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1. Lipoma

Lipoma Lipoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Lipoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary Benign tumours composed of adipose tissue. Can occur in any area of the body, although they are most frequently found on the trunk or proximal limbs. Most commonly found in subcutaneous tissues. Rare sites include GI tract, adrenal glands, parotid glands, parapharyngeal space, breast (...) , mediastinum, pleura, airways, heart, superior vena cava, brain, and intraspinal areas. Cutaneous lipomas are usually soft, mobile, and superficial. No malignant potential. However, the differential diagnosis includes liposarcomas, which are malignant, so this must always be carefully considered. Surgical resection is indicated for symptomatic relief, pathological confirmation, or cosmetic reasons, or if there is an increase in size. Definition Lipomas are slow-growing, benign, mesenchymal tumours

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. The Influence of Breast Tumour-Derived Factors and Wnt Antagonism on the Transformation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Tumour-Associated Fibroblasts Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Influence of Breast Tumour-Derived Factors and Wnt Antagonism on the Transformation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Tumour-Associated Fibroblasts Within the tumour stroma, a heterogeneous population of cell types reciprocally regulates cell proliferation, which considerably affects the progression of the disease. In this study, using tumour conditioned medium (TCM) derived from breast tumour cell lines - MCF7 and MDA MB 231, we have demonstrated the differentiation of adipose (...) -derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) into tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Since the Wnt signalling pathway is a key signalling pathway driving breast tumour growth, the effect of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) was also examined. The response of ADSCs to TCM and sFRP4 treatments was determined by using cell viability assay to determine the changes in ADSC viability, immunofluorescence for mesenchymal markers, glucose uptake assay, and glycolysis stress test using

2018 Cancer Microenvironment

3. GRP78 expression in tumor and perinephric adipose tissue is not an optimal risk stratification marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

GRP78 expression in tumor and perinephric adipose tissue is not an optimal risk stratification marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, which is difficult to treat and lacks a reliable prognostic marker. A previous study showed that the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, glucose-regulated-protein-78 (GRP78), is a potential prognostic marker for ccRCC. The present study aimed to: (1) examine whether GRP78 (...) was upregulated in ccRCC compared with matched non-neoplastic renal tissue; and (2) investigate whether GRP78 expression in ccRCC tissue or perinephric adipose tissue has any association with ccRCC aggressiveness.A retrospective cross-sectional study of 267 patients who underwent nephrectomy for renal tumors between June 2013 and October 2017 was conducted at Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Software-assisted quantification of average grey value of staining intensity (staining intensity

2019 PLoS ONE

4. Peritumoural adipose tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with tumoural growth factors in cancer cachexia patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peritumoural adipose tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with tumoural growth factors in cancer cachexia patients. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome, often irreversible, that affects patients with cancer influenced, in part, by the inflammatory condition. Peritumoural adipose tissue produces adipokines and angiogenic, apoptotic, and growth factors; given the possible crosstalk between the peritumoural adipose tissue and tumour, these may play an important role (...) in cancer biology and carcinogenesis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors produced by peritumoural adipose tissue in a cohort of 16 colorectal cancer patients with either weight-stable cancer (WSC; n = 7) or CC (n = 9). The study was approved by the Ethics Research Committee (972.914). Samples of peritumoural adipose tissue were analysed for concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, STAT-1, STAT-3, RANTES, IL-1Ra, IP-10, IL-15, MCP-1, IFN-α, GCSF, FADD, and TGF-β. The cytokines and proteins were

2018 Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle

5. Barriers to cancer nutrition therapy: excess catabolism of muscle and adipose tissues induced by tumour products and chemotherapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Barriers to cancer nutrition therapy: excess catabolism of muscle and adipose tissues induced by tumour products and chemotherapy. Cancer-associated malnutrition is driven by reduced dietary intake and by underlying metabolic changes (such as inflammation, anabolic resistance, proteolysis, lipolysis and futile cycling) induced by the tumour and activated immune cells. Cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies also elicit proteolysis and lipolysis at the tissue level. In this review, we summarise (...) specific mediators and chemotherapy effects that provoke excess proteolysis in muscle and excess lipolysis in adipose tissue. A nutritionally relevant question is whether and to what degree these catabolic changes can be reversed by nutritional therapy. In skeletal muscle, tumour factors and chemotherapy drugs activate intracellular signals that result in the suppression of protein synthesis and activation of a transcriptional programme leading to autophagy and degradation of myofibrillar proteins

2018 Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

6. Obesity and gastrointestinal cancer: the interrelationship of adipose and tumour microenvironments. (Abstract)

Obesity and gastrointestinal cancer: the interrelationship of adipose and tumour microenvironments. Increasing recognition of an association between obesity and many cancer types exists, but how the myriad of local and systemic effects of obesity affect key cellular and non-cellular processes within the tumour microenvironment (TME) relevant to carcinogenesis, tumour progression and response to therapies remains poorly understood. The TME is a complex cellular environment in which the tumour (...) exists along with blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, signalling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Obesity, in particular visceral obesity, might fuel the dysregulation of key pathways relevant to both the adipose microenvironment and the TME, which interact to promote carcinogenesis in at-risk epithelium. The tumour-promoting effects of obesity can occur at the local level as well as systemically via circulating inflammatory, growth factor

2018 Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology

7. Chronic psychological stress during adolescence induces sex-dependent adulthood inflammation, increased adiposity, and abnormal behaviors that are ameliorated by selective inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor with XPro1595. (Abstract)

Chronic psychological stress during adolescence induces sex-dependent adulthood inflammation, increased adiposity, and abnormal behaviors that are ameliorated by selective inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor with XPro1595. Physical and psychosocial maltreatment experienced before the age of 18, termed early life adversity (ELA), affects an estimated 39% of the world's population, and has long-term detrimental health and psychological outcomes. While adult phenotypes vary following ELA (...) , inflammation and altered stress responsivity are pervasive. Cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are elevated in adults with a history of ELA. While soluble TNF (solTNF) drives chronic inflammatory disease, transmembrane TNF facilitates innate immunity. Here, we test whether solTNF mediates the behavioral and molecular outcomes of adolescent psychological stress by administering a brain permeable, selective inhibitor of solTNF, XPro1595. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

8. Jejunal Lipoma, an Uncommon Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Full Text available with Trip Pro

Jejunal Lipoma, an Uncommon Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding 30480055 2018 12 07 2341-4545 25 6 2018 Nov GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology GE Port J Gastroenterol Jejunal Lipoma, an Uncommon Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding. 337-339 10.1159/000486560 Pinto João J Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Hospital Amato Lusitano, Unidade Local de Saúde de Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, Portugal. Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, EPE, Lisbon (...) , Portugal. Castela Joana J Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, EPE, Lisbon, Portugal. Mão de Ferro Susana S Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, EPE, Lisbon, Portugal. eng Journal Article 2018 02 07 Switzerland GE Port J Gastroenterol 101685861 2387-1954 Balloon enteroscopy Capsule endoscopy Gastrointestinal haemorrhage Jejunum Lipoma 2017 11 30 2017 12 31 2018 11 28 6 0 2018 11 28 6 0 2018 11 28 6

2018 GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology

9. Subcutaneous lipomas: A minimally invasive method for resection of subcutaneous lipomas preserving retaining ligaments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subcutaneous lipomas: A minimally invasive method for resection of subcutaneous lipomas preserving retaining ligaments Lipomas are common benign tumors usually located in the subcutaneous tissues. Resection of lipomas frequently requires incisions equal to the diameter of the tumor. The "squeeze technique" with a small incision is well-described, but is frequently not successful, particularly for lipomas in the shoulder region. We report a method for resection of subcutaneous lipomas (...) that preserves retaining ligaments.Lipomas are characterized by high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging. Retaining ligaments demonstrate low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images with fat-suppression. Through a 1 in. incision, lipomas were detached from the retaining ligaments bluntly with a finger. Tumors were then extracted either in a piecemeal fashion or with the "squeeze technique." Complete lipoma resection

2017 European journal of plastic surgery

10. Depsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Depsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells Naturally occurring depsidones from the marine fungus Aspergillus unguis are known to have substantial anti-cancer activity, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-aromatase activity of two common depsidones, unguinol and aspergillusidone A, in a co-culture system of human primary (...) breast adipose fibroblasts and hormonal responsive T47D breast tumor cells. Using this in vitro model it was shown that these depsidones inhibit the growth of T47D tumor cells most likely via inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity. The IC50 values of these depisidones were compared with the aromatase inhibitors letrozole and exemestane. Letrozole and exemestane had IC50 values of respectively, 0.19 and 0.14 μM, while those for Unguinol and Aspergillusidone A were respectively, 9.7 and 7.3 μM. Our

2017 Toxicology reports

11. Overweight, obesity and adiposity in survivors of childhood brain tumours: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Overweight, obesity and adiposity in survivors of childhood brain tumours: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Survivors of childhood brain tumours (SCBT) have increased cardiometabolic risks, but the determinants of these risks are unclear. This systematic review aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as adiposity measures between SCBT and non-cancer controls. The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases were searched. The primary outcomes (...) were the prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body mass index. The secondary outcomes were adiposity measures including percent fat mass, waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Forty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was similar between overall SCBT, SCBT excluding craniopharyngioma and non-cancer controls (42.6%, 95% CI 30.1-55.1 vs. 31.7%, 95% CI 20.4-43.0 vs. 40.4%, 95% CI 34.0-46.8). We also found that SCBT have higher

2017 Clinical Obesity

12. The tumour suppressor CDKN2A/p16INK4a regulates adipogenesis and bone marrow-dependent development of perivascular adipose tissue Full Text available with Trip Pro

The tumour suppressor CDKN2A/p16INK4a regulates adipogenesis and bone marrow-dependent development of perivascular adipose tissue The genomic CDKN2A/B locus, encoding p16INK4a among others, is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. p16INK4a is a cell cycle regulator and tumour suppressor. Whether it plays a role in adipose tissue formation is unknown. p16INK4a knock-down in 3T3/L1 (...) preadipocytes or p16INK4a deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhanced adipogenesis, suggesting a role for p16INK4a in adipose tissue formation. p16INK4a-deficient mice developed more epicardial adipose tissue in response to the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone. Additionally, adipose tissue around the aorta from p16INK4a-deficient mice displayed enhanced rosiglitazone-induced gene expression of adipogenic markers and stem cell antigen, a marker of bone

2017 Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research

13. Adipose may actively delay progression of NAFLD by releasing tumor-suppressing, anti-fibrotic miR-122 into circulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adipose may actively delay progression of NAFLD by releasing tumor-suppressing, anti-fibrotic miR-122 into circulation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver pathology. Here we propose tissue-cooperative, homeostatic model of NAFLD. During early stages of NAFLD the intrahepatic production of miR-122 falls, while the secretion of miRNA-containing exosomes by adipose increases. Bloodstream carries exosome to the liver, where their miRNA cargo is released to regulate (...) their intrahepatic targets. When the deterioration of adipose catches up with the failing hepatic parenchyma, the external supply of liver-supporting miRNAs gradually tapers off, leading to the fibrotic decompensation of the liver and an increase in hepatic carcinogenesis. This model may explain paradoxical observations of the disease-associated decrease in intrahepatic production of certain miRNAs with an increase in their levels in serum. Infusions of miR-122 and, possibly, some other miRNAs may be efficient

2018 Obesity Reviews

14. Cachexia-associated adipose loss induced by tumor-secreted leukemia inhibitory factor is counterbalanced by decreased leptin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cachexia-associated adipose loss induced by tumor-secreted leukemia inhibitory factor is counterbalanced by decreased leptin Cachexia syndrome consists of adipose and muscle loss, often despite normal food intake. We hypothesized that cachexia-associated adipose wasting is driven in part by tumor humoral factors that induce adipocyte lipolysis. We developed an assay to purify secreted factors from a cachexia-inducing colon cancer line that increases lipolysis in adipocytes and identified (...) demonstrate that (a) LIF is a tumor-secreted factor that promotes cachexia-like adipose loss when administered peripherally, (b) LIF directly induces adipocyte lipolysis, (c) LIF has the ability to sustain adipose and body weight loss through an equal combination of peripheral and central contributions, and (d) LIF's central effect is counterbalanced by decreased leptin signaling, providing insight into cachexia's wasting, despite normophagia.

2018 JCI insight

15. Comparative proteomics of soluble factors secreted by human breast adipose tissue from tumor and normal breast Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative proteomics of soluble factors secreted by human breast adipose tissue from tumor and normal breast Tumor progression depends on the tumor-stroma interaction. In the breast, adipose tissue is the predominant stromal type. We have previously demonstrated that conditioned media (CMs) from explants of human adipose tissue of tumor breasts (hATT) increase proliferation and migration of breast cancer epithelial cells when compared to human adipose tissue from normal breasts (hATN (...) and GRO cytokines were sufficient and necessary to differentiate hATT-CMs from hATN-CMs. This analysis also showed that the levels of these three cytokines, taken together, correlated with stage and histological grade of the tumor in the hATT-CMs group, and with body mass index in the hATN-CMs group.

2018 Oncotarget

16. Circulating and Adipose Tissue mRNA Levels of Zinc-α2-Glycoprotein, Leptin, High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Colorectal Cancer Patients With or Without Obesity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Circulating and Adipose Tissue mRNA Levels of Zinc-α2-Glycoprotein, Leptin, High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Colorectal Cancer Patients With or Without Obesity To explore zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-ADPN), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in serum and subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue (sWAT and vWAT) among normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) patients with colorectal cancer

2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

17. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Gene Expression in Epicardial Adipose Tissue is Related to Coronary Atherosclerosis Assessed by Computed Tomography Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Gene Expression in Epicardial Adipose Tissue is Related to Coronary Atherosclerosis Assessed by Computed Tomography Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α reportedly has key pro-inflammatory properties in both atherosclerosis and adipocytes. To further investigate the biologic impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the relationship between TNF-α gene expression in EAT and clinically-assessed coronary atherosclerosis on computed (...) tomography (CT).We studied 47 patients before cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], n=26; non-CABG, n=21), assessing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, EAT volume, coronary calcium score (CCS), and the presence of non- and/or partially-calcified coronary plaque (NCP) on CT angiography. EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples were obtained during cardiac surgery. TNF-α mRNA in EAT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR, and normalized to that of SAT as control adipose

2018 Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis

18. The adipose organ and multiple myeloma: Impact of adipokines on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention. (Abstract)

The adipose organ and multiple myeloma: Impact of adipokines on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention. In addition to its capacity to store lipids the adipose tissue is now identified as a real organ with both endocrine and metabolic roles. Preclinical results indicate that modifying adipose tissue and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) could be a successful multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. BMAT interrelates with bone marrow cells and other immune cells, and may influence

2018 European journal of internal medicine

19. Targeting Tumor Hypoxia Using Nanoparticle-engineered CXCR4-overexpressing Adipose-derived Stem Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting Tumor Hypoxia Using Nanoparticle-engineered CXCR4-overexpressing Adipose-derived Stem Cells Hypoxia, a hallmark of malignant tumors, often correlates with increasing tumor aggressiveness and poor treatment outcomes. Due to a lack of vasculature, effective drug delivery to hypoxic tumor regions remains challenging. Signaling through the chemokine SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4 plays a critical role in the homing of stem cells to ischemia for potential use as drug-delivery vehicles (...) . To harness this mechanism for targeting tumor hypoxia, we developed polymeric nanoparticle-induced CXCR4-overexpressing human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as a model tumor, we evaluated the ability of CXCR4-overexpressing hADSCs to target tumor hypoxia in vitro using a 2D migration assay and a 3D collagen hydrogel model. Compared to untransfected hADSCs, CXCR4-overexpressing hADSCs showed enhanced migration in response to hypoxia and penetrated the hypoxic core

2018 Theranostics

20. Large Pedunculated Lipoma of the Colon: Endoscopic Resection Using “Loop-and-Let-Go” Technique Full Text available with Trip Pro

Large Pedunculated Lipoma of the Colon: Endoscopic Resection Using “Loop-and-Let-Go” Technique 30320167 2018 11 14 2341-4545 25 5 2018 Sep GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology GE Port J Gastroenterol Large Pedunculated Lipoma of the Colon: Endoscopic Resection Using "Loop-and-Let-Go" Technique. 268-270 10.1159/000485350 Gravito-Soares Elisa E Gastroenterology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Gravito-Soares Marta M Gastroenterology Department (...) , Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Fraga João J Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Figueiredo Pedro P Gastroenterology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. eng Journal Article 2017 12 16 Switzerland GE Port J Gastroenterol 101685861 2387-1954 Colon Endoscopic resection Loop-and-let-go technique Pedunculated lipoma 2017

2017 GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology

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