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Lindane

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181. Interventions for treating scabies. (Full text)

was placebo controlled, 16 compared two or more drug treatments, two compared treatment regimens, and one compared different drug vehicles.Fewer treatment failures occurred by day seven with oral ivermectin in one small trial (55 participants). Topical permethrin appeared more effective than oral ivermectin (85 participants, 1 trial), topical crotamiton (194 participants, 2 trials), and topical lindane (753 participants, 5 trials). Permethrin also appeared more effective in reducing itch persistence than (...) either crotamiton (94 participants, 1 trial) or lindane (490 participants, 2 trials). One small trial did not detect a difference between permethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) and a natural pyrethrin-based topical treatment (40 participants). No significant difference was detected in the number of treatment failures between crotamiton and lindane (100 participants, 1 trial), lindane and sulfur (68 participants, 1 trial), benzyl benzoate and sulfur (158 participants, 1 trial), and benzyl benzoate

2007 Cochrane PubMed

182. Management of scabies

search terms scabies, treatment and randomised controlled trial (RCT). The Cochrane database was also searched under scabies. One Cochrane review (3) and one other evidence-based review (4) published since the previous guideline were identified. Three additional clinical trials were considered (5-7). Drugs considered were ivermectin, permethrin, crotamiton and benzyl benzoate. Ivermectin is not licensed as a treatment for scabies in the UK. There are no RCTs involving malathion. Lindane is no longer (...) study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42:236 40 6. Zargari O, Golchai J, Sobhani A, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of topical 1% lindane vs 5% permethrin in scabies: a randomized, double-blind study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2006;72:33–36 7. Madan V, Jaskiran K, Gupta U, et al. Oral ivermectin in scabies patients: a comparison with 1% topical lindane lotion. J Dermatol 2001;28:481–484 8. David N, Rajamanoharan S, Tang

2007 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

183. Management of Phthirus pubis

was undertaken using search terms pediculosis pubis and randomised controlled trial (RCT). The Cochrane database was also searched under pediculosis pubis. One evidence-based review has been published since the previous guideline was written (3). Only one RCT since 1980 was identified (4), comparing permethrin with lindane (which is no longer available in the UK). What is new in the guideline • No new evidence • Change in treatment of infestation of the eyelashes to conform with other guidelines • Audit (...) and Responsibility. Strategy and action plan for improving sexual health. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive 3. Wendel K, Rompalo A. Scabies and pediculosis pubis: an update of treatment regimens and general review. Clin Inf Dis 2002;35(suppl):S146-S151. 4. Kalter DC, Sperber J, Rosen T, Matarasso S. Treatment of pediculosis pubis – clinical comparison of efficacy and tolerance of 1% lindane shampoo versus 1% permethrin cream rinse. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:1315-9 5. Hart G. Factors associated with pediculosis pubis

2007 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

184. Interventions for treating scabies. (Full text)

was a community intervention). In one small trial, ivermectin was associated with a significant higher clinical cure rate at seven days when compared with placebo. Permethrin appeared to be more effective than crotamiton for clinical and parasitic cure rates. Permethrin appeared to be better than lindane for clinical cure rates in two small trials, but had no advantage in the largest trial (test for heterogeneity P < 0.001). Permethrin also appeared more effective in reducing itch persistence than lindane (...) . There appeared to be no difference in clinical cure rates between crotamiton and lindane or benzyl benzoate and sulphur. Two trials assessed: the effectiveness of oral versus topical treatment (ivermectin versus benzyl benzoate and ivermectin ); single trial assessed treatment vehicle (pork fat versus cold cream); and mass community treatment (ivermectin), but all were too small to demonstrate an effect. No randomised trials of malathion were identified. Serious adverse drug reactions (including death

2000 Cochrane PubMed

185. Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice

treatments for killing lice. Most trials evaluated single applications of the treatments. Compounds (in lotion and/or shampoo form) included in trials were: carbaryl; lindane; malathion; permethrin; pyrethrines (bioresmethrin, chlorphenamide, pyrethrin). Participants included in the review People infested with head lice in the community or schools were included. Outcomes assessed in the review The outcome assessed was the absence of live lice and viable nits on day 14 after treatment (determined (...) between places with high or low background prevalence. The combined odds ratio of treatment failure for lindane versus permethrin was 15.18 (95% CI: 7.99-28.84) for the two largest trials. The associated test for heterogeneity gave a p value of 0.99. Cost information Permethrin is more expensive than malathion or carbaryl. Authors' conclusions There is only sufficient published evidence to show that permethrin is effective in the topical treatment of head lice. CRD commentary Eleven unpublished trials

1995 DARE.

186. Treatment of ectoparasitic infections: review of the English-language literature, 1982-1992

Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and epidemiological studies. To be included, studies had to base their definition of cases on the observation of relevant living organisms, evaluate the same at least 3 weeks after treatment for scabies trials, and define treatment failure as identification of living organisms at 1-week follow-up for pediculosis trials. Specific interventions included in the review For the treatment of scabies: lindane 1%, permethrin 5%, benzyl benzoate and crotamiton 10 (...) %. For the treatment of pediculosis: lindane 1%, permethrin 1% and pyrethrins. Participants included in the review People with clinically-identified infestation of scabies, pediculosis capitis, and pediculosis pubis. People living within populations considered to be at risk of scabies infestation. Outcomes assessed in the review Treatment failure (identification of relevant living organisms at 1-week follow-up for pediculosis, skin abnormalities detected at least 3 weeks after treatment for scabies) and cure

1995 DARE.

187. Scabies. (PubMed)

such as permethrin, lindane, or benzyl benzoate. In addition to concerns over toxicity with such compounds, parasite resistance seems to be increasing. Oral ivermectin is an alternative that has been used successfully in community control programmes. Plant derivatives such as turmeric, neem, and tea tree oil are also promising future treatments. The disease is strongly associated with poverty and overcrowding, and the associated stigma can ostracise affected individuals. Treatment of scabies in poor countries

2006 Lancet

188. Structural model for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor noncompetitive antagonist binding: Widely diverse structures fit the same site (Full text)

Structural model for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor noncompetitive antagonist binding: Widely diverse structures fit the same site Several major insecticides, including alpha-endosulfan, lindane, and fipronil, and the botanical picrotoxinin are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) for the GABA receptor. We showed earlier that human beta(3) homopentameric GABA(A) receptor recognizes all of the important GABAergic insecticides and reproduces the high insecticide sensitivity and structure-activity

2006 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed

189. Localised genital Norwegian scabies in an AIDS patient (Full text)

Localised genital Norwegian scabies in an AIDS patient We present a case of an AIDS patient with Norwegian scabies manifest by a single, crusted plaque localised to the glans penis.A 45 year old man with AIDS presented to our clinic complaining of a red papular pruritic rash on his abdomen and anterior thighs and a single, thick, crusted, non-pruritic lesion on the penis. He had been treated with lindane topically prior to the development of the penile lesion without resolution of the pruritus

2004 Sexually transmitted infections PubMed

190. Drosophila melanogaster GRD and LCCH3 subunits form heteromultimeric GABA-gated cation channels (Full text)

ligand-gated ion channel subunits GRD and LCCH3 combine to form cation-selective GABA-gated ion channels when coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The heteromultimeric receptor is activated by GABA (EC50=4.5 microm), muscimol (EC50=4.8 microm) and trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (EC50=104.5 microm), and partially by cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (EC50=106.3 microm). Picrotoxin effectively blocked the GABA-gated channel (IC50=0.25 microm), but bicuculline, TPMTA, dieldrin and lindane did

2004 British journal of pharmacology PubMed

191. Monitoring Cell Cycle Distributions in MCF-7 Cells Using Near-Field Photothermal Microspectroscopy (Full text)

were carried out in the absence or presence of lindane, a pesticide known to induce G(1)-arrest in MCF-7 cells. Significant (P < 0.05) elevations in spectral intensities were associated with exponentially growing cell populations, predominantly in S-phase or G(2)-phase, compared to more quiescent populations predominantly in G(1)-phase. Increases in the absorption band at 970 cm(-1), associated with elevated protein phosphorylation, were observed in vibrational spectra of exponentially growing cell

2005 Biophysical journal PubMed

192. Interventions for treating scabies. (Full text)

was placebo controlled, 16 compared two or more drug treatments, two compared treatment regimens, and one compared different drug vehicles.Fewer treatment failures occurred by day seven with oral ivermectin in one small trial (55 participants). Topical permethrin appeared more effective than oral ivermectin (85 participants, 1 trial), topical crotamiton (194 participants, 2 trials), and topical lindane (753 participants, 5 trials). Permethrin also appeared more effective in reducing itch persistence than (...) either crotamiton (94 participants, 1 trial) or lindane (490 participants, 2 trials). One small trial did not detect a difference between permethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) and a natural pyrethrin-based topical treatment (40 participants). No significant difference was detected in the number of treatment failures between crotamiton and lindane (100 participants, 1 trial), lindane and sulfur (68 participants, 1 trial), benzyl benzoate and sulfur (158 participants, 1 trial), and benzyl benzoate

2007 Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) PubMed

193. Organochlorine pesticides in placentas from Southern Spain and some related factors. (PubMed)

/electron-capture detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify p,p'-DDT and congeners/metabolites, endosulphan and congeners/metabolites, lindane, aldrin/dieldrin/endrin, hexachlorobenzene, methoxychlor and mirex. A mean of eight pesticides per placenta were detected (range, 3-15 pesticides). Endosulphan-ether, endosulphan-diol, endosulphan-I, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and lindane were detected in >or=50% of samples; p,p'-DDE was the most frequent (96.03%), followed (...) by endosulphan-diol (76.86%) and lindane (74.17%). Presence of more pesticides was significantly associated with lower birth weight. Mean concentration of p,p'-DDE was 2.37+/-2.80 ng/g of placenta or 76.62+/-104.85 ng/g of lipid. Higher maternal body mass index was significantly associated with higher endosulphan concentrations in placenta, and greater maternal weight gain was significantly associated with higher p,p'-DDE concentrations. Prenatal exposure to OC xenoestrogens may be a causative factor

2007 Placenta

194. Skin. (PubMed)

as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the potential for resultant drug toxicities are important considerations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability barrier results

2004 Pediatrics

195. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. (PubMed)

Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. The timing of head lice maturation most favorable to their survival in the presence of anti-lice agents is the maximum time as an ovum (12 days) and the shortest possible time of maturing from newly hatched nymph to egg-laying adult (8.5 days). Pediculicides that are not reliably ovicidal (pyrethroids and lindane) require 2 to 3 treatment cycles to eradicate lice. Ovicidal therapies (malathion) require 1 to 2 (...) treatments. Treatment with an agent to which there is genetic resistance is unproductive. In the United States, lice have become increasingly resistant to pyrethroids and lindane but not to malathion. Treatment with malathion has favorable efficacy and safety profiles and enables the immediate, safe return to school. Nit combing can be performed adjunctively. No-nit policies should be rendered obsolete.

2007 Pediatrics

196. Acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: in vitro sensitivity of sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to terpinen-4-ol. (Full text)

products and acaricides.The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 microg/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed.Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane

2004 Archives of Dermatology PubMed

197. A comparison of infant hair, cord blood and meconium analysis to detect fetal exposure to environmental pesticides (Full text)

to pesticides.Pregnant women were prospectively recruited from an agricultural site in the Philippines where a preliminary survey indicated a substantial use at home and in the farm of the following pesticides: propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin. Infant hair, cord blood and meconium were obtained after birth and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the above compounds, including lindane and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis

2007 Environmental Research PubMed

198. Relationship of treatment-resistant head lice to the safety and efficacy of pediculicides. (PubMed)

to the emergence of treatment-resistant lice. In regions where resistant lice are common, patients may self-treat numerous times with over-the-counter pediculicides before seeking treatment from a physician. Resistance has decreased the efficacy of lindane, a prescription pediculicide that has been used for decades. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration recently warned of potentially serious adverse effects associated with lindane and recommended strict controls for its use. Malathion, recently

2004 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

199. Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice. (Full text)

of cure rate above 90%.Only for permethrin has sufficient evidence been published to show efficacy. Less expensive treatments such as malathion and carbaryl need more evidence of efficacy. Lindane and the natural pyrethrines are not sufficiently effective to justify their use.

1995 BMJ PubMed

200. Rhodanobacter sp. Strain BPC1 in a Benzo[a]pyrene-Mineralizing Bacterial Consortium (Full text)

BPC1, most vigorously stimulated benzo[a]pyrene mineralization by the original consortium; its effect was more than twofold greater than the effect of the SSLF obtained from the original consortium. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical tests identified strain BPC1 as a member of the genus Rhodanobacter, whose type strain, Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus RP5557, which was isolated for its ability to grow on the pesticide lindane, is not extant. Strain BPC1 could not grow on lindane

2002 Applied and environmental microbiology PubMed

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