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Lymphoid Hyperplasia

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103. Acute appendicitis

is required, CT scan or ultrasonography may show dilatation of the appendix outer diameter to more than 6 mm. Definitive treatment is surgical appendectomy. Definition Acute appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix, Fitz RH. Perforating inflammation of the vermiform appendix with special reference to its early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med Sci. 1886;92:321-346. most likely due to obstruction of the lumen of the appendix (by faecolith, normal stool, infective agents, or lymphoid (...) hyperplasia). Itskowitz MS, Jones SM. Appendicitis. Emerg Med. 2004;36:10-15. [Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: Acute appendicitis - intraoperative specimen. Nasim Ahmed, MBBS, FACS; used with permission [Citation ends]. History and exam abdominal pain anorexia right lower quadrant tenderness adolescence or early adulthood nausea fever diminished bowel sounds tachycardia fetor vomiting Rovsing's sign psoas sign obturator sign <6 months of breastfeeding low dietary fibre

2018 BMJ Best Practice

104. Overview of leukaemia

, according to the degree of cell differentiation (not the duration of disease), and as myelogenous or lymphocytic, according to the predominant type of cell involved (myeloid or lymphoid). Several sub-types have been identified. The exact cause of leukaemia is unknown, but genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for many sub-types. Typical signs and symptoms might include fatigue, weight loss, fever, pallor, ecchymoses, petechiae, dyspnoea, dizziness, palpitations, bleeding (...) , and recurrent infections, although each sub-type has its distinguishing features. Definitive diagnoses often require bone marrow biopsy and/or blood analysis. Related conditions Condition Description A malignant clonal disease that develops when a B/T-precursor-stage lymphoid progenitor cell becomes genetically altered through somatic changes and undergoes uncontrolled proliferation. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common leukaemia in paediatrics, accounting for up to 80% of leukaemias

2018 BMJ Best Practice

110. Appendicitis

by a faecolith (hard mass of faecal matter), normal stool, and/or lymphoid hyperplasia secondary to viral infection. Risk (...) factors for appendicitis include age (most common between the ages of 10–20 years), male sex, frequent antibiotic use, and smoking. Appendicitis accounts for more than 40,000 hospital admissions in England every year. It is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain in young adults and children in the UK. Complications of appendicitis include appendix perforation, generalized (...) -346. most likely due to obstruction of the lumen of the appendix (by faecolith, normal stool, infective agents, or lymphoid 2018 3. Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain and suspected acute appendicitis Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain and suspected acute appendicitis Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain and suspected acute appendicitis Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

111. The EAU – EANM – ESTRO – ESUR – SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer

and Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 2015. 94: e1260. 45. Rowles, J.L., 3rd, et al. Processed and raw tomato consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2018. 21: 319. 46. Ilic, D., et al. Lycopene for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: a systematic review. Maturitas, 2012. 72: 269. 47. Bylsma, L.C., et al. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red (...) Clin Oncol, 2009. 27: 3591. 145. Vickers, A.J., et al. Systematic review of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen velocity and doubling time as predictors for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol, 2009. 27: 398. 146. Stephan, C., et al. The influence of prostate volume on the ratio of free to total prostate specific antigen in serum of patients with prostate carcinoma and benign prostate hyperplasia. Cancer, 1997. 79: 104. 147. Catalona, W.J., et al. Use of the percentage of free prostate-specific

2020 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

114. Inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa) - B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

of age, and approximately 11% of patients are diagnosed after 65 years of age (Howlader et al., 2015). Overall, approximately 20%-30% of adult patients with ALL are Ph+, with the incidence exceeding 50% in patients aged 50 years or older (Jabbour et al., 2015, Thomas DA, 2007). 2.1.3. Biologic features Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous haematologic disease characterized by the proliferation of immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and other organs resulting

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

115. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) - Rheumatoid arthritis

Erythropoietin F Female FACS Flourescent activated cell sorting Assessment report EMA/CHMP/853224/2016 Page 4/158 fu Fraction of drug free (unbound) in serum/plasma GALT Gut associated lymphoid tissue GD Gestation Day GFR Glomerular filtration rate GGT Gamma-glutamyltransferase GLP Good Laboratory Practice G-CSF Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor GM-CSF Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor HCT Hematocrit HDL High density lipoprotein HEK Human embryonic kidney hERG Human ether- à -go-go related (...) cell subsets: T cells with release of T- cell-derived cytokines, production of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) by B cells, and also involves macrophage and fibroblast-like cells which secret large amounts of pro- inflammatory cytokines. 2.1.4. Clinical presentation, diagnosis RA is characterised by synovial inflammation and hyperplasia (“swelling”), autoantibody production, cartilage and bone destruction leading to deformity. It is also often

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

116. Guidelines on autopsy practice: Autopsy in sickle cell disease and persons with sickle trait

clinically, it may be useful to remove one femur and split it longitudinally. This enables examination of marrow hyperplasia and sampling of old and recent sites of bone infarction. It can be replaced with leg strut during reconstruction. · Note whether there are skin ulcers on the legs. · Photography: as in any other disease, significantly abnormal organs can be photographed to show clinical and pathology colleagues. [Level of evidence: GPP.] 7 Specific organ systems to be considered All organs (...) disease; new and old ischaemic strokes; intracerebral haemorrhage; subarachnoid haemorrhage; meningitis; dural venous sinus thrombosis · liver: size, congestion, fibrosis, portal vein thrombosis · spleen: the size (tiny remnant to massive sequestration enlargement); infarcts and fibrotic nodules · kidneys: pyelonephritis, papillary necrosis, cortical necrosis · bone marrow: old and new vertebral/long bone infarcts, extent of haemopoietic marrow (hyperplasia); osteomyelitis · biliary system: bile

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

117. Right Lower Quadrant Pain : Suspected Appendicitis

diagnosed with appendicitis on MRI, with 61 of 66 proven pathologically. The 5 false-positive patients had pathologic diagnoses of torsed right ovary (n = 1), appendicolith with mild lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 1), fibrous obliteration of the appendiceal lumen without changes of appendicitis (n = 1), and normal appendices (n = 2). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV were 96.8%, 99.2%, 99.0%, 92.4%, and 99.7%, respectively. The pooled AUC was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.0, range 0.83-1 [P (...) and appendectomy. Of these 18 patients, 12 (66.7%) were confirmed, yielding MRI sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 95.3%, PPV of 68.8%, and NPV of 99.0%. Of the remaining 6 women who underwent appendectomy, 3 women had no histopathologic abnormality, 1 woman had subserosal histiocytes, 1 woman had fibrous obliteration of the appendiceal lumen, and 1 woman had epithelial hyperplasia and mucocele. An alternate diagnosis on MRI was identified in 74 of 171 (43%) women. Ramalingam et al [61] evaluated

2018 American College of Radiology

119. BSG and UKPBC primary biliary cholangitis treatment and management guidelines

be of large enough size to view a representative amount of parenchyma and number of portal tracts (proposed to be more than 11). 92 Hallmarks of PBC include destructive granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis affecting interlobular and septal bile ducts leading to progressive bile duct loss, chronic cholestasis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Other features that are seen include lymphocytic interface activity, parenchymal necro-inflammation and nodular regenerative hyperplasia. 93 94 The significance of features (...) in the context of clinical trials where liver biopsies have been used for risk stratification and as a surrogate marker of treatment outcomes. (A) Early PBC is characterised mainly by portal lesions and mild necroinflammatory changes in the acini. Portal tracts may show cholangiocentric granulomatous inflammation composed of lymphocytes, occasionally numerous plasmacytes, and polymorphs including eosinophils. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centres may form. The lymphoid inflammatory infiltrate extends

2018 British Society of Gastroenterology

120. Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

of a patchy interstitial in?ltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells associated with hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes and bronchiolar epithelium. The ?brotic zones are composed mainly of dense collagen, although scattered convex subepithelial foci of proliferating ?broblasts and myo?broblasts (so-called ?broblast foci) are a consistent ?nding. Microscopic honeycombing is characterized by cystic ?brotic airspaces that are frequently lined by bronchiolar epithelium and ?lled with mucus and in?ammatory cells

2018 American Thoracic Society

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