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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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101. Lymphadenopathy (Diagnosis)

immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malignancies, and autoimmune diseases, are less common causes of adenopathy. International Infections that are rarely observed in the United States, such as , typhoid fever, , , , , and fungal infections, are common causes of lymphadenopathy in developing nations. [ ] HIV infections must be strongly considered in areas of high incidence. Mortality/Morbidity In the United States, mortality and serious morbidity caused by adenopathy are unusual given the common infectious etiologies (...) . Malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphomas, and , are the primary causes of mortality in the United States. [ ] Significant morbidity and mortality are also associated with autoimmune disorders (eg, , ), , and storage diseases. HIV is an uncommon cause of adenopathy in the United States, but its associated mortality requires consideration. Race Race is not a factor in most lymphadenopathy. Rare causes may be associated with particular ethnic groups (eg, sarcoidosis in Africans, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

102. Regional Lymphadenopathy

Lymphadenopathy Aka: Regional Lymphadenopathy , Inguinal Lymphadenopathy , Axillary Lymphadenopathy , Epitrochlear Lymphadenopathy , Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy , Regional Lymphadenitis From Related Chapters II. Causes: Tender Regional Unilateral Lymphadenopathy (CMV) (EBV, ) Humn (HIV) (and other non-tuberculous ) (children) III. Causes: Right Supraclavicular Nodes Drainage Patterns Mediastinum s Esophagus Gastrointestinal cancer Cancer of the IV. Causes: Left Supraclavicular Nodes Drainage Patterns (...) Regional Lymphadenopathy Regional Lymphadenopathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Regional Lymphadenopathy Regional

2015 FP Notebook

103. Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler

Administration 4 Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Aka: Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler , Lymphadenitis in the Febrile Returning Traveler II. Differential Diagnosis III. Causes: Regional Lymphadenopathy s African and IV. Causes: Generalized Lymphadenopathy ( ) es (HIV) Fungus s V. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lymphadenopathy (...) Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer

2015 FP Notebook

104. Short course for focused assessment with sonography for human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis: preliminary results in a rural setting in South Africa with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short course for focused assessment with sonography for human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis: preliminary results in a rural setting in South Africa with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. In Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is common and poses diagnostic difficulties. Ultrasound is useful to find suggestive signs such as effusions or abdominal lymphadenopathy. Because trained radiologists are scarce (...) in resource-poor settings, even this simple and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool is frequently unavailable to patients in district hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a focused protocol for assessment with sonography for HIV/TB and trained physicians in a rural district hospital in South Africa. In this pilot study, high levels of confidence in identifying specific signs were rapidly achieved and ultrasound was introduced into routine clinical practice.

2010 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

105. Lymphatic Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus Promotes the Oncogenic Activity of the Virus-Encoded G-protein Coupled Receptor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lymphatic Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus Promotes the Oncogenic Activity of the Virus-Encoded G-protein Coupled Receptor Kaposi sarcoma, the most common cancer in HIV-positive individuals, is caused by endothelial transformation mediated by the Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded G-protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR). Infection of blood vascular endothelial cells (BEC) by KSHV reactivates an otherwise silenced embryonic program of lymphatic differentiation. Thus, Kaposi (...) sarcoma tumors express numerous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) signature genes. A key unanswered question is how lymphatic reprogramming by the virus promotes tumorigenesis leading to Kaposi sarcoma formation. In this study, we present evidence that this process creates an environment needed to license the oncogenic activity of vGPCR. We found that the G-protein regulator RGS4 is an inhibitor of vGPCR that is expressed in BECs, but not in LECs. RGS4 was downregulated by the master regulator of LEC

2012 Cancer research

106. The suspected unexpected and serious adverse events of antiretroviral drugs used as HIV prophylaxis in HIV uninfected persons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The suspected unexpected and serious adverse events of antiretroviral drugs used as HIV prophylaxis in HIV uninfected persons. With increased usage of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in HIV uninfected persons proper reporting on suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) and continued insight into serious adverse events (SAEs) is needed for adequate information on ARVs safety in such populations.We have evaluated medical documentation of persons receiving ARVs after non-occupationally (...) HIV exposure (nPEP) during five concomitant years (2009-2013). SAEs and SUSARs were evaluated by two HIV physicians and defined according to international standards. In statistical methods, Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the probability of SAE and Cox proportional hazard models to identify independent predictors of developing SAE. Only the first SAE was included in these analyses.In total, 375 persons received nPEP. The most common reason was needle stick (43%), followed

2014 Journal of the International AIDS Society

107. HIV-Resistant Gene Modified Stem Cells and Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Lymphoma With HIV Infection

enrollments) First Posted : January 22, 2015 Last Update Posted : November 20, 2018 Sponsor: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Collaborators: National Cancer Institute (NCI) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This pilot phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-resistant gene modified stem cells (...) in treating HIV-positive patients who are undergoing first-line treatment for Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Stem cells are collected from the patient and HIV-resistance genes are placed into the stem cells. The stem cells are then re-infused into the patient. These genetically modified stem cells may help the body make cells that are resistant to HIV infection. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Positive Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Stage I Adult Non

2014 Clinical Trials

108. Proteomic profiling of pre-treatment serum from HIV infected patients identifies candidate markers predictive of lymphoma development. (Abstract)

Proteomic profiling of pre-treatment serum from HIV infected patients identifies candidate markers predictive of lymphoma development. HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing lymphoma. We sought to identify markers predictive of lymphoma development by comparing protein expression patterns in serum obtained at the time of HIV diagnosis from patients who later developed malignant lymphoma or benign lymphadenopathy, with samples from patients with no subsequent history (...) of neoplasia.All patients were identified retrospectively from the Danish HIV cohort.Serum samples (N = 21), obtained at time of HIV diagnosis, were subjected to high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A tissue microarray, containing diagnostic HIV-lymphoma tissue samples (N = 40), was used to investigate immunohistochemical expression of markers in tumoural lesions.Fourteen differentially

2016 AIDS

109. Episodic fevers and vasodilatory shock mimicking urosepsis in a patient with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman's Disease: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Episodic fevers and vasodilatory shock mimicking urosepsis in a patient with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman's Disease: a case report. Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a pre-malignancy that presents with lymphadenopathy and features of systemic inflammation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated MCD is associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection. If untreated MCD has a relapsing and remitting course that is eventually fatal.A 67-year-old man had six hospital (...) admissions over 20 months characterised by fever, urinary frequency and CRP >100 mg/L. The final admission was complicated by hypotension requiring intensive care unit admission and ionotropic support. His history included HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection on suppressive therapy. Each presentation was managed as presumed urosepsis with use of empirical antibiotics, however numerous blood and urine cultures failed to identify a pathogen. A bone-marrow aspirate and trephine found no evidence

2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

110. Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for HIV-infected individuals.In humans, immune activation is reduced by suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, but persists at abnormally elevated levels on treatment. CNS immune activation is initiated in acute infection and progressively increases until combination antiretroviral therapy is started. Newly identified characteristics of the CNS immune surveillance network include features of homeostasis and function of brain microglial cells, lymphatic drainage from CNS to cervical lymph (...) Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Robust and dynamic innate and adaptive responses characterize the acute central nervous system (CNS) response to HIV and other viral infections. In a state of chronic infection or viral latency, persistent immune activation associates with abnormality in the CNS. Understanding this process is critical, as immune-mediated abnormality in nonrenewable CNS cells may result in long-term neurologic sequelae

2016 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

111. Novel insights into the early histopathogenesis of immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma: A case report of Burkitt microlymphoma arising within HIV lymphadenitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Novel insights into the early histopathogenesis of immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma: A case report of Burkitt microlymphoma arising within HIV lymphadenitis To report a case detailing the early histopathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, in the clinical setting of HIV infection.We describe a 57 year-old woman with newly diagnosed HIV infection who presented with unilateral localized axillary lymphadenopathy. Histopathological, immunohistochemical (...) , and flow cytometric analyses were performed and showed EBV-positive nests of Burkitt cells, including rare nests also positive for cytomegalovirus, exclusively located within hyperplastic monocytoid B-cell areas of HIV lymphadenitis. Due to positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of persistent localized lymphadenopathy with markedly increased fludeoxyglucose avidity a core needle biopsy was performed. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and flow

2016 Histopathology

112. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in an HIV-Infected Child with a Linezolid-Containing Regimen Full Text available with Trip Pro

Successful Treatment of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in an HIV-Infected Child with a Linezolid-Containing Regimen Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and associated (...) axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. Over several months, he developed splenic lesions and then disseminated skin and cystic bone lesions. M. bovis was repeatedly cultured from both skin and bone lesions despite various multidrug antimycobacterial regimens which included linezolid. Eventually, treatment with a regimen of rifabutin, isoniazid

2016 Case reports in infectious diseases

113. Bortezomib, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in a Patient with HIV-Negative Relapsed Plasmablastic Lymphoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bortezomib, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in a Patient with HIV-Negative Relapsed Plasmablastic Lymphoma Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), often associated with HIV infection. We present a case of a 53-year-old HIV-negative man with untreated hepatitis C viral infection who presented with abdominal pain and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node and bone marrow biopsies were consistent with plasmablastic lymphoma. He had partial response (PR (...) ) to 6 cycles of EPOCH but disease progressed seven weeks later. Repeat biopsy was consistent with plasmablastic lymphoma. Three cycles of bortezomib, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (B-ICE) chemotherapy resulted in a partial response (PR). Five months later, he presented with widespread lymphadenopathy and tumor lysis syndrome with circulating blasts. Flow cytometry revealed a different population of lymphoma cells, this time positive for CD5, CD19, CD20, and CD22, with dim expression of CD45

2016 Case reports in hematology

114. Clinical Profile of Surgical Diseases with Emergence of New Problems in HIV+ Individuals Full Text available with Trip Pro

with variety of surgical problems, some known and some less known. The percentage of HIV+ individuals was 1.64 % among all admissions. Of these individuals, 13.65 % (272) had surgical problems. Abscesses were the commonest. Abscesses at uncommon sites also were encountered. Anorectal pathologies, tuberculosis, lymphadenopathy, appendicitis, etc. commonly seen in HIV+ individuals were seen. Drug-induced pancreatitis due to anti retroviral therapy was one of the common problems encountered. Uncommon (...) Clinical Profile of Surgical Diseases with Emergence of New Problems in HIV+ Individuals North Karnataka is one of the regions with the high prevalence of HIV+ individuals. Bijapur is a district in North Karnataka with high prevalence as per fact sheets of NACO of March 2012. Better awareness, access to health care, and antiretroviral therapy have improved survival and increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Improved survival has increased their attendance to hospitals

2016 The Indian journal of surgery

115. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: insights for applications in HIV therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: insights for applications in HIV therapy Advances in solid drug nanoparticle technologies have resulted in a number of long-acting (LA) formulations with the potential for once monthly or longer administration. Such formulations offer great utility for chronic diseases, particularly when a lack of medication compliance may be detrimental to treatment response. Two such formulations are in clinical (...) development for HIV but the concept of LA delivery has its origins in indications such as schizophrenia and contraception. Many terms have been utilised to describe the LA approach and standardisation would be beneficial. Ultimately, definitions will depend upon specific indications and routes of delivery, but for HIV we propose benchmarks that reflect perceived clinical benefits and available data on patient attitudes. Specifically, we propose dosing intervals of ≥1week, ≥1month or ≥6months, for oral

2016 Advanced drug delivery reviews

116. Human Herpesvirus Type-8-associated Large B Cell Lymphoma (HHV-8-LBL). A Non- Serous Extra-Cavitary Variant of Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Man: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Herpesvirus Type-8-associated Large B Cell Lymphoma (HHV-8-LBL). A Non- Serous Extra-Cavitary Variant of Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Man: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype primarily seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with low CD4(+) cell counts and elevated HIV viral loads. It has always been associated with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) and in 80% of cases has (...) but not lymphadenopathy. It is an aggressive lymphoma, with an average median survival of < 1 year. HHV-8-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HHV-8-LBL) is a second variant of PEL that is both solid and extracavitary. It has immunoblastic and/or anaplastic morphologic features and a distinct immunohistochemical staining pattern. It could also have a different clinical presentation than that of classic PEL.We describe the case of a 57-year-old HIV-infected man who presented with a slow-growing and asymptomatic abdominal

2016 Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia

117. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective (...) observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7-17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16

2016 PloS one

118. Pilot Trial of the Effect of Vorinostat and AGS-004 on Persistent HIV-1 Infection

ways of reactivating latent (non-acting) HIV virus and determine if the immune system can be made stronger to eliminate the activated HIV virus. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase HIV-1 Infection Drug: Vorinostat Biological: AGS-004 Phase 1 Detailed Description: Purpose: Phase I study to measure the potential of AGS-004 combined with Vorinostat to: 1) stimulate expression of persistent proviral HIV from resting CD4+ cells, 2) generate an HIV-specific immune response, and 3) when (...) ; Hashimoto's disease; Scleroderma; Multiple sclerosis; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA); Thyroiditis Immune thrombocytopenic purpura; and, Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin therapy for Type II diabetes is permitted). History or other evidence of severe illness, malignancy, immunodeficiency other than HIV, or any other condition that would make the participant unsuitable for the study in the opinion of the investigator (or designee) Note: A history of non-melanoma skin cancer (e.g., basal cell carcinoma

2016 Clinical Trials

119. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tenofovir Alafenamide in HIV-uninfected Subjects with Severe Renal Impairment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tenofovir Alafenamide in HIV-uninfected Subjects with Severe Renal Impairment. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is an oral prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) that has greater stability in plasma than TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and circulates as intact TAF, resulting in the direct and higher lymphatic loading of and exposure to TFV diphosphate, the active moiety. Unlike TFV, TAF is minimally eliminated in urine. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAF and TFV in HIV-uninfected

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

120. Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-seronegative children presenting to the paediatric oncology ward in The Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi during 2002-2014. (Abstract)

were woody oedema, commonly of a limb, and lymphadenopathy. Woody oedema was common in children with or without HIV infection. Seronegative children with KS were less likely to have oral KS than HIV infected children. Of 11 children who completed courses of chemotherapy, seven (63%) had complete cure sustained over a 1-year follow-up period. KS is potentially curable in this group of children. Chemotherapy regimens are equally effective in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative children (...) Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-seronegative children presenting to the paediatric oncology ward in The Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi during 2002-2014. One of the most common malignancies in HIV-endemic, resource-poor countries is Kaposi sarcoma (KS). It is an AIDS-defining disease and as Malawi's incidence and prevalence of HIV is high, KS is now the most common cancer in adult male Malawians and the second most common in women and children. Most attention has focused on HIV

2015 Tropical Doctor

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