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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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41. Indian visceral leishmaniasis with extensive lymphadenopathy – An unusual presentation: A case report with literature review Full Text available with Trip Pro

needle aspiration cytology of cervical and axillary lymph nodes yielded a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Diagnosis of VL was challenging as the disease closely mimicked tuberculosis in the setting of extensive lymphadenopathy including conglomerate of mesenteric lymph nodes, on and off fever, and granulomatous lymphadenitis on aspiration. Bone marrow examination was further performed. A detailed workup revealed patient to be severely immunocompromised and newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (...) Indian visceral leishmaniasis with extensive lymphadenopathy – An unusual presentation: A case report with literature review Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a life-threatening systemic disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania, and transmitted to humans by the female phlebotomine sand fly (Phlebotomus argentipes). The disease is fatal, if left untreated. We report a case of a patient clinically suspected of disseminated tuberculosis, but fine

2017 CytoJournal

42. BHIVA guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV

in adults living with HIV 7 1 Scope and purpose The overall purpose of these guidelines is to help physicians manage adults with tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Recommendations for the treatment of TB in HIV-positive adults are similar to those in HIV-negative adults. Of note, the term ‘HIV’ refers to HIV-1 throughout these guidelines. 1.1 Guideline development process The British HIV Association (BHIVA) fully revised and updated the Association’s guideline development (...) inflammatory syndrome after antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with tuberculosis: findings from the SAPiT trial. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 313–324. 11. Török ME, Yen NT, Chau TT et al. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated tuberculous meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: 1374–1383. 12. Boulle A, Van Cutsem G, Cohen K et al. Outcomes of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy when coadministered with rifampicin-based

2018 British HIV Association

43. Endemic Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-negative children and adolescents: an evaluation of overlapping and distinct clinical features in comparison with HIV-related disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) were found at time of original KS diagnosis in 45 and 40% respectively. In both HIV-negative and HIV-positive cohorts, lymphadenopathy was the most common presentation, prototypical skin lesions were often absent, severe cytopenias were a common clinical feature, and treatment outcomes were similar. Patients with endemic KS demonstrated less frequent oral involvement (5% versus 29%, P = 0.03) and a lower proportion (...) Endemic Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-negative children and adolescents: an evaluation of overlapping and distinct clinical features in comparison with HIV-related disease Endemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was first described in African children over fifty years ago, but has recently been overshadowed by HIV-related disease. We aimed to evaluate the similarities and differences between endemic HIV-negative and epidemic HIV-positive pediatric KS in a KS-associated herpesvirus-endemic region of Africa.We

2018 Infectious agents and cancer

44. Regional Lymphadenopathy

Lymphadenopathy Aka: Regional Lymphadenopathy , Inguinal Lymphadenopathy , Axillary Lymphadenopathy , Epitrochlear Lymphadenopathy , Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy , Regional Lymphadenitis From Related Chapters II. Causes: Tender Regional Unilateral Lymphadenopathy (CMV) (EBV, ) Humn (HIV) (and other non-tuberculous ) (children) III. Causes: Right Supraclavicular Nodes Drainage Patterns Mediastinum s Esophagus Gastrointestinal cancer Cancer of the IV. Causes: Left Supraclavicular Nodes Drainage Patterns (...) Regional Lymphadenopathy Regional Lymphadenopathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Regional Lymphadenopathy Regional

2018 FP Notebook

45. Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler

Administration 4 Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Aka: Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler , Lymphadenitis in the Febrile Returning Traveler II. Differential Diagnosis III. Causes: Regional Lymphadenopathy s African and IV. Causes: Generalized Lymphadenopathy ( ) es (HIV) Fungus s V. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lymphadenopathy (...) Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer

2018 FP Notebook

46. High prevalence of malignancy in HIV-positive patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy: a study in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High prevalence of malignancy in HIV-positive patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy: a study in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has a wide spectrum of aetiologies with different prognoses and treatments. The decision to pursue a histopathological diagnosis represents a clinical challenge as patients present with non-specific symptoms. This study aimed to determine the aetiology and predictive factors of MLN (...) in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.Single-centre retrospective cohort study of 217 consecutive HIV-infected patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the chest between January 2004 and December 2009. Fifty-two patients were identified to have MLN (>10 mm in short axis). CT images were re-reviewed by an independent radiologist blinded to the clinical information. Final diagnoses of MLN were obtained from clinical records. Multivariate analysis

2014 Respirology

47. Odefsey (emtricitabine / rilpivirine / tenofovir alafenamide) - HIV-1

) No 726/2004. The eligibility to the centralised procedure was agreed upon by the EMA/CHMP on 22 January 2015. The applicant applied for the following indication: treatment of adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older weighing at least 35 kg infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) without known mutations associated with resistance to the non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class, tenofovir or emtricitabine and with a viral load = 100,000 HIV 1 RNA copies/mL (see (...) Odefsey (emtricitabine / rilpivirine / tenofovir alafenamide) - HIV-1 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5520 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact 28 April 2016 EMA/335723/2016 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Odefsey International non-proprietary name: emtricitabine / rilpivirine / tenofovir alafenamide Procedure

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

48. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in India: A Prospective Cohort Study in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in India: A Prospective Cohort Study in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients. Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients (...) in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses. Findings were correlated with TB category (confirmed TB, clinical TB, unlikely TB), HIV status, and discharge diagnoses. A total of 425 patients underwent POCUS; 81 (20%) were HIV-positive. POCUS findings were more common in HIV

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

49. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission Full Text available with Trip Pro

a healthy, uninfected host against mucosal HIV transmission? Here, we discuss proof-of-principle studies we have performed using passive mucosal immunization, i.e., topical administration of preformed anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as IgG1, dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1), and dIgA2 isotypes, alone or in combination. Our data indicate that mucosally applied anti-HIV envelope mAbs can provide potent protection against mucosal transmission of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Our review also discusses (...) Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which

2017 Frontiers in immunology

50. HIV infection and AIDS

HIV infection and AIDS HIV infection and AIDS - NICE CKS Share HIV infection and AIDS: Summary The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that preferentially infects and destroys cells of the immune system, in particular the CD4 cells (a class of T lymphocyte, also known as T helper cells). There are 2 main types of HIV: HIV-1 (the predominant type in the UK) is highly virulent and is found worldwide. HIV-2 is found mainly in West Africa but has also been reported in Portugal (...) QIPP - Options for local implementation No QIPP indicators were found during the review of this topic. NICE quality standards NICE quality standards No NICE quality standards were found during the review of this topic. Background information Background information Definitions What is HIV, HIV infection, and AIDS? Pathogenesis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV is a lentivirus from the subfamily of retroviruses — lentiviruses have a long latent phase between infection and the development

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

51. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

-dose combination FTC emtricitabine GIPA greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS GPRS General Packet Radio Service GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation GSM Global System for Mobile Communications HA health accounts HBeAg hepatitis B e antigen HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen HBV hepatitis B virus HCV hepatitis C virus HIV human immunodeficiency virus HIV-DR HIV drug resistance HIVST HIV self-testing HLA human leukocyte antigen HPV human papillomavirus (...) ARV drugsxii Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS General HIV refers to the human immunodeficiency virus. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of HIV infections globally. Acute infection is the period between a person being infected with HIV and HIV antibodies being detectable by a serological assay. Age groups and populations The following definitions

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

52. Lymphadenopathy in HIV

in HIV Aka: Lymphadenopathy in HIV , Lymphadenitis in HIV II. Causes of Generalized Lymphadenopathy in HIV in (CMV) Cryptococcosis III. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lymphadenopathy in HIV." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Human Immunodeficiency Virus About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access (...) Lymphadenopathy in HIV Lymphadenopathy in HIV Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lymphadenopathy in HIV Lymphadenopathy

2015 FP Notebook

53. The determinants and impact of diagnostic delay in lymphoma in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The determinants and impact of diagnostic delay in lymphoma in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Little is known about the pathway to diagnosis of lymphoma in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite the increased risk of lymphoma in people living with HIV (PLHIV). The challenges of diagnosis in this setting include diagnostic confusion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which commonly causes lymphadenopathy in PLHIV.We analysed the time to diagnosis and treatment in patients using predetermined time (...) intervals. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the relationship between patient and disease-specific variables with delays to diagnosis. We were particularly interested in the impact of HIV, empiric tuberculosis therapy and fine-needle aspirate for cytology (FNAC) in contributing to delay.Patients (n = 163), 29% HIV-infected, waited a median of 4 weeks before seeking medical attention. It took a median of 7 weeks for the diagnosis of lymphoma to be made from the time

2019 BMC Cancer

54. Concomitant pulmonary sarcoidosis and HIV infection: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was admitted to our respiratory ward complained of fatigue, chest distress, and a persistent dry cough for 2 months.The chest computed tomography scan showed diffuse reticulonodular infiltrates and mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy along with transbronchial biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration was performed. The pathological findings revealed noncaseating granulomas, and the patient was found to be HIV-seropositive through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed (...) Concomitant pulmonary sarcoidosis and HIV infection: A case report. Sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated systemic disease, and the increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte cells is considered as a key factor for the development of sarcoidosis. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is well known as the impaired immune system and characterized by relative lack of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, the coexistence of sarcoidosis and HIV infection has rarely been reported.A 65-year-old female patient

2019 Medicine

55. Focused ultrasound to diagnose HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) in the extremely resource-limited setting of South Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, pericardial, ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy and hepatic/splenic microabscesses, according to the FASH protocol. A k39 antigen test for visceral leishmaniasis was also performed on patients with lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. All demographic, clinical and HIV data, as well as FASH results and therapy adjustments, were recorded following the examination.The FASH protocol allowed the detection of pathological US findings suggestive of tuberculosis in 27 out of the 100 patients tested (...) Focused ultrasound to diagnose HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) in the extremely resource-limited setting of South Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Our cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of Focused Assessment with Sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) to detect extrapulmonary tuberculosis in extremely resource-limited settings, with visceral leishmaniasis as a differential diagnosis with overlapping sonographic feature.Cross-sectional

2019 BMJ open

56. A Patient with Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy and Anterior Mediastinal Mass Presenting as a Rare Case of Composite Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Patient with Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy and Anterior Mediastinal Mass Presenting as a Rare Case of Composite Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review Composite lymphoma (CL) is a rare disease with 2 distinct lymphomas concurrently arising in a single patient with an estimated incidence of 1-4.7% of newly diagnosed lymphomas per year. CL most commonly involves 2 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) or a B-cell NHL with a Hodgkin lymphoma. Our case is unique in that it was a bilineage (...) CL with both a T-cell and B-cell NHL, which has only been reported in a few case reports. A 49-year-old woman presented with several months of progressive cough, weight loss, dyspnea, and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. Computed tomographic imaging done upon admission to the hospital found that she had extensive anterior and middle mediastinal lymphadenopathy as well as bilateral supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent an excisional biopsy on the supraclavicular lymph node

2016 Case reports in oncology

57. Rapid emergence of cryptococcal fungemia, Mycobacterium chelonae vertebral osteomyelitis and gastro intestinal stromal tumor in a young HIV late presenter: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and therapeutic management.A 35-year-old male with a history of fever and back pain. HIV test resulted positive with a high HIV Viral Load and a very low T-CD4 number of cells (5 cells/mm3). Imaging investigations revealed multiple vertebral and pulmonary lesions together with abdominal and thoracic lymphadenopathy. Blood cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans and for Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lymphnode biopsy resulted positive in PCR for Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria (Mycobacterium chelonae (...) Rapid emergence of cryptococcal fungemia, Mycobacterium chelonae vertebral osteomyelitis and gastro intestinal stromal tumor in a young HIV late presenter: a case report. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly changed the natural history of HIV infection, leading to a dramatic reduction of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Late Presenters, Very Late Presenters and AIDS presenters still represent, also in Europe, including Italy, a huge challenge in terms of diagnostic

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

58. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma among HIV-positive patients in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania: a retrospective hospital-based study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma among HIV-positive patients in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania: a retrospective hospital-based study. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative tumor involving blood and lymphatic vessels, caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8). KS is an important AIDS-defining tumor with high prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania which has high HIV and HHV-8 sero-prevalence. It is critically important to monitor (...) the prevalence of AIDS-defining tumors, such as KS, in the age of HIV/AIDS. We studied the prevalence of KS and associated risk factors among HIV-positive patients at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), a referral hospital in northern Tanzania, over the period from January 2012 to December 2015.This was a retrospective hospital-based cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of KS among HIV/AIDS patients between 2012 and 2015. The study included 1100 HIV patients' data which were collected

2018 BMC Cancer

59. CD8+ T cells with high TGF-β1 expression cause lymph node fibrosis following HIV infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

CD8+ T cells with high TGF-β1 expression cause lymph node fibrosis following HIV infection Lymph node (LN) fibrosis resulting in cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ T cell reduction following human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an important step in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mechanisms mediating LN fibrosis following HIV infection have not been completely elucidated. In order to investigate the mechanism of LN fibrosis, the expression of transforming (...) and programmed cell death protein 1 expression and decreased CD127 expression compared with the controls. CD8+ T cells from the LNs of non‑HIV infected individuals expressed a high TGF‑β1 level following stimulation with phorbol‑12‑myristate 13‑acetate. These CD8+T cells subsequently induced the secretion of a large amount of type I collagen in human lymphatic fibroblasts. The results of the present study indicated that CD8+ T cells with high TGF‑β1 expression served an important role in LN fibrosis

2018 Molecular medicine reports

60. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of leishmanial lymphadenitis in an HIV-reactive patient: Report of a rare case Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of leishmanial lymphadenitis in an HIV-reactive patient: Report of a rare case Lymphatic leishmaniasis is a rare parasitic disease even in endemic region. It is usually associated with visceral and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is being increasingly recognized in association with immunodeficient patients (HIV/AIDS). However, leishmanial lymphadenitis has been rarely diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of epitrochlear lymph (...) node in an HIV patient. Cytological features of leishmanial lymphadenitis in an HIV-reactive patient have been rarely addressed in previous literature. We present the FNAC of a case of leishmanial lymphadenitis in epitrochlear lymph node in the case of an HIV-reactive patient with visceral leishmaniasis.

2018 Tropical parasitology

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