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of lymphoproliferative malignancies with differing patterns of behavior and responses to treatment.[ ] Like Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues and can spread to other organs. NHL, however, is much less predictable than Hodgkin lymphoma and has a far greater predilection to disseminate to extranodal sites. The prognosis depends on the histologic type, stage, and treatment. Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from NHL in the United States in 2019:[ ] New cases: 74,200 (...) . Deaths: 19,970. Anatomy NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues. Anatomy of the lymph system. Prognosis and Survival NHL can be divided into two prognostic groups: the indolent lymphomas and the aggressive lymphomas. Indolent NHL types have a relatively good prognosis with a median survival as long as 20 years, but they usually are not curable in advanced clinical stages.[ ] Early-stage (stage I and stage II) indolent NHL can be effectively treated with radiation therapy alone. Most

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

146. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

-RUNX1 fusion. Other alterations historically have been associated with a poorer prognosis, including the Ph chromosome (t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)), rearrangements of the KMT2A gene, hypodiploidy, and intrachromosomal amplification of the AML1 gene (iAMP21).[ ] In recognition of the clinical significance of many of these genomic alterations, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues lists the following entities for B-ALL:[ ] B (...) of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.[ ] The finding of t(5;14)(q31.1;q32.3) in patients with ALL and hypereosinophilia in the 1980s was followed by the identification of the IL3-IGH fusion as the underlying genetic basis for the condition.[ , ] The joining of the IGH locus to the promoter region of the IL3 gene leads to dysregulation of IL3 expression.[ ] Cytogenetic abnormalities in children with ALL and eosinophilia are variable, with only a subset resulting from the IL3-IGH fusion.[ ] The number of cases

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

148. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

—nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Type II is distinguished by the presence of lymphoid infiltration as type IIa or IIb. Type III—undifferentiated carcinoma. Type III is distinguished by the presence of lymphoid infiltration as type IIIa or IIIb. Children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma are more likely to have WHO type II or type III disease.[ , ] Clinical Presentation Signs and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma include the following:[ , ] Cervical lymphadenopathy. Nosebleeds. Nasal congestion

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

150. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

cancer, and are predominantly epithelial-derived tumors (i.e., adenomas or adenocarcinomas). Transformation of any polyp into cancer goes through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Polyps that have traditionally been considered nonneoplastic include those of the hyperplastic, juvenile, hamartomatous, inflammatory, and lymphoid types. However, in certain circumstances, hamartomatous and juvenile polyps can progress into cancer. Research, however, does suggest a substantial risk of colon cancer

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

151. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

): 1659-63, 2000. [ ] Cellular Classification of Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland neoplasms are remarkable for their histologic diversity. These neoplasms include benign and malignant tumors of epithelial, mesenchymal, and lymphoid origin. Salivary gland tumors pose a particular challenge to the surgical pathologist. Differentiating benign from malignant tumors may be difficult, primarily because of the complexity of the classification and the rarity of several entities, which may exhibit a broad (...) metastasizes and has a poor prognosis. Neoplasms 4 cm or larger may have a particularly poor outcome.[ , ] Lymphoepithelial carcinoma Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma and carcinoma ex lymphoepithelial lesion, is an undifferentiated tumor that is associated with a dense lymphoid stroma. An exceptionally high incidence of this tumor is found in the Eskimo and Inuit populations.[ , ] This neoplasm has been associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

152. AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

infection does lead to an altered immunologic milieu. HIV generally infects T lymphocytes with the loss of regulation function that leads to hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B-cell hyperplasia. B cells are not the targets of HIV infection. Instead, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be at least a cofactor in the etiology of some of these lymphomas. The EBV genome has been detected in most patients with AIDS-related lymphomas; molecular analysis suggests that the cells were infected before (...) have been used, although 10 cm is recommended. Occasionally, specialized staging systems are used. The physician should be aware of the system used in a specific report. The E designation is used when extranodal lymphoid malignancies arise in tissues separate from, but near, the major lymphatic aggregates. Stage IV refers to disease that is diffusely spread throughout an extranodal site, such as the liver. If pathologic proof of involvement of one or more extralymphatic sites has been documented

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

153. Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

with mediastinal masses include thymic hyperplasia and thymic cysts. The following tests and procedures may be used in the diagnosis and staging of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: Physical examination and history. Chest x-ray. Approximately 50% of thymomas are diagnosed when they are localized within the thymic capsule and do not infiltrate surrounding tissues.[ ] Computed tomography (CT) scan. CT with intravenous contrast is useful in the diagnosis and clinical staging of thymoma. CT is usually accurate (...) for recurrence. The impact of sensitivity and specificity on clinical therapeutic decisions is yet to be defined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI can be used to distinguish TETs from other malignant and benign mediastinal lesions. Chemical-shift MRI can help differentiate TETs from thymic hyperplasia and a normal thymus. Cardiac MRI is the preferred modality to evaluate for the presence of myocardial involvement. An MRI can help identify phrenic nerve involvement and is considered superior to CT

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

154. Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The efficacy of both substances was assessed based on clinical arthritis signs, as well as cytokine (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) levels in lymphoid tissues. Additionally, the knee joints were harvested and histopathologically examined. The results showed that both substances reduced the transitional changes in the visual assessment score of arthritis symptoms compared with those in the control group, indicating their symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, E (...) . gracilis Z and paramylon significantly reduced the secretion of the cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The histopathological examination of the control group revealed edema, inflammation, cell hyperplasia, granulation tissue formation, fibrosis, and exudate in the synovial membrane, as well as pannus formation and articular cartilage destruction in the femoral trochlear groove. These changes were suppressed in both treatment groups. Particularly, the E. gracilis Z group showed no edema, inflammation

2018 PLoS ONE

155. Proposed method of histological separation between connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Full Text available with Trip Pro

regression analysis. A formula for calculating the probability of IIP and CTD-IP was constructed by the markers identified in the regression test with coefficients for each finding. The formula was confirmed using validation case group.Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasmacytosis, lymphoid follicle with germinal center, and airspace fibrin were suggestive of CTD-IP and that fibroblastic foci, smooth muscle hyperplasia, cellular IP, dense perivascular collagen, and fat metaplasia were

2018 PLoS ONE

157. Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma

for patients receiving total lymphoid irradiation and autologous blood stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2014;165(6):793-800. 33. Brice P, Divine M, Simon D, et al. Feasibility of tandem autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in induction failure or very unfavorable (UF) relapse from Hodgkin's disease (HD). SFGM/GELA Study Group. Ann Oncol. 1999;10(12):1485-1488. ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 7 Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma 34. Herbst C, Rehan FA (...) Pathologic confirmation should help differentiate between relapse, follicular hyperplasia, infection, and transformation. Recommended Treatment RT alone 2 Salvage chemotherapy alone 3 Salvage chemotherapy + RT 3 Salvage chemotherapy + SCT 7 Salvage chemotherapy + RT + SCT (CR to salvage chemotherapy) 8 Volume of RT (After CR to Chemotherapy) RT (ISRT) to site of relapse 8 Adjuvant RT to recurrent and all previously untreated nodal sites (TLI) 4 Timing of RT Primary therapy 2 Following salvage

2016 American College of Radiology

158. Celiac Disease

, this excess rate of major complications appears to resolve after 3– 5 years on a strictly gluten-free diet. The risk for asymptomatic celiac disease cases that are only detected on serological screening is poorly known. Key diagnostic findings include: ? Characteristic histopathologic changes in intestinal mucosal biopsies, including intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, and various grades of villous atrophy. ? Evidence that small-intestinal enteropathy is dependent on gluten, which can (...) for the development of celiac disease ( 25/100 epithelial cells) ? Crypt hyperplasia, with a decreased villi/crypt ratio ? Blunted or atrophic villi ? Mononuclear cell infiltration into the lamina propria ? Epithelial changes, including structural abnormalities in epithelial cells It is highly recommended that the pathologist ’s report should include changes in a structured format, including the above-mentioned histological changes, intraepithelial lymphocyte count, and interpretation in terms of the modified

2016 World Gastroenterology Organisation

160. Cometriq - cabozantinib

500 mg/kg =1000: death, weight?, ALT?, AST?, CK?, GGT?, LDH? XL184-NC-003 GLP Rat M+F/5 100, 300, 900 mg/kg Oral gavage 100 mg/kg =100: ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, total bilirubin? =300: death, histopathologic changes in adrenal gland, lung 900: prostration, coldness to touch, abnormal respiration; clinical pathology changes indicative of liver and hematopoietic toxicity, dehydration; histopathologic changes in GI tract, lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, adrenal gland, lung, testes, kidney, pancreas (...) XL184-NC-001 Dose range- finding Non-GLP Dog M/2 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 mg/kg Oral gavage >480 mg/kg =120: hypoactivity (F) =240: Ca, PO4? 480: WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts, cholesterol, ALT, AST? XL184-NC-004 GLP Dog M+F/2 400, 1000, 2000 mg/kg Oral gavage >2000 mg/kg 2000: excessive salivation Repeat dose toxicity In rats the most important target tissues for cabozantinib-related toxicity after 2 weeks of oral gavage are GI tract, bone marrow, lymphoid tissues, reproductive tract tissues

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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