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Lindane

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121. Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks (Diagnosis)

cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina with a young age of onset. Women with fetal exposure to DES have an increased risk of developing vaginal cancer at 20-30 years of age. Lindane is a drug used to kill lice. It has antiestrogenic and weak estrogenic effects, but it does not occupy estrogen receptors. Heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene are also possible endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are chemicals used in industry, plastic production, and metal can linings. Some preliminary evidence suggests

2014 eMedicine.com

122. Scabies (Diagnosis)

) assay. [ ] In addition, elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers and eosinophilia may be demonstrated in some patients with scabies. See for more detail. Management Scabies treatment includes administration of a scabicidal agent (eg, permethrin, lindane, or ivermectin), as well as an appropriate antimicrobial agent if a secondary infection has developed. Pruritus may be partially alleviated with an oral antihistamine, such as hydroxyzine hydrochloride (Atarax), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl

2014 eMedicine.com

123. Pressure Ulcers and Wound Care (Diagnosis)

and greater than the venous capillary closing pressure (8-12 mm Hg) to impede the return of flow for an extended time. Tissues are capable withstanding enormous pressures for brief periods, but prolonged exposure to pressures just slightly above capillary filling pressure initiates a downward spiral toward tissue necrosis and ulceration. [ , ] The inciting event is compression of the tissues against an external object such as a mattress, wheelchair pad, bed rail, or other surface. Lindan et al documented (...) ):407-11. . Daniel RK, Faibisoff B. Muscle coverage of pressure points--the role of myocutaneous flaps. Ann Plast Surg . 1982 Jun. 8(6):446-52. . Paget J. Clinical lecture on bed sores. Students J Hosp Gaz . 1873. 1:144-7. . Gefen A. Reswick and Rogers pressure-time curve for pressure ulcer risk. Part 1. Nurs Stand . 2009 Jul 15-21. 23(45):64, 66, 68 passim. . Gefen A. Reswick and Rogers pressure-time curve for pressure ulcer risk. Part 2. Nurs Stand . 2009 Jul 22-28. 23(46):40-4. . LINDAN O

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Toxicity, Toxaphene and Organochlorine (Treatment)

. [ ] The toxicity of these agents varies according to their molecular size, volatility, and effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In general, they cause either CNS depression or stimulation, depending upon the agent and dose. [ ] These compounds can be separated into 5 groups, as follows: DDT and analogues (eg, dicofol, methoxychlor) Hexachlorocyclohexane (ie, benzene hexachloride) and isomers (eg, lindane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) Cyclodienes (eg, endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin (...) absorption is variable. For example, DDT is poorly absorbed transdermally, whereas cyclodienes have significant transdermal absorption rates. [ ] Cyclodienes have high absorption levels when taken orally as in the case of food contamination with these pesticides. [ ] Lindane is known to be absorbed after topical application, but oral ingestions are not rare. [ ] Young age, malnourishment, and frequent exposure increases the risk for toxicity. [ ] Organic chlorines are strongly lipid soluble and sequester

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

125. Toxicity, Hydrocarbon Insecticides (Treatment)

by the US Environmental Protection Agency, so any use of these compounds is illegal. Previous References Stockholm Convention. Available at . Paul Muller Biography. NobelPrize.org. Available at . Accessed: May 3, 2012. United States Environmental Protection Agency. DDT Ban Takes Effect. Available at . Accessed: April 19, 2013. Bhalla M, Thami GP. Reversible neurotoxicity after an overdose of topical lindane in an infant. Pediatr Dermatol . 2004 Sep-Oct. 21(5):597-9. . Reigart JR, Roberts JR, eds (...) . Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings . 5th ed. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency; 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acute convulsions associated with endrin poisoning--Pakistan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 1984 Dec 14. 33(49):687-8, 693. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2005 Jun 3. 54(21):533-5. . Pramanik AK, Hansen RC. Transcutaneous gamma benzene

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

126. Scabies (Treatment)

) assay. [ ] In addition, elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers and eosinophilia may be demonstrated in some patients with scabies. See for more detail. Management Scabies treatment includes administration of a scabicidal agent (eg, permethrin, lindane, or ivermectin), as well as an appropriate antimicrobial agent if a secondary infection has developed. Pruritus may be partially alleviated with an oral antihistamine, such as hydroxyzine hydrochloride (Atarax), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

127. Pediculosis (Treatment)

- [ ] CDC: [ , , ] Next: Pesticides Various topical pediculicidal agents are available for the treatment of head and pubic lice. Pyrethrin shampoos and permethrin 1% are available over the counter; permethrin 5% (approved to treat scabies, but occasionally used to treat lice), malathion 0.5% (Ovide), lindane, topical ivermectin (Sklice), and spinosad are prescription agents. Pubic lice can be treated with over-the-counter permethrin 1% lotion and a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (...) effect and decreased frequency of re-infestation, if used properly. It is approved for use in individuals aged 6 years or older. Malathion 0.5% lotion (Ovide) is flammable and should not be used in the presence of hot hair care products or near individuals who are smoking. Lindane is an organochloride that should be reserved for treatment of individuals in whom alternative treatment has failed or is intolerable. [ , ] Seizures may result from abnormal absorption or gross overuse of the product

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

129. Decubitus Ulcers (Overview)

the venous capillary closing pressure (8-12 mm Hg) to impede the return of flow for an extended time. Tissues are capable withstanding enormous pressures for brief periods, but prolonged exposure to pressures just slightly above capillary filling pressure initiates a downward spiral toward tissue necrosis and ulceration. [ , ] The inciting event is compression of the tissues against an external object such as a mattress, wheelchair pad, bed rail, or other surface. Lindan et al documented ranges (...) of pressure points--the role of myocutaneous flaps. Ann Plast Surg . 1982 Jun. 8(6):446-52. . Paget J. Clinical lecture on bed sores. Students J Hosp Gaz . 1873. 1:144-7. . Gefen A. Reswick and Rogers pressure-time curve for pressure ulcer risk. Part 1. Nurs Stand . 2009 Jul 15-21. 23(45):64, 66, 68 passim. . Gefen A. Reswick and Rogers pressure-time curve for pressure ulcer risk. Part 2. Nurs Stand . 2009 Jul 22-28. 23(46):40-4. . LINDAN O, GREENWAY RM, PIAZZA JM. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ON THE SURFACE

2014 eMedicine Surgery

130. Toxicity, Deadly in a Single Dose (Overview)

poisoned by paraquat - with analysis of 146 cases. Int J Artif Organs . 2016 Feb 29. . McDonagh BJ, Martin J. Paraquat Poisoning in Children. Archives of Disease in Children . 1970 June. 45 (241):425-427. . Falk W, Hinrich R. Jacutin poisoning in childhood. Med Klin Wschr . 1957. 42:1837. Trestrail JH. Criminal Poisonings: Investigational Guide for Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, and Attorneys . Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2000. Nordt SP, Chew G. Acute Lindane Poisoning in Three

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

131. Toxicity, Deadly in a Single Dose (Diagnosis)

poisoned by paraquat - with analysis of 146 cases. Int J Artif Organs . 2016 Feb 29. . McDonagh BJ, Martin J. Paraquat Poisoning in Children. Archives of Disease in Children . 1970 June. 45 (241):425-427. . Falk W, Hinrich R. Jacutin poisoning in childhood. Med Klin Wschr . 1957. 42:1837. Trestrail JH. Criminal Poisonings: Investigational Guide for Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, and Attorneys . Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2000. Nordt SP, Chew G. Acute Lindane Poisoning in Three

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

132. Coccidioidomycosis (Diagnosis)

. [Identification of the agents of coccidioidomycosis using polymerase chain reaction]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol . 2007. 25-31. . Ampel NM, Hector RF, Lindan CP, Rutherford GW. An archived lot of coccidioidin induces specific coccidioidal delayed-type hypersensitivity and correlates with in vitro assays of coccidioidal cellular immune response. Mycopathologia . 2006 Feb. 161(2):67-72. . Adam RD, Elliott SP, Taljanovic MS. The spectrum and presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Am J Med . 2009 Aug

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

133. Coccidioidomycosis (Treatment)

. [Identification of the agents of coccidioidomycosis using polymerase chain reaction]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol . 2007. 25-31. . Ampel NM, Hector RF, Lindan CP, Rutherford GW. An archived lot of coccidioidin induces specific coccidioidal delayed-type hypersensitivity and correlates with in vitro assays of coccidioidal cellular immune response. Mycopathologia . 2006 Feb. 161(2):67-72. . Adam RD, Elliott SP, Taljanovic MS. The spectrum and presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Am J Med . 2009 Aug

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

134. Toxicity, Toxaphene and Organochlorine (Overview)

. [ ] The toxicity of these agents varies according to their molecular size, volatility, and effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In general, they cause either CNS depression or stimulation, depending upon the agent and dose. [ ] These compounds can be separated into 5 groups, as follows: DDT and analogues (eg, dicofol, methoxychlor) Hexachlorocyclohexane (ie, benzene hexachloride) and isomers (eg, lindane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) Cyclodienes (eg, endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin (...) absorption is variable. For example, DDT is poorly absorbed transdermally, whereas cyclodienes have significant transdermal absorption rates. [ ] Cyclodienes have high absorption levels when taken orally as in the case of food contamination with these pesticides. [ ] Lindane is known to be absorbed after topical application, but oral ingestions are not rare. [ ] Young age, malnourishment, and frequent exposure increases the risk for toxicity. [ ] Organic chlorines are strongly lipid soluble and sequester

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

135. Toxicity, Hydrocarbon Insecticides (Follow-up)

by the US Environmental Protection Agency, so any use of these compounds is illegal. Previous References Stockholm Convention. Available at . Paul Muller Biography. NobelPrize.org. Available at . Accessed: May 3, 2012. United States Environmental Protection Agency. DDT Ban Takes Effect. Available at . Accessed: April 19, 2013. Bhalla M, Thami GP. Reversible neurotoxicity after an overdose of topical lindane in an infant. Pediatr Dermatol . 2004 Sep-Oct. 21(5):597-9. . Reigart JR, Roberts JR, eds (...) . Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings . 5th ed. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency; 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acute convulsions associated with endrin poisoning--Pakistan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 1984 Dec 14. 33(49):687-8, 693. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2005 Jun 3. 54(21):533-5. . Pramanik AK, Hansen RC. Transcutaneous gamma benzene

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

136. Toxicity, Hydrocarbon Insecticides (Overview)

. [ ] The toxicity of these agents varies according to their molecular size, volatility, and effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In general, they cause either CNS depression or stimulation, depending upon the agent and dose. [ ] These compounds can be separated into 5 groups, as follows: DDT and analogues (eg, dicofol, methoxychlor) Hexachlorocyclohexane (ie, benzene hexachloride) and isomers (eg, lindane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) Cyclodienes (eg, endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin (...) absorption is variable. For example, DDT is poorly absorbed transdermally, whereas cyclodienes have significant transdermal absorption rates. [ ] Cyclodienes have high absorption levels when taken orally as in the case of food contamination with these pesticides. [ ] Lindane is known to be absorbed after topical application, but oral ingestions are not rare. [ ] Young age, malnourishment, and frequent exposure increases the risk for toxicity. [ ] Organic chlorines are strongly lipid soluble and sequester

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

137. Scabies (Overview)

) assay. [ ] In addition, elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers and eosinophilia may be demonstrated in some patients with scabies. See for more detail. Management Scabies treatment includes administration of a scabicidal agent (eg, permethrin, lindane, or ivermectin), as well as an appropriate antimicrobial agent if a secondary infection has developed. Pruritus may be partially alleviated with an oral antihistamine, such as hydroxyzine hydrochloride (Atarax), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

138. Lice (Follow-up)

- [ ] CDC: [ , , ] Next: Pesticides Various topical pediculicidal agents are available for the treatment of head and pubic lice. Pyrethrin shampoos and permethrin 1% are available over the counter; permethrin 5% (approved to treat scabies, but occasionally used to treat lice), malathion 0.5% (Ovide), lindane, topical ivermectin (Sklice), and spinosad are prescription agents. Pubic lice can be treated with over-the-counter permethrin 1% lotion and a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (...) effect and decreased frequency of re-infestation, if used properly. It is approved for use in individuals aged 6 years or older. Malathion 0.5% lotion (Ovide) is flammable and should not be used in the presence of hot hair care products or near individuals who are smoking. Lindane is an organochloride that should be reserved for treatment of individuals in whom alternative treatment has failed or is intolerable. [ , ] Seizures may result from abnormal absorption or gross overuse of the product

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

139. Pubic lice

[ ] and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention [ ] state that pediculosis of the eyelashes should be treated by applying occlusive ophthalmic ointment or petroleum jelly to the eyelid margins twice a day for 10 days and should not be treated with permethrin, pyrethrin or lindane. Paraffin eye ointment is effective by suffocating adult lice and nymphs (immature lice) [ ; ]. An inert ophthalmic ointment with a white or yellow soft paraffin base provides a suitable consistency to produce this effect. Inert

2011 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

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