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21. Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care: Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

levels of evidence inform the grades of recommendation and the standard nomenclature used within the recom- mendations see Appendix C. Guideline recommendations are written utilizing a standard language that indicates the strength of the recommendation. “A” recommendations indicate a test or intervention is “recommended”; “B” recom- mendations “suggest” a test or intervention and “C” recommendations indicate a test or intervention “may be considered” or “is an option.” “I” or “Insufficient Evidence (...) ” statements clearly indicate that “there is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for or against” a test or intervention. Work group con- sensus statements clearly state that “in the absence of reliable evidence, it is the work group’s opinion that” a test or intervention may be appropriate. Recommendations were developed based on a specific definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the resulting literature which excluded conditions such as presence of a neurological deficit or leg pain

2020 American Academy of Pain Medicine

22. Focused deterrence strategies effects on crime: A systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

criminologists seem unaware of the existing empirical evidence. For instance, in his 2013 summary of the crime prevention value of focused deterrence programs, former National Council on Crime and Delinquency president Barry Krisberg reported, “It certainly hasn't been effective so far, and there is no information suggesting it is effective” (as interviewed by KTVU, ). Recently, more cities have tested the focused deterrence approach to control gang violence, disorderly drug markets, and repeat offender (...) problems. The National Network for Safe Communities, an applied research project of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, provides support to some 42 U.S. cities who are implementing some version of a focused deterrence strategy. 1 For a complete list of cities supported by the National Network for Safe Communities, go to (last accessed May 24, 2019). A few other countries have started to test the approach. For instance, a focused deterrence program has been implemented targeting youth violence

2019 Campbell Collaboration

23. Incentives for climate mitigation in the land use sector—the effects of payment for environmental services on environmental and socioeconomic outcomes in low? and middle?income countries: A mixed?methods systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

effective mitigation strategies, we conclude that the large‐scale implementation of PES is a high‐risk strategy. Our primary conclusion is therefore that there is an urgent need to integrate rigorous impact evaluation with the roll‐out of any new PES programme. This echoes repeated calls for rigorous evidence on the effects of PES over the least the last decade (Ferraro, ; Ferraro & Pattanayak, ; Samii, Lisiecki, Kulkarni, Paler, & Chavis, ). 2.5 Implications for practice and policy With the above (...) to be conducted in conjunction with the roll out of new programmes. Such studies should be conducted across multiple contexts to identify generalisable and context specific findings. They should assess effects on a common set of environmental and socioeconomic outcomes, including deforestation, GHG emissions, household income and food security. To identify and address potential unintended negative socioeconomic effects studies should draw on existing literature to anticipate and collect data on such outcomes

2019 Campbell Collaboration

24. Interventions for Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

: Forest plot of log odds ratio for MI (brief intervention) compared with TAU 32 Figure 15. Evidence graph of brief behavioral intervention studies reporting a substance use problem scale 33 Figure 16. Substance use problem scales: Forest plot of standardized net mean difference of the brief interventions MI versus TAU 34 Figure 17. Substance use problem scales: Forest plot of standardized net mean difference of the brief interventions MI versus Educ 35 Figure 18. Meta-analyzed nonbrief behavioral (...) of the following inclusion criteria: (1) subjects were referred for treatment by self, parent, school, other professional, or the juvenile justice system; (2) subjects were screened using a validated tool, such as the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test—Consumption) 22 and an intervention was given to those who met a prespecified threshold; (3) subjects were asked about amount and frequency of use, and a threshold of at least monthly substance use was defined or; (4) subjects were identified

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

26. Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job finding rates: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

UI benefits. These are known as SA benefits. Unlike UI benefits, SA benefits are generally means‐tested without any necessary connection to past employment; they pay a lower level of benefit and are indefinite. We know of only one example of an SA benefit with a time limit: the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) which is available in the US. The federal government requires states to impose between 2‐ or 5‐year limits on TANF (Gustafson & Levine, 1997). In a minority of OECD countries (...) , UA benefits are paid after exhaustion of UI benefits. Like SA benefits, they are generally means‐tested, pay a lower level of benefits and, excepting Hungary, Portugal and Sweden, are indefinite. Unemployment benefits with an indefinite time limit or non‐financial benefits are excluded from this review. 1.3 HOW THE INTERVENTION MIGHT WORK Search theory offers an explanation for how reducing unemployment benefits duration might increase job finding rates. According to search theory, one can derive

2018 Campbell Collaboration

27. Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low? and lower?middle?income countries: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the model are reported; whether reasons for choice of data are reported or justified. 2. Specification of the model, taking into account: whether the type of model has been used before; whether the model is dynamic or static; whether the assumptions underlying the model are reported and plausible; whether there are attempts to calibrate or otherwise test the validity of the model; whether the sensitivity of the model to changes in some variables is apparent, for instance through changing model variables (...) of the outcome variable are needed. Where this was not reported, we applied information available about the sample size to other information reported in the paper, such as the value of the t‐test for the difference in means across intervention and comparison groups (see ). We also used the risk/response ratio to measure changes in poverty aggregates (e.g. headcount, poverty gap, squared‐poverty gap). Where data were not reported for confidence intervals in simulation studies (e.g. due to lack of sensitivity

2018 Campbell Collaboration

28. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness: a systematic review and meta?analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

analysed the data using (standardized) mean difference ((S)MD) with the corresponding 95% CI. We used SMD when length of time was measured different between pooled studies (e.g. in days versus months, etc.). We conducted meta‐analyses using RevMan 5,using a random‐effects model and inverse‐variance approach(38). This method allowed us to weight each study according to the degree of variation in the confidence in the effect estimate. In cases where the means, number of participants and test statistics (...) for t‐test were reported, but not the standard deviations, and there was the opportunity to include results in a meta‐analysis, we calculated standard deviations, assuming same standard deviation for each of the two groups (intervention and control). Heterogeneity We assessed statistical heterogeneity using I 2 . Where I 2 was less than 25% we considered the results to have low heterogeneity. Where I 2 was greater than 50% we considered the results to have high heterogeneity. Where

2018 Campbell Collaboration

29. School?based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

to have a clear role in predicting exclusion. For other variables of interest such as sex, age or socio‐economic status most of the evidence is limited to bivariate associations. Regarding the outcomes, while there is a stark link between misbehaviour (e.g., school drop‐out and delinquency) and school exclusion, there is no clear causal relationship. Notwithstanding decades of research on school exclusion and its impact on later behaviour, we are still at an initial stage for testing causal (...) , tested data from 365 schools and a total number of 43,320 students. They concluded that when comparing those students eligible for free or reduced‐cost lunches with their non‐eligible peers, the first were more likely to get out‐of‐school exclusions (OR= 1.27; p<.05). However, contrary to expectations, the eligibility for free or reduced meals resulted in a negative predictor of permanent exclusion (OR= 0.03; p<.05). Special educational needs (SEN) Although an increasing amount of research has

2018 Campbell Collaboration

30. Integrating money advice workers into primary care settings: an evaluation

: www.gcph.co.uk Twitter: @theGCPH 3 Contents Acknowledgements.………………………………………………………………………………….2 Executive summary 5 Introduction 7 Background 7 Integrating money advice in general practice – testing a local approach 7 About the nine general practices 8 General practice cluster groups 9 What does the evidence so far show? 10 Evaluation aims 11 Methods 12 Structure of methods 12 Money advice monitoring data 13 Interviews with advice clients referred to other services 13 Health improvement interviews 14 General (...) professionals 27 Producing supporting evidence 27 Accessing medical evidence 28 4 Views on accessing medical evidence 29 Embedding 30 Extending partnership connections 31 4. Governance and future directions 32 Health improvement role 32 General practice cluster group 32 Scaling up 33 Discussion 34 Accessing and engaging advice services 34 Testing a local integrated approach 34 Are there merits in scaling up this integrated approach? 35 Could housing and health partnerships be strengthened? 38 Study

2019 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

32. What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global public health programmes?

for measuring it. Programme frameworks are management tools used to design, monitor and evaluate interventions (11). Two commonly used examples are the logical framework (or log frame) and the results framework (11) (12). The logical framework helps to translate strategic plans into resources (inputs), activities, outputs, and outcomes— what the program is trying to achieve and what it does to get results (13). The results framework comprises four major indicator domains: system inputs and processes (...) of a programme in a similar manner to ToC but are usually presented in a linear form - they can be rigid and do not make explicit the causal pathways through which change happens in the way that ToC does (16). Log frames were initially developed to summarise discussions with stakeholders, but funder-driven formats have largely reduced log frames to a results-based management tool (16). Theory of Change (ToC) is a participatory theory driven approach to programme design and evaluation whose underlying

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

33. Age-friendly and inclusive volunteering: Review of community contributions in later life

through the review processes (calls, roundtables and focus groups). While individual responses are not necessarily generalisable, we have analysed these inputs in the light of the wider evidence base outlined above and tested our conclusions back with a wider range of stakeholders. 17 © Centre for Ageing Better 2018 In this review, the term ‘community contribution’ is used to encompass the wide range of ways in which people help out, get involved, volunteer and participate in their communities

2018 The Centre for Ageing Better

34. Adalimumab (Hyrimoz) - Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn Disease, Papulosquamous Skin Diseases, Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Uveitis

with treatment as factor. b 2-sided p value from log rank test. c NE = not estimable. Fewer than half of at-risk subjects had an event. 49 Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier curves summarizing time to treatment failure on or after week 6 (study UV I) or week 2 (study UV II) Note: P# = Placebo (Number of Events/Number at Risk); A# = Adalimumab (Number of Events/Number at Risk). In Study UV I statistically significant differences in favour of adalimumab versus placebo were observed for each component of treatment failure (...) Response Adalimumab significantly delayed the time to treatment failure, as compared to placebo (See Figure 3, P < 0.0001 from log rank test).The median time to treatment failure was 24.1 weeks for subjects treated with placebo, whereas the median time to treatment failure was not estimable for subjects treated with adalimumab because less than one-half of these subjects experienced treatment failure. Adalimumab significantly decreased the risk of treatment failure by 75% relative to placebo, as shown

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

35. Budesonide (Jorveza) - to treat adults with eosinophilic oesophagitis

- complete and independent application. The application submitted is composed of administrative information, complete quality data, non-clinical and clinical data based on applicants’ own tests and studies and/or bibliographic literature substituting/supporting certain test(s) or study(ies). Information on Paediatric requirements Not applicable Information relating to orphan market exclusivity Similarity Pursuant to Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 and Article 3 of Commission Regulation (EC (...) . The Applicant provided furthermore one study investigating potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions via the P-gp (MDR-1), BCRP (ABCG2), OATP1B1, OATP1B3 transporters (BUB-5/DM0104). Budesonide´s influence on P-gp and BCRP was tested with adequate marker substances to a budesonide concentration up to 100 µM. The influence on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 was tested up to 300 nM budesonide. At the highest concentration tested, budesonide inhibited P-gp and BCRP to 92.7 and 62.5%. The calculated IC 50 values

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

36. Guidelines For Professional Ultrasound Practice

Intimate examinations and chaperones 18 1.11 Examination times 20 1.12 Communication, ID and consent 21 1.13 Clinical governance 23 1.14 E-Learning for Healthcare (E-LfH) 25 1.15 Imaging Services Accreditation Scheme (ISAS) 25 1.16 Ultrasound equipment and quality assurance testing 26 1.17 Raising concerns; safeguarding; statutory requirements for reporting female genital mutilation; Duty of Candour. 1.18 Continuing professional development (CPD) 28 1.19 Codes of professional conduct for sonographers (...) Abdominal ultrasound examinations 50 Examination specific guidelines and common scenarios 2.8.1 General principles 50 2.8.2 Ultrasound examinations of the liver 54 2.8.3 Imaging of the gallbladder and biliary tree 55 2.8.4 Transabdominal ultrasound of the pancreas 56 2.8.5 Ultrasound of the spleen 57 2.8.6 Ultrasound of the bowel 60 2.9 Imaging of the uro-genital system including testes and scrotum 63 2.10 Ultrasound of the adult head and neck 66 2.11 Paediatric ultrasound examinations 2.11.1 Paediatric

2018 British Medical Ultrasound Society

37. Treatment of Hepatitis C

). In the case of suspected acute hepatitis C, in immuno- compromised patients and in patients on haemodialysis, HCV RNA testing in serum or plasma should be part of the initial evaluation (A1). If anti-HCV antibodies are detected, HCV RNA should be determined by a sensitive molecular method with a lower limit of detection =15IU/ml (A1). Inlow-andmiddle-incomecountries,andinspeci?cset- tings in high-income countries, a qualitative HCV RNA assay with a lower limit of detection =1,000IU/ml (3.0 Log 10 IU/ml (...) recurrence of HCV infection, if risk behaviours have continued. ThediagnosisofchronichepatitisCisbasedonthedetection of both anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA (or HCV core anti- gen). Spontaneous viral clearance rarely occurs beyond 4 to 6 months after a newly acquired infection, 27 so the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C can be made after this time period. Recommendations All patients with suspected HCV infection should be tested for anti-HCV antibodies in serum or plasma as ?rst-line diagnostic test (A1

2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver

40. Review of information management practices in the HSE Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting (CIDR) system

to ensure a high-quality safe service. Safe, reliable healthcare depends on access to, and the use of, information that is accurate, valid, reliable, timely, relevant, legible and complete. For example, when giving a patient a drug, a nurse needs to be sure that they are administering the appropriate dose of the correct drug to the right patient and that the patient is not allergic to it. Similarly, lack of up- to-date information can lead to the unnecessary duplication of tests — if critical diagnostic (...) results are missing or overlooked, tests have to be repeated unnecessarily and, at best, appropriate treatment is delayed or at worst not given. In addition, health information has an important role to play in healthcare planning decisions — where to locate a new service, whether or not to introduce a new national screening programme and decisions on best value for money in health and social care provision. Under Section (8)(1)(k) of the Health Act 2007, the Health Information and Quality Authority

2019 HIQA Health Information

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