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Lymphadenopathy in HIV

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181. BSR guideline Management of Adults with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome

pathology other than SS including sarcoidosis, IgG4 disease [ ] and graft vs host disease [ ] may be implicated. Salivary gland aplasia and ductal atresia [ ] are both rare causes of oral sicca and viral infections including hepatitis C and HIV can cause salivary gland disease with hypertrophy and sicca symptoms. Xerostomia can be a feature of oral dysaesthesias with no objective reduction in salivary flow rate. Oral dysaesthesia or burning mouth syndrome is a chronic pain condition currently classified

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2017 British Society for Rheumatology

182. CrackCAST E129 – Bacteria

for the primary location of infection. Cutaneous diphtheria can occur as a primary skin infection or as a secondary infection of a preexisting wound. Circulating exotoxin causes the systemic symptoms of diphtheria, most profoundly affecting the nervous system, heart, and kidneys. Progression of symptoms/signs: Generic URTI symptoms Low grade fever and sore throat are the most frequent presenting complaints. Weakness, dysphagia, headache, voice changes, and loss of appetite ⅓ develop cervical lymphadenopathy (...) palsies Due to cerebral aneurysms Amyloidosis GBS HIV Neurosyphillis Cephalic tetanus is especially difficult to diagnose when the cranial nerve palsy precedes trismus. The differential diagnosis of cephalic tetanus also includes Bell’s palsy, botulism, cranial nerve palsies, and facial cellulitis with facial nerve compression and ophthalmoplegia. [8] Describe 4 major components of management of tetanus There are no laboratory tests to confirm or to exclude the diagnosis of tetanus. Physical

2017 CandiEM

183. Biologic therapy for psoriasis

to recommendations 112 9 Biologic therapy and cancer risk 116 9.1 Introduction 116 9.2 Review question 116 9.3 Clinical evidence 117 9.4 Link from evidence to recommendations 125 10 Biologic therapy and chronic viral infections: hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV 129 10.1 Introduction 129 10.2 Review question: 129 10.3 Clinical evidence 130 10.4 Link from evidence to recommendations 148 11 Additional safety aspects relating to screening, monitoring and contraindications to biologic therapy 151 11.1 Tuberculosis 151 (...) : Evidence tables clinical studies 227 Appendix F: Forest plots 296 Appendix G: Stakeholders 342 Appendix H: Study selection flow charts 343 Appendix I: GRADE tables 349 Appendix J: Choice of biologic treatment for psoriasis (decision aid) 385 Appendix K: Groups at increased risk of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV 389 British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for biologic therapy for psoriasis 2017 1 Guideline Development Group members Name Role CLINICAL Ms Tracy Bale British

2017 British Association of Dermatologists

184. CRACKCast E130 – Viruses

, occurring in over 95% of symptomatic patients Some patients may have orchitis DDx: Parotitis = (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], parainfluenza, influenza A virus, coxsackievirus, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), bacterial infections, facial cellulitis, and tumor Diagnosis Buccal or oral swab specimen for virus isolation and blood sample for serologic testing (Mumps virus IgM). Collecting samples early improves yield as virus isolation (...) common complication. Encephalitis occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 cases of measles and carries 15% mortality. Measles pneumonia may also be life-threatening. Treatment: supportive, Vitamin A supplements Fever, skin eruption, lymphadenopathy. Rash appears post 5 days o f maximal infectivity. The major complications of rubella include encephalitis,arthritis, and thrombocytopenia. The most severe complication is fetal damage. No treatment is required in most cases of rubella. Antipyretics are usually

2017 CandiEM

185. Chapter 135 – Tuberculosis

pulmonary TB should be placed in respiratory isolation as soon as possible. TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with fever, cough, and weight loss. Risk factors for TB include HIV-infection, immunosuppression, age older than 60 years, foreign-born, homeless, and close contact with known cases. Beyond pulmonary manifestations, a variety of extrapulmonary manifestations may occur, including involvement of lymph nodes, pleura, bones or joints and CNS, genitourinary (...) -primary TB” – in a previously infected patient The stages 1-3 represent primary TB in immunocompetent patients Clinically active TB can show up in 8-10% of otherwise healthy people With HIV primary TB progresses in >30% of people by 6 months [2] For how long is a patient with active TB considered infectious? What isolation strategies are there? Infection control and the hospital environment Hospitalization of TB patients is not mandatory unless these factors dictate otherwise… Social conditions

2017 CandiEM

186. CRACKCast E090 – Liver and Biliary Tract

(>5 mm)* Gallbladder wall edema (double wall sign) Pericholecystic free fluid* Gallstones* *these three = 90% PPV for acute cholecystitis. 16) List 4 patients that get acalculous cholecystitis Elderly Admitted patients recovering from non-biliary tract surgery AIDS patients with secondary CMV or cryptosporidium infection Men, with uncontrolled diabetes (high risk for emphysematous cholecystitis as well) Other potential etiologies: Tumours / lymphadenopathy Fibrosis Parasitic disease These people (...) : Who is involved? Source Exposed (i.e. the patient you’re seeing in the ER!) What happened? Sex trade work, abandoned needle, knife blade, face splash, etc. Where did it happen? Occupational vs. non-occupational When did it happen? If > 72 hrs HIV prophylaxis won’t help the exposed! Really there are a huge number of diseases that can be spread via percutaneous exposure. Blastomycosis Brucellosis Cryptococcus Diptheria Cutaneous gonorrhea. Herpes Malaria Mycobacterial infections Mycoplasma caviae

2017 CandiEM

187. CRACKCast E096 – Anorectal Disorders

should make you suspicious for: Leukemia Crohn’s disease HIV infection TB Syphilis (these are usually heralded by coexisting sentinel pile). [5] Describe the treatment of anal fissures – 5 options WASH regimen Nitro. Ointment 0.4% bid/tid Nifedipine gel 0.2% bid with lidocaine gel 1.5% Surgical options (botox, anal dilation, excision). Most take 2-4 weeks to resolve. See question 3 above for a detailed explanation of the WASH approach. [6] Which conditions are associated with the development (...) Cutaneous conditions Hypersensitivity to foods or drugs! [11] Describe 6 rectal STI’s and their management Important to ask about this on your ano-rectal hx! Ask regarding “any activity outside using the washroom that involves the anorectal area?” if yes get the specific details. This is important because semen is known to have a concentrated HIV load and the anorectum is high risk area for the portal of entry of HIV. See table 86.5 for a breakdown of these conditions into ulcerative vs. nonulcerative

2017 CandiEM

188. CRACKCast E076 – Pneumonia

as Pneumocystis carinii) is one of the most common infec- tions leading to a diagnosis of HIV infection and AIDS Patients with pulmonary complaints should be questioned about HIV risk factors, and clinicians should search for signs of HIV-related immunosuppression, such as weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and oral thrush. Presentation: PCP typically manifests subacutely with fatigue, exertional dyspnea, nonproductive cough, pleuritic chest pain, and fever. Treatment: Septra Tuberculosis Mycobacterium (...) flagyl plus amox for mild as well. Severe disease consider imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam Add vanco if MRSA suspected Pseudomonas HAP and CAP w: A compromised immune system (eg, HIV-infected patients, solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, neutropenic hosts, and those on immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents such as TNF-alfa inhibitors) Recent prior antibiotic use Structural lung abnormalities such as cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis Repeated exacerbations

2017 CandiEM

189. British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for biologic therapy for psoriasis 2017.

) Signs or symptoms suggestive of infection. ( Strong recommendation for the use of an intervention ) Biologic Therapy and Chronic Viral Infections: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV Recommendation 37 . Test for infection with hepatitis B (surface antigen and core antibody), hepatitis C (IgG) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen) in people starting biologic therapy. ( Strong recommendation for the use of an intervention ) Recommendation 38 . Consider (...) ongoing screening (e.g., annually) for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV, particularly in people who belong to a group at increased risk of infection (refer to Section 4 in the Implementation Toolkit [see the "Availability of Companion Documents" field]) (see the British HIV Association [BHIVA] guideline on ). ( Weak recommendation for the use of an intervention ) Recommendation 39 . Retest for viral hepatitis in any person who develops unexplained transaminitis (raised alanine aminotransferase

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

190. Recommendations for practices utilizing gestational carriers: a committee opinion

reproduction using a gestational carrier more consistent and incorporates recent informationfromtheUSCentersforDis- ease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). These recommendations use terminology from the federal agencies in addition to the AATB. In that context, the term ‘‘screening’’ refers to speci?c historical factors that place an individual at a higher risk for a given disease, such as human immunode?- ciency virus (HIV (...) - tion of tattoos, which might obscure needle tracks 5. Physical evidence of recent tattooing, ear piercing, or body piercing (within the past 12 months) where sterile technique was not used 6. Disseminated lymphadenopathy 7. Unexplained oral thrush 8. Blue or purple spots consistent with Kaposi sarcoma 9. Unexplained jaundice, hepatomegaly, or icterus 10. Large scab consistent with recent history of smallpox immunization 11. Eczema vaccinatum, generalized vesicular rash, severely necrotic lesion

2017 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

191. Primary Cutaneous Histoplasmosis in a HIV-Positive Individual (PubMed)

Primary Cutaneous Histoplasmosis in a HIV-Positive Individual A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive male who presented to the Dermatology Outpatient Department with complaints of red, raised lesions on the face of 2 weeks duration was, on examination, found to have multiple papulonodular lesions on the face with associated cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. There was history of local injury on the face 6 months prior to the development of symptoms. Skin biopsy revealed

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2010 Journal of global infectious diseases

192. Monoclonal CCR5 antibody for treatment of people with HIV infection. (PubMed)

were significantly reduced. PRO 140 0.5mg/Kg, 2mg/Kg, 5mg/Kg, 162 mg weekly; 324 mg biweekly; 324 mg weekly demonstrated greater antiviral response. Only PRO 140 324 mg weekly showed more patients with ≦400 copies/mL HIV-1 RNA. Only PRO 140 5 mg/Kg showed greater change in CD4(+) cell count on day 8. Headache, lymphadenopathy, diarrhoea, fatigue, and hypertension were reported to be the most frequent adverse events.Limited evidence from two small trials suggests that PRO 140 might demonstrate (...) Monoclonal CCR5 antibody for treatment of people with HIV infection. A monoclonal CCR5 antibody, PRO 140 (a humanised form of the PA14 antibody), inhibits CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. This may be an effective new treatment for HIV-infected patients, with the potential to address the limitations of currently available therapies.We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PRO 140 for HIV-1-infected patients in randomised controlled trials (RCTs).Databases including Cochrane's CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE

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2010 Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

193. Orofacial and systemic manifestations in 212 paediatric HIV patients from Chennai, South India. (PubMed)

Orofacial and systemic manifestations in 212 paediatric HIV patients from Chennai, South India. Lesions in the mouth and in other tissues and organs (oral and systemic lesions) in paediatric HIV infection are diverse and show differences in clinical presentation and severity from that of adults. Very little data exist for oral lesions in paediatric population in India.To document and study oral and more widespread lesions in paediatric HIV seropositive patients.A cross-sectional (...) study.Paediatric HIV seropositive patients at tertiary centers: Ragas Dental College and Hospital and YRG CARE, Chennai, India.Two hundred and twelve paediatric HIV patients aged 0-14 years seen over a period of 1 year were included in the study. Clinical history, oral and systemic examinations were recorded by qualified dental surgeons and physicians.One hundred and thirty-two patients had oral lesions ranging in number from one to three. Oral lesions included oral candidiasis (OC) (56.1%), gingivitis (10.8

2010 International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

194. Development of a clinical algorithm to prioritise HIV testing of hospitalised paediatric patients in a low resource moderate prevalence setting. (PubMed)

)), lymphadenopathy (OR = 2.29 (1.12 to 4.68)), oral candidiasis (OR = 3.94 (2.17 to 7.14)) and being underweight for age (OR = 2.03 (1.03 to 3.99)). The presence of any one of these conditions had a sensitivity of 96% in detecting a child with HIV infection. Using an algorithm based on the presence of at least one of these conditions would result in around 40% of hospitalised children being offered testing.This clinical algorithm may be a useful screening tool for HIV infection in hospitalised children (...) Development of a clinical algorithm to prioritise HIV testing of hospitalised paediatric patients in a low resource moderate prevalence setting. To develop a clinical algorithm to identify paediatric patients who should be offered HIV testing in a setting of moderate HIV prevalence and limited resources.In a prospective cross-sectional study at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea, carers of inpatients were offered HIV testing and counselling for their children. Recruited children

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2010 Archives of Disease in Childhood

195. Biopsy of peripheral lymph nodes: a useful tool to diagnose opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients. (PubMed)

Biopsy of peripheral lymph nodes: a useful tool to diagnose opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients. Peripheral lymphadenopathy is commonly present in HIV-infected patients and has a wide spectrum of differential diagnoses. We carried out a cross-sectional study of peripheral lymph node biopsies performed from January 2004 to December 2008 in HIV-infected patients who attended a tertiary-care hospital in southern Brazil. Only 60 of 210 peripheral lymph node biopsies performed (28%) were (...) non-diagnostic. The most common diagnoses included: mycobacteriosis (105 cases; 50.2%); lymphoma (19 cases; 9.0%); systemic mycosis (12 cases; 5.7%) including histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis; and metastatic cancer (2.9%). Peripheral lymph node biopsy is a simple and useful tool to diagnose opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients.

2010 Tropical Doctor

196. T cell immunity in acute HIV-1 infection. (PubMed)

T cell immunity in acute HIV-1 infection. Exceedingly high viral loads and rapid loss of CD4(+) T cells in all tissue compartments are a hallmark of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, which is often accompanied by clinical symptoms such as fever, maculopapular rash, and/or lymphadenopathy. The resolution of the clinical symptoms and the subsequent decrease in plasma viremia are associated with the emergence of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses (...) of disease progression. Thus, HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection appear uniquely able to efficiently suppress viral replication, whereas CD8(+) T cell responses generated in the chronic phase of infection appear often impaired.

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2010 Journal of Infectious Diseases

197. Safety and Immunogenicity of GSK Biologicals' Investigational Malaria Vaccine in HIV Infected Infants and Children

staging was done at each time point according to the WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging system. Clinical stages included: "Stage 1" (asymptomatic or have persistent generalized lymphadenopathy), "Stage 2" (mildly symptomatic stage - presenting with unexplained weight loss of less than 10 percent of total body weight, recurrent respiratory infections or dermatological conditions), "Stage 3" (moderately symptomatic stage - presenting with weight loss of greater than 10 percent of total body weight, prolonged (...) Safety and Immunogenicity of GSK Biologicals' Investigational Malaria Vaccine in HIV Infected Infants and Children Safety and Immunogenicity of GSK Biologicals' Investigational Malaria Vaccine in HIV Infected Infants and Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2010 Clinical Trials

198. Dose-finding Study of GSK2248761 in Antiretroviral Therapy-experienced Subjects With NNRTI-resistant HIV Infection

A consisted of one or more of the conditions like asymptomatic HIV infection, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and acute (primary) HIV infection with accompanying illness in an adolescent or adult(>13 years) with documented HIV infection. Category B consisted like Bacillary angiomatosis, Candidiasis, oropharyngeal (thrush), Candidiasis, vulvovaginal; persistent, frequent, oral, Herpes zoster etc. Category C included clinical conditions listed like Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs (...) Dose-finding Study of GSK2248761 in Antiretroviral Therapy-experienced Subjects With NNRTI-resistant HIV Infection Dose-finding Study of GSK2248761 in Antiretroviral Therapy-experienced Subjects With NNRTI-resistant HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2010 Clinical Trials

199. Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology (PubMed)

Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient's HIV (...) status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of the cytologic evaluation. Case 1 involved the fine needle aspiration (FNA) of a painful 3 cm unilateral neck mass in a 38-year-old female with generalized lymphadenopathy. Her aspirate revealed a spindle cell proliferation devoid of mycobacteria that was immunoreactive for S-100 and macrophage markers (KP-1, PGM1). Multiple noncontributory repeat procedures were performed until a final excision revealed a schwannoma. Case 2

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2010 CytoJournal

200. Waldenstrom?s Macroglobulinaemia: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines

and other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders • Review of systems (B symptoms a , organomegaly, hyperviscosity symptoms, neuropathy, Raynaud’s disease, rash, peripheral oedema, skin abnormalities, dyspnoea) Include fundoscopic examination if IgM is high and hyperviscosity is suspected • Laboratory studies: Complete blood count Complete metabolic panel Serum Ig levels (IgA, IgG, IgM) Serum and urine electrophoresis with immuno?xation Serum B2M level Viral serology (HBV, HCV and HIV) • BM (...) (consultation with neurologist) a Fever, night sweats and weight loss. anti-GM1, anti-ganglioside M1; anti-MAG, myelin-associated globulin antibody; B2M,b2 microglobulin; BM, bone marrow; CT, computed tom- ography; EMG, electromyogram; FLC, free light chain; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunode?ciency virus; IHC, immunohistochemistry; Ig, immunoglobulin; NTproBNP, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide; WM, Waldenstro ¨m’s macroglobulinaemia. Table 2. Prognosti?cation of WM

2018 European Society for Medical Oncology

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