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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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21. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in India: A Prospective Cohort Study in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients. (PubMed)

in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses. Findings were correlated with TB category (confirmed TB, clinical TB, unlikely TB), HIV status, and discharge diagnoses. A total of 425 patients underwent POCUS; 81 (20%) were HIV-positive. POCUS findings were more common in HIV (...) /TB coinfected patients than in HIV-positive patients with unlikely TB (24/40 (60%) versus 9/41 (22%), P < 0.001). Abdominal lymphadenopathy and splenic microabscesses were strongly associated with TB in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001). POCUS findings did not correlate with TB in HIV-negative patients; a third of HIV-negative patients with unlikely TB and POCUS findings had cancer, another third other infectious diseases. Sonographic findings were common in HIV-positive and HIV

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

22. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission (PubMed)

Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which (...) results in loss of mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies. This leaves the mucosal barrier vulnerable to bacterial translocation. The ensuing immune activation in mucosal tissues adds fuel to the fire of local HIV replication. We postulate that compromised mucosal antibody defenses also facilitate superinfection of HIV-positive individuals with new HIV strains. This in turn sets the stage for the generation of circulating recombinant forms of HIV. What can the mucosal B-cell compartment contribute to protect

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

23. Lymphadenopathy in HIV

Lymphadenopathy in HIV Lymphadenopathy in HIV Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lymphadenopathy in HIV Lymphadenopathy (...) in HIV Aka: Lymphadenopathy in HIV , Lymphadenitis in HIV II. Causes of Generalized Lymphadenopathy in HIV in (CMV) Cryptococcosis III. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lymphadenopathy in HIV." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Human Immunodeficiency Virus About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access

2015 FP Notebook

24. Humanized PA14 (a monoclonal CCR5 antibody) for treatment of people with HIV infection. (PubMed)

or 5 mg/kg on day 10, 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg on day 12, 162 mg weekly, 324 mg biweekly, or 324 mg weekly on day 22. PRO 140 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 162 mg weekly, 324 mg biweekly, and 324 mg weekly demonstrated greater antiviral response. PRO 140 324 mg weekly, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg showed more patients with ≦ 400 copies/mL HIV-1 RNA. Only PRO 140 5 mg/kg showed greater change in CD4(+) cell count on day eight. Headache, lymphadenopathy, diarrhoea, fatigue, hypertension, nasal congestion (...) Humanized PA14 (a monoclonal CCR5 antibody) for treatment of people with HIV infection. PRO 140 (a humanized form of the PA14 antibody, a monoclonal CCR5 antibody) inhibits CCR5-tropic (R5) type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This may be an effective new treatment with the potential to address the limitations of currently available therapies for HIV-infected patients.We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, clinical disease progression and immunologic (CD4 count/percentage) and virologic

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2014 Cochrane

25. Patterns of Lymph Node Pathology; Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy as an Evaluation Tool for Lymphadenopathy: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Conducted at the Largest Hospital in Africa (PubMed)

Patterns of Lymph Node Pathology; Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy as an Evaluation Tool for Lymphadenopathy: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Conducted at the Largest Hospital in Africa Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical presentation of disease in South Africa (SA), particularly in the era of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection.Data from 560 lymph node biopsy reports of specimens from patients older than 12 years at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (...) histopathology and cytology demonstrating definite, and suspicious for mycobacterial infection), 8% comprised HIV reactive nodes; in the remainder no specific pathology was identified (nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia). Kaposi sarcoma (KS) accounted for 2.5% of lymph node pathology in this sample. Concomitant lymph node pathology was diagnosed in four cases of nodal KS (29% of the subset). The co-existing pathologies were TB and Castleman disease. HIV positive patients constituted 49% of this study

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2015 PloS one

26. Tropical Travel Trouble 009 Humongous HIV Extravaganza

Tropical Travel Trouble 009 Humongous HIV Extravaganza Humongous HIV Extravaganza • LITFL • Tropical Traveler Clinical Cases Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog Search LITFL ... | | | Humongous HIV Extravaganza , last update March 1, 2019 aka 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease (...) and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with a low CD4 count – all bets are off) and aims to focus on the key learning points surrounding HIV. Q1. What is HIV? Answer and interpretation Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is caused by a lentivirus (subgroup of retrovirus) that infects and destroys immune cells expressing CD4 (T-helper cells

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

27. Focused ultrasound to diagnose HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) in the extremely resource-limited setting of South Sudan: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

, pericardial, ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy and hepatic/splenic microabscesses, according to the FASH protocol. A k39 antigen test for visceral leishmaniasis was also performed on patients with lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. All demographic, clinical and HIV data, as well as FASH results and therapy adjustments, were recorded following the examination.The FASH protocol allowed the detection of pathological US findings suggestive of tuberculosis in 27 out of the 100 patients tested (...) Focused ultrasound to diagnose HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) in the extremely resource-limited setting of South Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Our cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of Focused Assessment with Sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) to detect extrapulmonary tuberculosis in extremely resource-limited settings, with visceral leishmaniasis as a differential diagnosis with overlapping sonographic feature.Cross-sectional

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2019 BMJ open

28. The determinants and impact of diagnostic delay in lymphoma in a TB and HIV endemic setting. (PubMed)

The determinants and impact of diagnostic delay in lymphoma in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Little is known about the pathway to diagnosis of lymphoma in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite the increased risk of lymphoma in people living with HIV (PLHIV). The challenges of diagnosis in this setting include diagnostic confusion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which commonly causes lymphadenopathy in PLHIV.We analysed the time to diagnosis and treatment in patients using predetermined time (...) intervals. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the relationship between patient and disease-specific variables with delays to diagnosis. We were particularly interested in the impact of HIV, empiric tuberculosis therapy and fine-needle aspirate for cytology (FNAC) in contributing to delay.Patients (n = 163), 29% HIV-infected, waited a median of 4 weeks before seeking medical attention. It took a median of 7 weeks for the diagnosis of lymphoma to be made from the time

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2019 BMC Cancer

29. Concomitant pulmonary sarcoidosis and HIV infection: A case report. (PubMed)

was admitted to our respiratory ward complained of fatigue, chest distress, and a persistent dry cough for 2 months.The chest computed tomography scan showed diffuse reticulonodular infiltrates and mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy along with transbronchial biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration was performed. The pathological findings revealed noncaseating granulomas, and the patient was found to be HIV-seropositive through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed (...) Concomitant pulmonary sarcoidosis and HIV infection: A case report. Sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated systemic disease, and the increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte cells is considered as a key factor for the development of sarcoidosis. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is well known as the impaired immune system and characterized by relative lack of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, the coexistence of sarcoidosis and HIV infection has rarely been reported.A 65-year-old female patient

2019 Medicine

30. Causes of cervical lymphadenopathy at Kamuzu Central Hospital (PubMed)

Causes of cervical lymphadenopathy at Kamuzu Central Hospital Description of pathologic causes of cervical lymphadenopathy at Kamuzu Central Hospital.The evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy is a common diagnostic challenge facing clinicians. Previously at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) tuberculosis (TB) was reported to be the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy However, no recent study has assessed this common diagnostic challenge in Malawi, particularly since the beginning (...) of the HIV epidemic and the subsequent scale-up of antiretroviral therapy.We conducted a cross-sectional study of all cervical lymph node specimens from the KCH pathology laboratory between 1 July 2011 and 28 February 2013 and describe patient age, gender, and pathologic diagnoses.Our search of the KCH pathology database yielded 179 cases. Of these, 143 (77%) were histologic specimens (open biopsy or core needle samples) while 34 (23%) were cytology specimens. The age range was from 0 to 76 years

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2014 Malawi Medical Journal

31. Lymphadenopathy (Diagnosis)

immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malignancies, and autoimmune diseases, are less common causes of adenopathy. International Infections that are rarely observed in the United States, such as , typhoid fever, , , , , and fungal infections, are common causes of lymphadenopathy in developing nations. [ ] HIV infections must be strongly considered in areas of high incidence. Mortality/Morbidity In the United States, mortality and serious morbidity caused by adenopathy are unusual given the common infectious etiologies (...) . Malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphomas, and , are the primary causes of mortality in the United States. [ ] Significant morbidity and mortality are also associated with autoimmune disorders (eg, , ), , and storage diseases. HIV is an uncommon cause of adenopathy in the United States, but its associated mortality requires consideration. Race Race is not a factor in most lymphadenopathy. Rare causes may be associated with particular ethnic groups (eg, sarcoidosis in Africans, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

32. Lymphadenopathy (Overview)

immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malignancies, and autoimmune diseases, are less common causes of adenopathy. International Infections that are rarely observed in the United States, such as , typhoid fever, , , , , and fungal infections, are common causes of lymphadenopathy in developing nations. [ ] HIV infections must be strongly considered in areas of high incidence. Mortality/Morbidity In the United States, mortality and serious morbidity caused by adenopathy are unusual given the common infectious etiologies (...) . Malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphomas, and , are the primary causes of mortality in the United States. [ ] Significant morbidity and mortality are also associated with autoimmune disorders (eg, , ), , and storage diseases. HIV is an uncommon cause of adenopathy in the United States, but its associated mortality requires consideration. Race Race is not a factor in most lymphadenopathy. Rare causes may be associated with particular ethnic groups (eg, sarcoidosis in Africans, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

33. Lymphadenopathy (Treatment)

Oncol . 2006 Oct-Nov. 23(7):549-61. . Yaris N, Cakir M, Sozen E, Cobanoglu U. Analysis of children with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Clin Pediatr (Phila) . 2006 Jul. 45(6):544-9. . Gray DM, Zar H, Cotton M. Impact of tuberculosis preventive therapy on tuberculosis and mortality in HIV-infected children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2009 Jan 21. CD006418. . Leung AK, Davies HD. Cervical lymphadenitis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Curr Infect Dis Rep . 2009 May. 11(3):183-9. . Lindeboom JA (...) Lymphadenopathy (Treatment) Lymphadenopathy Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTU2MzQwLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Lymphadenopathy

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

34. Lymphadenopathy (Follow-up)

Lymphadenopathy (Follow-up) Lymphadenopathy Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Further Inpatient Care, Inpatient & Outpatient Medications Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTU2MzQwLWZvbGxvd3Vw (...) processing > Lymphadenopathy Follow-up Updated: Feb 01, 2018 Author: Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Lymphadenopathy Follow-up Further Outpatient Care Further outpatient treatment depends on establishing a diagnosis and determining management of that diagnosis. Next: Further Inpatient Care Additional inpatient treatment depends on establishing the diagnosis and determining management based

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

35. HIV, viral hepatitis and STIs - a guide for primary care

HIV, viral hepatitis and STIs - a guide for primary care HIV , VIRAL HEPATITIS & STIs SUPPOR TING THE HIV, VIR AL HEPATITIS AND SEXUAL HEALTH WORKFOR CE A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS HIV, VIRAL HEPATITIS & STIsHIV, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND STIs – A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY HEALTH CARE i HIV , VIRAL HEPATITIS & STIs SUPPOR TING THE HIV, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND SEXUAL HEALTH W ORKFOR CE A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY CAREii HIV, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND STIs – A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY HEALTH CAREHIV, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND STIs (...) – A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY HEALTH CARE iii HIV , VIRAL HEPATITIS & STIs A GUIDE FOR PRIMARY CARE 2014 EDITION EXPERT REFERENCE GROUP (EDITORIAL OVERSIGHT) Dr Michael Burke Nepean Sexual Health & HIV Clinic Ms Tracey Cabrie Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Melbourne Health Associate Professor Ben Cowie Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne Professor Greg Dore The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia Dr Seamus Duffy Tuggerah Medical Centre Dr

2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

36. Clearance of human papillomavirus related anal condylomas after oral and endorectal multistrain probiotic supplementation in an HIV positive male: A case report. (PubMed)

Clearance of human papillomavirus related anal condylomas after oral and endorectal multistrain probiotic supplementation in an HIV positive male: A case report. Here we present the case of a 56-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected man with multiple anal condylomas and positivity for human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 on anal brushing. Biopsies of the anal mucosa led to the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan evidenced multiple (...) of residual lymphadenopathies. Trials are therefore required to confirm this therapeutic possibility and for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which this specific probiotic formulation interacts with local epithelium when administered by the anal route.

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2018 Medicine

37. Primary Effusion Lymphoma without an Effusion: A Rare Case of Solid Extracavitary Variant of Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an HIV-Positive Patient (PubMed)

Primary Effusion Lymphoma without an Effusion: A Rare Case of Solid Extracavitary Variant of Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an HIV-Positive Patient Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, usually seen in severely immunocompromised, HIV-positive patients. PEL is related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection, and it usually presents as a lymphomatous body cavity effusion in the absence of a solid tumor mass. There have been very few case reports of HIV-positive (...) patients with HHV-8-positive solid tissue lymphomas not associated with an effusion (a solid variant of PEL). In the absence of effusion, establishing an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and a careful review of morphology, immunophenotype, and presence of HHV-8 is necessary to differentiate from other subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment involves intensive chemotherapy, and prognosis is usually poor. We present a rare case of a PEL variant in an HIV-positive patient who presented

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2018 Case reports in hematology

38. MKSAP: 30-year-old woman with HIV infection

scheduled childhood immunizations. On physical examination, vital signs are normal. She has shotty cervical lymphadenopathy, but the examination is otherwise unremarkable. Laboratory studies: Absolute CD4 cell count 461/µL HIV viral load 44,874 copies/mL Hepatitis A IgG antibody Negative Hepatitis B surface antibody Positive Hepatitis B surface antigen Negative Hepatitis C antibody Negative Which of the following immunizations should this patient receive today? A. Hepatitis A vaccine B. Hepatitis B (...) MKSAP: 30-year-old woman with HIV infection Immunocompromised persons should receive the pneumococcal vaccine MKSAP: 30-year-old woman with HIV infection | | August 20, 2018 6 Shares Test your medicine knowledge with the , in partnership with the . A 30-year-old woman is evaluated in follow-up after being recently diagnosed with HIV infection. She is asymptomatic. Medical history is unremarkable, and she takes no medications; she has not yet started antiretroviral therapy. She received all

2018 KevinMD blog

39. T. marneffei infection complications in an HIV-negative patient with pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis: a rare case report. (PubMed)

T. marneffei infection complications in an HIV-negative patient with pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis: a rare case report. Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus that often causes fatal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although T. marneffei-infected cases have been increasingly reported among non-HIV-infected patients in recent years, no cases of T. marneffei infection have been reported in pulmonary (...) sarcoidosis patients. In this case, we describe a T. marneffei infection in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis.A 41-year-old Chinese man who had pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis presented with daily hyperpyrexia and cough. Following a fungal culture from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), the patient was diagnosed with T. marneffei infection. A high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest scan revealed bilateral lung diffuse miliary nodules, multiple patchy exudative shadows

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

40. Rapid emergence of cryptococcal fungemia, Mycobacterium chelonae vertebral osteomyelitis and gastro intestinal stromal tumor in a young HIV late presenter: a case report. (PubMed)

and therapeutic management.A 35-year-old male with a history of fever and back pain. HIV test resulted positive with a high HIV Viral Load and a very low T-CD4 number of cells (5 cells/mm3). Imaging investigations revealed multiple vertebral and pulmonary lesions together with abdominal and thoracic lymphadenopathy. Blood cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans and for Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lymphnode biopsy resulted positive in PCR for Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria (Mycobacterium chelonae (...) Rapid emergence of cryptococcal fungemia, Mycobacterium chelonae vertebral osteomyelitis and gastro intestinal stromal tumor in a young HIV late presenter: a case report. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly changed the natural history of HIV infection, leading to a dramatic reduction of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Late Presenters, Very Late Presenters and AIDS presenters still represent, also in Europe, including Italy, a huge challenge in terms of diagnostic

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

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