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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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161. Childhood HIV Disease (Diagnosis)

Updated: Nov 16, 2018 Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric HIV Infection Overview Practice Essentials Since the first cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. HIV is a retrovirus and can be transmitted (...) vertically, sexually, or via contaminated blood products or IV drug abuse. Vertical HIV infection occurs before birth, during delivery, or after birth. The genome layouts of HIV-1 and HIV type 2 (HIV-2) are shown in the image below. Genome layout of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 and HIV-2. Essential update: Study suggests benefits to starting HAART earlier in HIV-infected children In a study of HIV-1-infected, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive children, Yin et al found

2014 eMedicine.com

162. Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Diagnosis)

=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTEzMzc0Ni1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Updated: Apr 03, 2018 Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Overview Overview Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease may result from HIV infection itself or from opportunistic disorders secondary to the decline in immunocompetence from the disease. [ ] Cutaneous disorders may be the initial signs of HIV (...) AIDS Soc . 2011 Jan 24. 14:5. . . Altman K, Vanness E, Westergaard RP. Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus: a clinical update. Curr Infect Dis Rep . 2015 Mar. 17(3):464. . Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Yeager J, Ledsky R, McCarthy W, Baxter D, et al. Cutaneous findings in HIV-1-positive patients: a 42-month prospective study. Military Medical Consortium for the Advancement of Retroviral Research (MMCARR). J Am Acad Dermatol . 1994 Nov. 31(5 Pt 1):746-54. . Zampogna JC, Flowers FP

2014 eMedicine.com

163. Early Symptomatic HIV Infection (Diagnosis)

disorders such as aseptic meningitis; and dermatologic disorders such as varicella-zoster virus (shingles). The clinical effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are diverse, ranging from an acute retroviral syndrome associated with primary HIV infection to a prolonged asymptomatic state to advanced HIV disease. Experts regard HIV disease as beginning at the time of primary (acute) HIV infection and progressing through numerous stages of chronic infection. Acute HIV infection is defined (...) infection, see , , and . Next: Pathophysiology Acute HIV infection (also known as seroconversion) is defined as the period between exposure to the virus and completion of the initial immune responses (when an antibody test becomes positive for HIV). After infection, HIV is able to replicate at an exponential rate using CD4 cells. See the image below. Electron microscopy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 virions. Courtesy of CDC/Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr. The following is a simplified outline

2014 eMedicine.com

164. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody Associated Systemic Vasculitis Is Associated with Epstein - Barr virus in the Setting of HIV Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody Associated Systemic Vasculitis Is Associated with Epstein - Barr virus in the Setting of HIV Infection EBV has been a leading candidate as a trigger for several autoimmune diseases. We describe an antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) -associated systemic vasculitis as the initial presenting illness of AIDS.The patient was diagnosed ANCA -associated systemic vasculitis in the setting of HIV infection because of a high level of ANCA level (...) , crescent glomerulonephritis in pathology, and clinical signs and symptoms compatible with systemic vasculitis. He also had HIV associated lymphadenopathy with scattered. EBV-RNA positive cells and reactive germinal centers.EBV genome was found in reactive lymph nodes and, therefore, may be associated with the immunopathogenesis of vasculitis.

2013 Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice (Baltimore, Md.)

165. Impaired T-cell responses to sphingosine-1-phosphate in HIV-1 infected lymph nodes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired T-cell responses to sphingosine-1-phosphate in HIV-1 infected lymph nodes. The determinants of HIV-1-associated lymphadenopathy are poorly understood. We hypothesized that lymphocytes could be sequestered in the HIV-1+ lymph node (LN) through impairments in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) responsiveness. To test this hypothesis, we developed novel assays for S1P-induced Akt phosphorylation and actin polymerization. In the HIV-1+ LN, naïve CD4 T cells and central memory CD4 and CD8 T (...) cells had impaired Akt phosphorylation in response to S1P, whereas actin polymerization responses to S1P were impaired dramatically in all LN maturation subsets. These defects were improved with antiretroviral therapy. LN T cells expressing CD69 were unable to respond to S1P in either assay, yet impaired S1P responses were also seen in HIV-1+ LN T cells lacking CD69 expression. Microbial elements, HIV-1, and interferon α - putative drivers of HIV-1 associated immune activation all tended to increase

2013 Blood

166. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis: an unusual initial presentation of HIV infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cryptococcal lymphadenitis: an unusual initial presentation of HIV infection Lymphadenopathy can occur at any stage of HIV infection, with multiple aetiologies including reactive, infectious and malignant. An accurate and timely diagnosis has obvious implications for treatment. We report cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the presenting manifestation of HIV infection. The diagnosis in our patient was eventually confirmed with a lymph node biopsy. Fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown (...) to be a rapid and cost-effective method, which has been used in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in HIV infection, and could have been used to make an earlier diagnosis in our patient.

2013 BMJ case reports

167. Same-Day HIV Testing and Treatment Initiation to Improve Retention in Care

Same-Day HIV Testing and Treatment Initiation to Improve Retention in Care Same-Day HIV Testing and Treatment Initiation to Improve Retention in Care - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Same-Day (...) HIV Testing and Treatment Initiation to Improve Retention in Care The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01900080 Recruitment Status : Unknown Verified October 2016 by Serena Patricia Koenig, Brigham and Women's Hospital. Recruitment status was: Active, not recruiting First Posted : July

2013 Clinical Trials

168. Intravenous Chemotherapy or Oral Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage III-IV HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

with previously untreated stage III-IV human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, prednisone, lomustine, etoposide, and procarbazine hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells Condition or disease Intervention (...) Intravenous Chemotherapy or Oral Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage III-IV HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Intravenous Chemotherapy or Oral Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage III-IV HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2013 Clinical Trials

169. Genetically Modified Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

OBJECTIVES: I. To determine the safety and feasibility of infusing gene-modified, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) after high-dose chemotherapy for treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma. II. To determine the dose of carmustine (BCNU) in combination with O^6-benzylguanine (O6BG) that results in selection in vivo of gene-modified HIV-resistant cells. III. To estimate the effect of HIV infection on the presence of HIV-resistant (...) ) or diffusion capacity of the lung of carbon monoxide (DLCO) parameters < 60% predicted (corrected for hemoglobin) Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50% or coronary artery disease requiring treatment Active infection requiring systemic antibiotic therapy with antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral agents (excluding HIV) Patients who are hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positive or hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen positive must be free of clinical evidence of cirrhosis that would otherwise

2013 Clinical Trials

170. Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV HIV-Associated Hodgkin Lymphoma

, not recruiting First Posted : January 18, 2013 Last Update Posted : April 5, 2019 Sponsor: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Information provided by (Responsible Party): National Cancer Institute (NCI) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This pilot phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of brentuximab vedotin when given together with combination chemotherapy and to see how well they work in treating patients with stage II-IV human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated (...) immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. Event-free survival [ Time Frame: 5 years ] Binomial probabilities and their 95% confidence intervals will be used to estimate the response rates (i.e., partial response rate, complete response rate, overall response rate) and event free survival at 2 and 5 years of AVD and brentuximab vedotin for a treatment of patients with stage III/IV HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. CD4 counts [ Time Frame: Up to 1 year ] Repeated measures analysis of variance

2013 Clinical Trials

171. Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis in HIV-infected patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis in HIV-infected patients. The World Health Organization endorsed the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), but there is limited information about the utility of this assay for the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in HIV-infected patients with palpable cervical lymph nodes.Prospective, diagnostic test (...) study.Consecutive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and March 2013. Lymph node specimens were obtained through fine-needle aspiration or excisional biopsy. Mycobacterial culture was considered as the gold standard.Mycobacterium TB was cultured from 15 of 68 specimens (22.05%), and 53 specimens had negative cultures (77.94%). The sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% (95% CI, 74.65%-100%), and the specificity was 100% (95% CI, 91.58%-100%). Smear microscopy

2013 Laryngoscope

172. DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE IN LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A RABBIT MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION. Full Text available with Trip Pro

DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE IN LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A RABBIT MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION. Hydroxychloroquine has been proposed for HIV treatment; however, little is known about its disposition in the lymphatic system, where replication takes place. Therefore, its distribution in lymphoid tissues (Peyer's patches and popliteal, submandibular, femoral, splenic, and prescapular lymph nodes) was evaluated and compared with that in blood. Results showed a high affinity of hydroxychloroquine for all (...) of these tissues, with higher affinity for the splenic and submandibular lymph nodes, suggesting its potential use as a coadjuvant in HIV therapy.

2013 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

173. HIV infection in severely malnourished children in Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional prospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV infection in severely malnourished children in Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional prospective study. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has adversely affected the nutritional status and mortality of children in Africa. This study assessed the disease burden, predictive clinical features and outcomes for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and concomitant HIV infection.This was a cross-sectional prospective study of children with SAM aged between 3 months and 13 years (...) %) of the 246 study children had positive HIV antibody results. Uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling was 100%. Amongst children aged 18 months and over, the HIV seroprevalence was 28.3% (30/106). HIV seropositivity was strongly associated with prolonged fever, cough and diarrhoea; oral thrush, generalised lymphadenopathy and pulmonary tuberculosis (p value < 0.001 for all parameters). The presence of  ≥  3 of the first 5 aforementioned parameters was highly specific (98.3-100%) for HIV

2013 BMC Pediatrics

174. B cell lymphoma in hiv transgenic mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

B cell lymphoma in hiv transgenic mice Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) infection is associated with a high incidence of B-cell lymphomas. The role of HIV in these lymphomas is unclear and currently there are no valid in vivo models for better understanding HIV-related lymphomagenesis. Transgenic (Tg) 26 mice have a 7.4-kb pNL4-3 HIV-1 provirus lacking a 3.1-kb sequence encompassing parts of the gag-pol region. Approximately 15% of these HIV Tg mice spontaneously develop lymphoma (...) with hallmark pre-diagnostic markers including skin lesions, diffuse lymphadenopathy and an increase in pro-inflammatory serum cytokines. Here we describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the B cell leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg mice.The transformed B cell population consists of CD19+pre-BCR+CD127+CD43+CD93+ precursor B cells. The tumor cells are clonal and characterized by an increased expression of several cellular oncogenes. Expression of B cell-stimulatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL

2013 Retrovirology

175. Cutaneous histoplasmosis in a HIV seronegative patient Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cutaneous histoplasmosis in a HIV seronegative patient A patient presented with multiple nodulo-ulcerative lesions over neck and chest. Lymphadenopathy and systemic involvement were absent. Patient was seronegative for HIV. There was no history of local injury and no history of travel. Histopathological findings were consistent with histoplasmosis. Diagnosis of primary cutaneous histoplasmosis was made. We highlight this case owing to its rare and atypical presentation, in an attempt to promote

2013 Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine

176. Pulmonary manifestations of HHV-8 during HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary manifestations of HHV-8 during HIV infection. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 is an oncogenic gamma herpesvirus that was first described in 1994 in Kaposi sarcoma lesions. HHV-8 is involved in the pathophysiological features of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), both rare B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. HHV-8-related tumours occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, mostly those with HIV infection. Combined antiretroviral therapies (...) have reduced the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma but not MCD and PEL. HHV-8-related diseases frequently exhibit pulmonary involvement, which may indicate the disease. Kaposi sarcoma in the lung is often asymptomatic but may require specific therapy. It mostly shows cutaneous or mucosal involvement. Patients with typical MCD present fever and lymphadenopathy associated with interstitial lung disease without opportunistic infection. Specific treatment may be urgent. PEL provokes a febrile, lymphocytic

2013 European Respiratory Journal

177. Lymphadenopathy

, and foreign particles enter lymphatic vessels, becoming lymphatic fluid. Lymph nodes filter the lymphatic fluid on its way to the central venous circulation, removing cells and other material. The filtering process also presents antigens to the lymphocytes contained within the nodes. The immune response from these lymphocytes involves cellular proliferation, which can cause the nodes to enlarge ( reactive lymphadenopathy ). Pathogenic microorganisms carried in the lymphatic fluid can directly infect (...) -tissue infections The most dangerous causes are Cancer HIV infection TB However, most cases represent benign disorders or clinically obvious local infections. Probably < 1% of undifferentiated cases presenting for primary care involve cancer. Table Some Causes of Lymphadenopathy Cause Suggestive Findings Diagnostic Approach Infections URI Cervical adenopathy with only little or no tenderness Sore throat, runny nose, cough Clinical evaluation Oropharyngeal infection (eg, pharyngitis, , dental abscess

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

178. Lymphoma in HIV

, HIV related Lymphoma , AIDS related Lymphoma From Related Chapters II. Types: Hodgkin's Lymphoma mildly increased in HIV Course may be more aggressive in HIV May have less complete response to III. Types: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Occurs when median CD4=200 cells Rapid tumor growth with extranodal disease Non-lymphatic sites: , GI, , Usually widespread (stage 4) at time of diagnosis Poor prognosis in patients with advanced HIV Median duration of survival is 3-6 months Associated with EBV viral gene (...) -cell, and Hodgkin lymphomas. The prognosis is closely related to the severity of immunodeficiency. Concepts Neoplastic Process ( T191 ) MSH English AIDS Associated Lymphoma , AIDS related lymphoma , AIDS-Associated Lymphoma , AIDS-Associated Lymphomas , AIDS-Related Lymphoma , AIDS-Related Lymphomas , Lymphoma, AIDS Related , Lymphoma, AIDS-Associated , Lymphomas, AIDS-Associated , Lymphomas, AIDS-Related , HIV Related Lymphoma , HIV-Related Lymphoma , HIV-Related Lymphomas , Lymphoma, AIDS

2015 FP Notebook

179. Effects of Losartan and Antiretroviral Regimen Containing Raltegravir in Fibrosis Inflammation Mediators, Cardiovascular Risk and Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV Infected Patients Previously Effectively Treated

Effects of Losartan and Antiretroviral Regimen Containing Raltegravir in Fibrosis Inflammation Mediators, Cardiovascular Risk and Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV Infected Patients Previously Effectively Treated Effects of Losartan and Antiretroviral Regimen Containing Raltegravir in Fibrosis Inflammation Mediators, Cardiovascular Risk and Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV Infected Patients Previously Effectively Treated - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record (...) managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Losartan and Antiretroviral Regimen Containing Raltegravir in Fibrosis Inflammation Mediators, Cardiovascular Risk and Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV Infected Patients Previously Effectively Treated The safety and scientific

2012 Clinical Trials

180. HIV Indicator Diseases Across Europe Study

leukocytopenia or thrombocytopenia lasting at least 4 weeks Presenting with seborrheic dermatitis / exanthema Presenting with pneumonia, admitted to hospital for at least 24h Presenting with unexplained lymphadenopathy Presenting with peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause (diagnosed by neurologist) Presenting with primary lung cancer Presenting with severe or recalcitrant psoriasis (newly diagnosed) Condition or disease HIV Detailed Description: Most patients infected with HIV across the European continent (...) HIV Indicator Diseases Across Europe Study HIV Indicator Diseases Across Europe Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. HIV Indicator Diseases Across Europe Study (HIDES) The safety

2012 Clinical Trials

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