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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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81. Acute HIV infection presenting as fulminant meningoencephalitis with massive CSF viral replication (PubMed)

Acute HIV infection presenting as fulminant meningoencephalitis with massive CSF viral replication A 22-year-old man presented to the emergency department with 10 days of malaise, generalized rash, sore throat, oral ulcers, headache, nausea, and vomiting. On examination he had fever (101.5°F), hepatosplenomegaly, generalized maculopapular rash, and lymphadenopathy. He rapidly became obtunded, requiring intubation. Initial laboratory studies showed mild transaminitis, increased lactate (...) dehydrogenase, and 4,600 leukocytes per μL with 61% bands and 18% lymphocytes. Bacterial and fungal blood cultures were negative as well as a rapid HIV test, additional serologies (including rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination), quantitative PCRs (for viruses other than HIV), and urine and blood toxicology. CSF, on hospital day 4, showed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (total leukocytes: 100), high protein, borderline hypoglycorrhachia, and negative Gram stain and culture. Brain MRI

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2014 Neurology: Clinical Practice

82. Lymphadenopathy

-tissue infections The most dangerous causes are Cancer HIV infection TB However, most cases represent benign disorders or clinically obvious local infections. Probably < 1% of undifferentiated cases presenting for primary care involve cancer. Table Some Causes of Lymphadenopathy Cause Suggestive Findings Diagnostic Approach Infections URI Cervical adenopathy with only little or no tenderness Sore throat, runny nose, cough Clinical evaluation Oropharyngeal infection (eg, pharyngitis, , dental abscess (...) Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy - Cardiovascular Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic Hypotension

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

83. Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Overview)

Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Overview) Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection: Overview, Adnexal Manifestations, Anterior Segment Manifestations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxNjE3Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Updated: Nov 12, 2018 Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Overview Overview Ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have historically been common. While approximately 70-80% of HIV-infected patients have been treated for an HIV-associated eye disorder during the course of their illness

2014 eMedicine.com

84. Early Symptomatic HIV Infection (Diagnosis)

Symptomatic HIV Infection Updated: Jan 02, 2019 Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, AAHIVS, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Early Symptomatic HIV Infection Overview Overview Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, often the earliest symptom of primary HIV infection; oral lesions such as thrush and oral hairy leukoplakia; hematologic disturbances such as hypoproliferative anemia and thrombocytopenia; neurologic (...) than a defect in cell-mediated immunity. Some infected persons who are otherwise asymptomatic develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) during this time. With few exceptions, CD4 cell counts decline progressively during this asymptomatic period, at an average rate of approximately 50 cells/µL/y. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from long-term (chronic) HIV infection and is defined by an absolute CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL and specific

2014 eMedicine.com

85. Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Diagnosis)

on the trunk and the arms. In the early asymptomatic stage of HIV disease, which may last from a few years to a decade or longer, no signs of infection other than lymphadenopathy are present. Kaposi sarcoma can occur prior to the onset of immunosuppression. With the onset of immunosuppression, nonspecific skin changes occur, such as common disorders with atypical clinical features, including recurrent varicella zoster, numerous hyperkeratotic warts, treatment-resistant seborrheic dermatitis, and oral hairy (...) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Diagnosis) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV: Overview, Manifestations by HIV Disease Stage, Manifestations in HIV-Infected Children Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

86. Childhood HIV Disease (Diagnosis)

in the extremities Generalized cervical, axillary, or inguinal lymphadenopathy See for more detail. Diagnosis Detection of antibody to HIV is the usual first step in diagnosing HIV infection. The 2010 Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children [ ] recommendations for diagnosing infants include the following: Because of the persistence of the maternal HIV antibody, infants younger than 18 months require virologic assays that directly detect HIV in order to diagnose HIV (...) in the United States but still exist in developing countries. Sexual abuse of children and high-risk behaviors in adolescents also contribute to youth HIV infection. A variety of signs and symptoms should alert the clinician to the possibility of HIV infection in a child. The presentations include recurrent bacterial infections, unrelenting fever, unrelenting diarrhea, unrelenting thrush, recurrent pneumonia, chronic parotitis, generalized lymphadenopathy, delay in development with failure to thrive

2014 eMedicine.com

87. Childhood HIV Disease (Treatment)

Childhood HIV Disease (Treatment) Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Overview of Antiretroviral Therapy, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTY1MDg2LXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment & Management Updated: Nov 16, 2018 Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment Approach Considerations ART is the mainstay in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. Appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment of specific infections and malignancies are critical in treating patients who are HIV positive. Intervening early may

2014 eMedicine.com

88. Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Treatment)

Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Treatment) Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection: Overview, Adnexal Manifestations, Anterior Segment Manifestations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxNjE3Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Updated: Nov 12, 2018 Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Overview Overview Ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have historically been common. While approximately 70-80% of HIV-infected patients have been treated for an HIV-associated eye disorder during the course of their illness

2014 eMedicine.com

89. Childhood HIV Disease (Overview)

in the extremities Generalized cervical, axillary, or inguinal lymphadenopathy See for more detail. Diagnosis Detection of antibody to HIV is the usual first step in diagnosing HIV infection. The 2010 Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children [ ] recommendations for diagnosing infants include the following: Because of the persistence of the maternal HIV antibody, infants younger than 18 months require virologic assays that directly detect HIV in order to diagnose HIV (...) in the United States but still exist in developing countries. Sexual abuse of children and high-risk behaviors in adolescents also contribute to youth HIV infection. A variety of signs and symptoms should alert the clinician to the possibility of HIV infection in a child. The presentations include recurrent bacterial infections, unrelenting fever, unrelenting diarrhea, unrelenting thrush, recurrent pneumonia, chronic parotitis, generalized lymphadenopathy, delay in development with failure to thrive

2014 eMedicine.com

90. HIV (Overview)

HIV (Overview) Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection: Overview, Adnexal Manifestations, Anterior Segment Manifestations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxNjE3Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Ocular (...) Manifestations of HIV Infection Updated: Nov 12, 2018 Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Overview Overview Ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have historically been common. While approximately 70-80% of HIV-infected patients have been treated for an HIV-associated eye disorder during the course of their illness, recently, these numbers have appeared

2014 eMedicine.com

91. Early Symptomatic HIV Infection (Overview)

Symptomatic HIV Infection Updated: Jan 02, 2019 Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, AAHIVS, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Early Symptomatic HIV Infection Overview Overview Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, often the earliest symptom of primary HIV infection; oral lesions such as thrush and oral hairy leukoplakia; hematologic disturbances such as hypoproliferative anemia and thrombocytopenia; neurologic (...) than a defect in cell-mediated immunity. Some infected persons who are otherwise asymptomatic develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) during this time. With few exceptions, CD4 cell counts decline progressively during this asymptomatic period, at an average rate of approximately 50 cells/µL/y. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from long-term (chronic) HIV infection and is defined by an absolute CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL and specific

2014 eMedicine.com

92. Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Overview)

on the trunk and the arms. In the early asymptomatic stage of HIV disease, which may last from a few years to a decade or longer, no signs of infection other than lymphadenopathy are present. Kaposi sarcoma can occur prior to the onset of immunosuppression. With the onset of immunosuppression, nonspecific skin changes occur, such as common disorders with atypical clinical features, including recurrent varicella zoster, numerous hyperkeratotic warts, treatment-resistant seborrheic dermatitis, and oral hairy (...) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Overview) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV: Overview, Manifestations by HIV Disease Stage, Manifestations in HIV-Infected Children Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

93. Early Symptomatic HIV Infection (Treatment)

Symptomatic HIV Infection Updated: Jan 02, 2019 Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, AAHIVS, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Early Symptomatic HIV Infection Overview Overview Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, often the earliest symptom of primary HIV infection; oral lesions such as thrush and oral hairy leukoplakia; hematologic disturbances such as hypoproliferative anemia and thrombocytopenia; neurologic (...) than a defect in cell-mediated immunity. Some infected persons who are otherwise asymptomatic develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) during this time. With few exceptions, CD4 cell counts decline progressively during this asymptomatic period, at an average rate of approximately 50 cells/µL/y. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from long-term (chronic) HIV infection and is defined by an absolute CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL and specific

2014 eMedicine.com

94. Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Treatment)

on the trunk and the arms. In the early asymptomatic stage of HIV disease, which may last from a few years to a decade or longer, no signs of infection other than lymphadenopathy are present. Kaposi sarcoma can occur prior to the onset of immunosuppression. With the onset of immunosuppression, nonspecific skin changes occur, such as common disorders with atypical clinical features, including recurrent varicella zoster, numerous hyperkeratotic warts, treatment-resistant seborrheic dermatitis, and oral hairy (...) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Treatment) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV: Overview, Manifestations by HIV Disease Stage, Manifestations in HIV-Infected Children Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

95. Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Follow-up)

Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Follow-up) Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection: Overview, Adnexal Manifestations, Anterior Segment Manifestations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxNjE3Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Updated: Nov 12, 2018 Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Overview Overview Ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have historically been common. While approximately 70-80% of HIV-infected patients have been treated for an HIV-associated eye disorder during the course of their illness

2014 eMedicine.com

96. Early Symptomatic HIV Infection (Follow-up)

Symptomatic HIV Infection Updated: Jan 02, 2019 Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, AAHIVS, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Early Symptomatic HIV Infection Overview Overview Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, often the earliest symptom of primary HIV infection; oral lesions such as thrush and oral hairy leukoplakia; hematologic disturbances such as hypoproliferative anemia and thrombocytopenia; neurologic (...) than a defect in cell-mediated immunity. Some infected persons who are otherwise asymptomatic develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) during this time. With few exceptions, CD4 cell counts decline progressively during this asymptomatic period, at an average rate of approximately 50 cells/µL/y. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from long-term (chronic) HIV infection and is defined by an absolute CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL and specific

2014 eMedicine.com

97. Childhood HIV Disease (Follow-up)

Childhood HIV Disease (Follow-up) Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Overview of Antiretroviral Therapy, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTY1MDg2LXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment & Management Updated: Nov 16, 2018 Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment Approach Considerations ART is the mainstay in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. Appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment of specific infections and malignancies are critical in treating patients who are HIV positive. Intervening early may

2014 eMedicine.com

98. Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Follow-up)

on the trunk and the arms. In the early asymptomatic stage of HIV disease, which may last from a few years to a decade or longer, no signs of infection other than lymphadenopathy are present. Kaposi sarcoma can occur prior to the onset of immunosuppression. With the onset of immunosuppression, nonspecific skin changes occur, such as common disorders with atypical clinical features, including recurrent varicella zoster, numerous hyperkeratotic warts, treatment-resistant seborrheic dermatitis, and oral hairy (...) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease (Follow-up) Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV: Overview, Manifestations by HIV Disease Stage, Manifestations in HIV-Infected Children Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Diagnosis)

Ocular Manifestations of HIV (Diagnosis) Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection: Overview, Adnexal Manifestations, Anterior Segment Manifestations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIxNjE3Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Updated: Nov 12, 2018 Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection Overview Overview Ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have historically been common. While approximately 70-80% of HIV-infected patients have been treated for an HIV-associated eye disorder during the course of their illness

2014 eMedicine.com

100. Impaired T-cell responses to sphingosine-1-phosphate in HIV-1 infected lymph nodes. (PubMed)

Impaired T-cell responses to sphingosine-1-phosphate in HIV-1 infected lymph nodes. The determinants of HIV-1-associated lymphadenopathy are poorly understood. We hypothesized that lymphocytes could be sequestered in the HIV-1+ lymph node (LN) through impairments in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) responsiveness. To test this hypothesis, we developed novel assays for S1P-induced Akt phosphorylation and actin polymerization. In the HIV-1+ LN, naïve CD4 T cells and central memory CD4 and CD8 T (...) cells had impaired Akt phosphorylation in response to S1P, whereas actin polymerization responses to S1P were impaired dramatically in all LN maturation subsets. These defects were improved with antiretroviral therapy. LN T cells expressing CD69 were unable to respond to S1P in either assay, yet impaired S1P responses were also seen in HIV-1+ LN T cells lacking CD69 expression. Microbial elements, HIV-1, and interferon α - putative drivers of HIV-1 associated immune activation all tended to increase

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2013 Blood

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