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Lymphoid Hyperplasia

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281. Immune cell dynamics in rhesus macaques infected with a Brazilian strain of Zika virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

(HS-2015-BA-01) in rhesus macaques for up to 142 d. ZIKV-specific Ab-secreting cells, germinal center reactions, and monocyte, dendritic cell, NK, and T cell frequencies were monitored. ZIKV loads were readily detected in plasma (until day 5 or 7), semen and urine (until days 7 and 14), and saliva (until day 42), but the viremia was rapidly controlled. No detectable clinical manifestations were observed. However, lymph node hyperplasia was clearly visible postviremia but was associated with low (...) frequencies of ZIKV-specific Ab-secreting cells in lymph nodes and bone marrow, correlating with low Ab titers. CD14+/CD16- monocytes and myeloid CD11chi dendritic cells decreased in blood, whereas NK and T cell numbers were only marginally altered during the course of the study. ZIKV infection caused a significant lymphoid tissue activation but limited induction of ZIKV-specific B cells, suggesting that these parameters need to be considered for ZIKV vaccine design.Copyright © 2017 by The American

2017 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

282. Mountain gorilla lymphocryptovirus has Epstein-Barr virus-like epidemiology and pathology in infants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mountain gorilla lymphocryptovirus has Epstein-Barr virus-like epidemiology and pathology in infants Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects greater than 90% of humans, is recognized as a significant comorbidity with HIV/AIDS, and is an etiologic agent for some human cancers. The critically endangered mountain gorilla population was suspected of infection with an EBV-like virus based on serology and infant histopathology similar to pulmonary reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (PRLH), a condition associated

2017 Scientific reports

283. Radiation-Induced Dermatitis is Mediated by IL17-Expressing γδ T Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

, was exposed to a single X-ray dose of 25 Gy, and the right-flank skin was used as a sham-irradiated control. At 4 weeks postirradiation, the wild-type skin exhibited signs of depilation, erythema and desquamation. Histological analysis showed hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and acanthosis. Dramatic elevation of IL17-expressing T cells was identified from the irradiated skin, which was mainly contributed by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells, rather than Th17 cells. Furthermore, protein levels (...) of critical cytokines for IL17-expressing γδ T cell activation, IL1β and IL23 were found markedly upregulated. Lastly, radiation-induced dermatitis was significantly attenuated in γδ T cell knockout mice. In vitro, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) could be initiator cells of inflammation by providing a great number of pro-inflammatory mediators upon radiation, and as well as effector cells of epidermal hyperplasia in response to exogenous IL17 and/or IL22 treatment. Our findings implicate

2017 Radiation research

284. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman’s disease: A case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman’s disease: A case report Castleman's disease (CD) is an angio-follicular lymph node hyperplasia presenting as a localized or a systemic disease masquerading malignancy. The most common sites of CD are mediastinum, neck, axilla and pelvis. Unicentric CD in the peripancreatic region is very rare.We report a case of the 34-year-old lady presenting with epigastric pain for 3 months. Abdominal imaging revealed a retroperitoneal mass arising from the pancreas (...) suspected to be neuroendocrine tumor. Tumor markers were not elevated. Complete surgical excision was performed and patient had uneventful recovery. Pathologic findings demonstrated localized hyaline-vascular type of Castleman's disease.CD is a very rare cause for development of retroperitoneal mass. It is more frequent in young adults without predilection of sex. It can occur anywhere along the lymphoid chain. Abdominal and retroperitoneal locations usually present with symptoms due to the mass effect

2017 International journal of surgery case reports

285. Inflammatory Duodenal Polyposis Associated with Primary Immunodeficiency Disease: A Novel Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inflammatory Duodenal Polyposis Associated with Primary Immunodeficiency Disease: A Novel Case Report Agammaglobulinemia is a rare form of B-cell primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by reduced levels of IgG, IgA, or IgM and recurrent bacterial infections. Agammaglobulinemia is most commonly associated with diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Duodenal polyps are a rare entity; however, due to wide use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, incidental diagnosis of duodenal polyps appears

2017 Case reports in medicine

286. The Diagnosis of NPC Using the Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

lesions were first identified endoscopically by nasal endoscope. Then, an initial dose of 0.5 mL prior to the examination with a maximum dose of 2.5 mL of 10% fluorescein (IV; Akorn Inc, Lake Forest, Illinois, USA) during the measurement procedure was defined according to the experiences of workgroup in the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental: lymphoid hyperplasia An unorganized tissue architecture, irregular cells (difference of cell shape, color and size), slightly intensified fluorescein leakage (...) , and vessels not assessable were found in the lymphoid hyperplasia of nasopharyngeal mucosa after intravenous injecting 10% fluorescein.. Diagnostic Test: 10% fluorescein The nasopharyngeal lesions were first identified endoscopically by nasal endoscope. Then, an initial dose of 0.5 mL prior to the examination with a maximum dose of 2.5 mL of 10% fluorescein (IV; Akorn Inc, Lake Forest, Illinois, USA) during the measurement procedure was defined according to the experiences of workgroup

2017 Clinical Trials

287. Synovial cellular and molecular markers in rheumatoid arthritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synovial cellular and molecular markers in rheumatoid arthritis. The profound alterations in the structure, cellular composition, and function of synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the basis for the persistent inflammation and cumulative joint destruction that are hallmarks of this disease. In RA, the synovium develops characteristics of a tertiary lymphoid organ, with extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Concurrently, the fibroblast-like synoviocytes undergo (...) massive hyperplasia and acquire a tissue-invasive phenotype. In this review, we summarize key components of these processes, focusing on recently-described roles of selected molecular markers of these cellular components of RA synovitis.

2017 Seminars in immunopathology

288. Management of Thyroid Cancer

, Grade of tumour, Extent, Size of primary tumour AMES Age at presentation, Metastases, Extent, Size of pri- mary tumour ARSAC Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (part of Health Protection Agency) ATA American Thyroid Association ATC Anaplastic thyroid cancer BAETS British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Sur- geons BAO- HNS British Association of Otolaryngologists, Head & Neck Surgeons CCH C-Cell hyperplasia CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen CT Computed tomography DTC (...) variant papillary thyroid cancer GP General practitioner IJV Internal jugular vein LNM Lymph node metastasis IMRT Intensity modulated radiotherapy MACIS Metastases, Age at presentation, Completeness of surgical resection, Invasion (extra-thyroidal), Size MALT Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue MDL Minimum detection level MDT Multidisciplinary team MEN Multiple endocrine neoplasia MIBG Metaiodobenzylguanidine Micro PTC micro-papillary thyroid carcinoma MRI Magnetic resonance imaging MRND Modi? ed

2014 British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons

290. Graves' Disease and Thymic Hyperplasia: The Relationship of Thymic Volume to Thyroid Function. (Abstract)

%, respectively. Two types of histological modifications of the thymus have been described in association with Graves' disease, namely, thymic parenchyma hyperplasia and medullary lymphoid hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying thymic transformation in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism are not completely elucidated, but autoimmune processes underlying Graves' disease are presumed to play a role. The clinical course of our patients is consistent with earlier literature, indicating that thymic enlargement (...) Graves' Disease and Thymic Hyperplasia: The Relationship of Thymic Volume to Thyroid Function. Thymic hyperplasia is associated with Graves' disease, particularly in young patients. The degree of thymic transformation is minimal in most but not all patients. In the latter group radiological measurements of thyroid size and their change with treatment have rarely been reported. We present two patients with Graves' disease and relatively rapid resolution of thymic enlargement after successful

2010 Thyroid

291. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

—nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Type II is distinguished by the presence of lymphoid infiltration as type IIa or IIb. Type III—undifferentiated carcinoma. Type III is distinguished by the presence of lymphoid infiltration as type IIIa or IIIb. Children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma are more likely to have WHO type II or type III disease.[ , ] Clinical Presentation Signs and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma include the following:[ , ] Cervical lymphadenopathy. Nosebleeds. Nasal congestion

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

292. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

-RUNX1 fusion. Other alterations historically have been associated with a poorer prognosis, including the Ph chromosome (t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)), rearrangements of the KMT2A gene, hypodiploidy, and intrachromosomal amplification of the AML1 gene (iAMP21).[ ] In recognition of the clinical significance of many of these genomic alterations, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues lists the following entities for B-ALL:[ ] B (...) of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.[ ] The finding of t(5;14)(q31.1;q32.3) in patients with ALL and hypereosinophilia in the 1980s was followed by the identification of the IL3-IGH fusion as the underlying genetic basis for the condition.[ , ] The joining of the IGH locus to the promoter region of the IL3 gene leads to dysregulation of IL3 expression.[ ] Cytogenetic abnormalities in children with ALL and eosinophilia are variable, with only a subset resulting from the IL3-IGH fusion.[ ] The number of cases

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

293. Systemic Corticosteroid

replacement, to suppress the immune system, and to treat some side effects of cancer and its treatment. Corticosteroids are also used to treat certain lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias. Definition (CSP) any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released by the pituitary gland or to angiotensin II; called also adrenocorticoid, corticoid, adrenal cortical or adrenocortical steroid (...) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724) Definition (PDQ) A synthetic glucocorticoid with metabolic, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Betamethasone binds to specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently binds to DNA to modify gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction

2018 FP Notebook

294. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, the immune system produces numerous peptides with antibacterial and antifungal capacity. Consequently, even small breaks in the skin can lead to infection. The skin-associated lymphoid tissue is one of the largest arms of the immune system. It may also be important in immune surveillance against cancer. Immunosuppression, which occurs during organ transplant, is a significant risk factor for skin cancer. The skin is significant for communication through facial expression and hand movements. Unfortunately

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

295. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of lymphoproliferative malignancies with differing patterns of behavior and responses to treatment.[ ] Like Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues and can spread to other organs. NHL, however, is much less predictable than Hodgkin lymphoma and has a far greater predilection to disseminate to extranodal sites. The prognosis depends on the histologic type, stage, and treatment. Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from NHL in the United States in 2019:[ ] New cases: 74,200 (...) . Deaths: 19,970. Anatomy NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues. Anatomy of the lymph system. Prognosis and Survival NHL can be divided into two prognostic groups: the indolent lymphomas and the aggressive lymphomas. Indolent NHL types have a relatively good prognosis with a median survival as long as 20 years, but they usually are not curable in advanced clinical stages.[ ] Early-stage (stage I and stage II) indolent NHL can be effectively treated with radiation therapy alone. Most

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

297. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

cancer, and are predominantly epithelial-derived tumors (i.e., adenomas or adenocarcinomas). Transformation of any polyp into cancer goes through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Polyps that have traditionally been considered nonneoplastic include those of the hyperplastic, juvenile, hamartomatous, inflammatory, and lymphoid types. However, in certain circumstances, hamartomatous and juvenile polyps can progress into cancer. Research, however, does suggest a substantial risk of colon cancer

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

299. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, Harris NL, et al.: Acute myeloid leukaemia: introduction. In: Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, et al., eds.: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2001. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours, 3, pp 77-80. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group. Br J Haematol 33 (4): 451-8, 1976. [ ] Cheson BD, Cassileth PA, Head DR, et (...) (NASDCE) (<3% positive blasts). Cytochemistry negative for alpha naphthyl acetate and butyrate esterases. Markedly hypercellular marrow. Immunophenotyping reveals blast cells that express one or more panmyeloid antigens (CD13, CD33, and CD117) and are negative for B and T lymphoid-restricted antigens. Most cases express primitive hematopoietic-associated antigens (CD34, CD38, and HLA-DR). The differential diagnosis includes ALL, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, biphenotypic/mixed lineage acute

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

300. Gilenya - fingolimod

in a 13 week study. Additionally, interstitial collagenization was seen in the lungs at all FTY720 treated groups and smooth muscle hypertrophy in bronchiolo-alveolar junctions at 5 mg/kg/day. Effects on lymphoid organs and decreased lymphocyte counts were noted for all treated groups in a 26 week study. Effects in the lungs and kidneys were observed and were associated with the pharmacological action of fingolimod in a 27 week study. In dogs, a dose-limiting effect (as expressed by vomiting (...) findings included a generally dosage-related effect on body weight, water consumption and lung weight, the latter being associated with hypertrophy of the smooth muscle at the bronchiolo-alveolar junction and hyper-distension of the alveoli at all dose levels. Hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells with an associated increase in the amount of collagen in the walls of the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts and the entrances to the alveolar sacs, together with aggregates of alveolar macrophages were

2011 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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