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Further studies on cross-resistance in the German cockroach Four strains of German cockroaches have been exposed to a variety of insecticides in an effort to obtain more information on the cross-resistance phenomenon in this species. The insecticides chlordane, aldrin, and lindane were each tested against chlordane-resistant, lindane-resistant, and non-resistant strains. The insecticides diazinon and Sevin were each tested against DDT-resistant, chlordane-resistant, and non-resistant strains (...) . Adult females were used exclusively in these tests. The data are presented in the form of regression lines.The results show that the DDT-resistant strain is highly resistant to Sevin but is susceptible to diazinon, while the chlordane-resistant strain is susceptible to both of these compounds. Furthermore, the chlordane- and the lindane-resistant strains are both highly resistant to chlordane and to aldrin, but show only low-level resistance to lindane.The over-all picture of cross-resistance
in carbohydrate-limited media, no increases in bacterial counts were indicated. Warburg manometric data showed that paraffin oil-Triton X-155 preparations of dimethoate, Diazinon, lindane, Thiodan and Sevin stimulated gas production in holotrich protozoa. Entodinium simplex, an oligotrich, produced less gas with insecticide substrates per unit of dry weight than did an Isotricha sp. Rumen bacteria and plant debris fractions from ruminal ingesta provided with insecticides did not give increased manometric
The Experimental Production and Development of Diffuse Hepatic Fibrosis (â€œPortal Cirrhosisâ€) 18865100 2008 10 16 2018 12 01 0007-1021 29 1 1948 Feb British journal of experimental pathology Br J Exp Pathol The experimental production and development of diffuse hepatic fibrosis, portal cirrhosis. 1-9 GLYNN L E LE HIMSWORTH H P HP LINDAN O O eng Journal Article England Br J Exp Pathol 0372543 0007-1021 OM Fibrosis Humans Liver Cirrhosis 4815:383o LIVER/fibrosis 1948 2 1 0 0 2008 11 1 9 0 1948
Ultrarapid metabolization of codeine to morphine Genetic variant Deaths have occurred after surgery and in a breastfed infant whose mother took codeine Diphenoxylate Respiratory depression Death CNS depression (in immature CNS) Overdose syndrome, usually in children 2 yr Fluoroquinolones Cartilage toxicity Unknown Suspected based on animal studies, but adverse effects in humans unproved—short-term use may be safe Lindane (topical) Seizures CNS toxicity Probably enhanced absorption in children Should
be obtained by placing glycerol, mineral oil, or immersion oil over a burrow or papule (to prevent dispersion of mites and material during scraping), which is then unroofed with the edge of a scalpel. The material is then placed on a slide and covered with a coverslip; potassium hydroxide should be avoided because it dissolves fecal pellets. Treatment Topical permethrin or lindane Sometimes oral ivermectin Primary treatment is topical or oral scabicides (see table ). Permethrin is the 1st-line topical (...) drug. Older children and adults should apply permethrin or lindane to the entire body from the neck down and wash it off after 8 to 14 h. Permethrin is often preferred because lindane can be neurotoxic. Treatments should be repeated in 7 days. For infants and young children, permethrin should be applied to the head and neck, avoiding periorbital and perioral regions. Special attention should be given to intertriginous areas, fingernails, toenails, and the umbilicus. Mittens on infants can keep
away from the scalp) are seen Contraindicated in patients sensitive to the chrysanthemum family of plants Wet combing with a metal nit comb Should be combined with all of the therapies — Lindane 1% shampoo Apply shampoo, lather for 4–5 min, rinse, and comb with fine-tooth comb Repeat in 1 wk Increasing resistance to drug Toxicity (eg, seizures) not typical with treatment of head lice but not recommended for children 2 yr, people with an uncontrolled seizure disorder, or for pregnant or lactating (...) women Cannot be used on eyelashes Ivermectin 200 mcg/kg po for 1 dose Repeat in 7–10 days Useful for resistant lice Cetaphil ® cleanser Apply, wait 2 min, comb out excess, blow dry hair, wait 8 h, then shampoo and remove nits with wet combing Repeat weekly as necessary — Lice, body — Treatment of pruritus and secondary infection Topical measures not used because body lice are found in clothing Wash clothes and linens and dry them at at least 149° F Dry cleaning or ironing clothes Lice, pubic Lindane
have a marked increase in capillary permeability in later stages; thus, IV fluids should be given cautiously to maintain BP while avoiding worsening pulmonary and cerebral edema. Prevention Immunization and louse control are highly effective for prevention. However, vaccines are no longer available. Lice may be eliminated by dusting infested people with malathion or lindane . Key Points Epidemic typhus is prevalent worldwide; humans are the natural reservoir. Infection is transmitted among humans
of vomiting and aspiration, O 2 , respiratory support, ECG monitoring (ventricular fibrillation can occur early) Diazepam to control seizures For severe anemia, blood transfusions Replacement of K as necessary Epinephrine contraindicated γ -Benzene hexachloride Benzene hexachloride Hexachlorocyclohexane Lindane Irritability, CNS excitation, muscle spasms, atonia, tonic-clonic seizures, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, nausea, vomiting, obtundation, coma Supportive care, activated charcoal after (...) for severe cyanosis, ascorbic acid, treatment of shock, O 2 For complex cases, possibly dialysis Chlordane See Chlorinated and other halogenated hydrocarbons — Chlorethoxyfos See Organophosphates — Chlorinated and other halogenated hydrocarbons Aldrin Benzene hexachloride Chlordane Chlorothalonil DDD (2-dichlorethane) DDT (chlorophenothane) Dicofol Dieldrin Dienochlor Dilan Endosulfan Endrin Heptachlor Lindane Methoxychlor Perchlordecone Prolan Toxaphene Other chlorinated organic insecticides
for interventions.In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad.
for thick hair, while plastic short-tooth combs are best used for treating long and fine hair. Medications [ ] Main article: Today, insecticides used for the treatment of head lice include ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), , ( , , ), and (spinosyn A and spinosyn D). The only agents approved by the FDA for treatment of pediculosis are topical ivermectin lotion, lindane, malathion, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins . [ ] has been promoted as a treatment for head lice; however, evidence of its effectiveness
association between prostate cancer risk and exposure to DDT (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.70 for high exposure), simazine (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.33 for high exposure), and lindane (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.15-3.55 for high exposure) is in keeping with those previously reported in the literature. We also observed a significant excess risk for several active ingredients that have not been previously reported in the literature such as dichlone, dinoseb amine, malathion, endosulfan, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, and carbaryl
search terms scabies, treatment and randomised controlled trial (RCT). The Cochrane database was also searched under scabies. One Cochrane review (3) and one other evidence-based review (4) published since the previous guideline were identified. Three additional clinical trials were considered (5-7). Drugs considered were ivermectin, permethrin, crotamiton and benzyl benzoate. Ivermectin is not licensed as a treatment for scabies in the UK. There are no RCTs involving malathion. Lindane is no longer (...) study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42:236 40 6. Zargari O, Golchai J, Sobhani A, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of topical 1% lindane vs 5% permethrin in scabies: a randomized, double-blind study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2006;72:33–36 7. Madan V, Jaskiran K, Gupta U, et al. Oral ivermectin in scabies patients: a comparison with 1% topical lindane lotion. J Dermatol 2001;28:481–484 8. David N, Rajamanoharan S, Tang
was undertaken using search terms pediculosis pubis and randomised controlled trial (RCT). The Cochrane database was also searched under pediculosis pubis. One evidence-based review has been published since the previous guideline was written (3). Only one RCT since 1980 was identified (4), comparing permethrin with lindane (which is no longer available in the UK). What is new in the guideline • No new evidence • Change in treatment of infestation of the eyelashes to conform with other guidelines • Audit (...) and Responsibility. Strategy and action plan for improving sexual health. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive 3. Wendel K, Rompalo A. Scabies and pediculosis pubis: an update of treatment regimens and general review. Clin Inf Dis 2002;35(suppl):S146-S151. 4. Kalter DC, Sperber J, Rosen T, Matarasso S. Treatment of pediculosis pubis – clinical comparison of efficacy and tolerance of 1% lindane shampoo versus 1% permethrin cream rinse. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:1315-9 5. Hart G. Factors associated with pediculosis pubis
Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and epidemiological studies. To be included, studies had to base their definition of cases on the observation of relevant living organisms, evaluate the same at least 3 weeks after treatment for scabies trials, and define treatment failure as identification of living organisms at 1-week follow-up for pediculosis trials. Specific interventions included in the review For the treatment of scabies: lindane 1%, permethrin 5%, benzyl benzoate and crotamiton 10 (...) %. For the treatment of pediculosis: lindane 1%, permethrin 1% and pyrethrins. Participants included in the review People with clinically-identified infestation of scabies, pediculosis capitis, and pediculosis pubis. People living within populations considered to be at risk of scabies infestation. Outcomes assessed in the review Treatment failure (identification of relevant living organisms at 1-week follow-up for pediculosis, skin abnormalities detected at least 3 weeks after treatment for scabies) and cure
treatments for killing lice. Most trials evaluated single applications of the treatments. Compounds (in lotion and/or shampoo form) included in trials were: carbaryl; lindane; malathion; permethrin; pyrethrines (bioresmethrin, chlorphenamide, pyrethrin). Participants included in the review People infested with head lice in the community or schools were included. Outcomes assessed in the review The outcome assessed was the absence of live lice and viable nits on day 14 after treatment (determined (...) between places with high or low background prevalence. The combined odds ratio of treatment failure for lindane versus permethrin was 15.18 (95% CI: 7.99-28.84) for the two largest trials. The associated test for heterogeneity gave a p value of 0.99. Cost information Permethrin is more expensive than malathion or carbaryl. Authors' conclusions There is only sufficient published evidence to show that permethrin is effective in the topical treatment of head lice. CRD commentary Eleven unpublished trials
such as permethrin, lindane, or benzyl benzoate. In addition to concerns over toxicity with such compounds, parasite resistance seems to be increasing. Oral ivermectin is an alternative that has been used successfully in community control programmes. Plant derivatives such as turmeric, neem, and tea tree oil are also promising future treatments. The disease is strongly associated with poverty and overcrowding, and the associated stigma can ostracise affected individuals. Treatment of scabies in poor countries
Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. The timing of head lice maturation most favorable to their survival in the presence of anti-lice agents is the maximum time as an ovum (12 days) and the shortest possible time of maturing from newly hatched nymph to egg-laying adult (8.5 days). Pediculicides that are not reliably ovicidal (pyrethroids and lindane) require 2 to 3 treatment cycles to eradicate lice. Ovicidal therapies (malathion) require 1 to 2 (...) treatments. Treatment with an agent to which there is genetic resistance is unproductive. In the United States, lice have become increasingly resistant to pyrethroids and lindane but not to malathion. Treatment with malathion has favorable efficacy and safety profiles and enables the immediate, safe return to school. Nit combing can be performed adjunctively. No-nit policies should be rendered obsolete.
as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the potential for resultant drug toxicities are important considerations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability barrier results