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161. Mutant strains (nit) of Salmonella typhimurium with a pleiotropic defect in nitrogen metabolism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutant strains (nit) of Salmonella typhimurium with a pleiotropic defect in nitrogen metabolism. We have isolated mutant strains (nit) of Salmonella typhimurium that are defective in nitrogen metabolism. They have a reduced ability to use a variety of compounds including glutamate, proline, arginine, N-acetyl-glucosamine, alanine, and adenosine as sole nitrogen source. In addition, although they grow normally on high concentrations of ammonium chloride (greater than 1 mM) as nitrogen source (...) , they grow substantially more slowly than wild type at low concentrations (less than 1 mM). We postulated that the inability of these strains to utilize low concentrations of ammonium chloride accounts for their poor growth on other nitrogen sources. The specific biochemical lesion in strains with a nit mutation is not known; however, mutant strains have no detectable alteration in the activities of glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase, or glutamate dehydrogenase, the enzymes known to be involved

1976 Journal of bacteriology

162. Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenases in nit-2 and am Mutants of Neurospora crassa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenases in nit-2 and am Mutants of Neurospora crassa The regulation of the glutamate dehydrogenases was investigated in wild-type Neurospora crassa and two classes of mutants altered in the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen, as either nitrate or ammonium. In the wild-type strain, a high nutrient carbon concentration increased the activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-glutamate dehydrogenase and decreased the activity of reduced (...) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-glutamate dehydrogenase. A high nutrient nitrogen concentration had the opposite effect, increasing NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase and decreasing NADPH-glutamate dehydrogenase. The nit-2 mutants, defective in many nitrogen-utilizing enzymes and transport systems, exhibited low enzyme activities after growth on a high sucrose concentration: NADPH-glutamate dehydrogenase activity was reduced 4-fold on NH(4)Cl medium, and NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase, 20-fold on urea

1979 Journal of bacteriology

163. Truth? Nit! Full Text available with Trip Pro

Truth? Nit! 18734177 2008 08 29 2008 11 20 0093-402X 5 10 1907 Oct California state journal of medicine Cal State J Med Truth? Nit! 248 eng Journal Article United States Cal State J Med 0414327 0093-402X 1907 10 1 0 0 1907 10 1 0 1 1907 10 1 0 0 ppublish 18734177 PMC1652214

1907 California state journal of medicine

164. Permethrin Treatment of Head Lice with Knockdown Resistance-like Gene. (Abstract)

Permethrin Treatment of Head Lice with Knockdown Resistance-like Gene. 21268748 2011 02 04 2013 11 21 1533-4406 364 4 2011 Jan 27 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Permethrin treatment of head lice with knockdown resistance-like gene. 386-7 10.1056/NEJMc1007171 Bialek Ralf R Zelck Ulrike E UE Fölster-Holst Regina R eng Comment Letter Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 0 Insecticides 509F88P9SZ Permethrin 70288-86-7 Ivermectin AIM IM (...) N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 11;362(10):896-905 20220184 Adolescent Animals Child Child, Preschool Female Humans Infant Insecticide Resistance genetics Insecticides therapeutic use Ivermectin therapeutic use Lice Infestations drug therapy Male Permethrin Phthiraptera genetics Scalp Dermatoses drug therapy 2011 1 28 6 0 2011 1 28 6 0 2011 2 5 6 0 ppublish 21268748 10.1056/NEJMc1007171

2011 NEJM

165. Body lice of homeless people reveal the presence of several emerging bacterial pathogens in northern Algeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Body lice of homeless people reveal the presence of several emerging bacterial pathogens in northern Algeria Human lice, Pediculus humanus, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Body lice, Pediculus h. humanus, occur in two divergent mitochondrial clades (A and D) each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. Currently, the body louse is recognized as the only vector for louse-borne diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of body lice collected from homeless (...) populations in three localities of northern Algeria, and to investigate louse-borne pathogens in these lice.In this study, 524 body lice specimens were collected from 44 homeless people in three localities: Algiers, Tizi Ouzou and Boumerdès located in northern Algeria. Duplex clade specific real-time PCRs (qPCR) and Cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis were performed in order to identify the mitochondrial clade. Screening of louse-borne pathogens bacteria was based on targeting specific

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

166. It works! Lumpfish can significantly lower sea lice infestation in large-scale salmon farming Full Text available with Trip Pro

It works! Lumpfish can significantly lower sea lice infestation in large-scale salmon farming To assess the efficacy of lumpfish grazing on attached sea lice on Atlantic salmon, six large-scale sea cages, (130 m circumference, 37,688 m3 volume) each stocked with approximately 200,000 salmon 0+ smolts, were stocked with a 4, 6 and 8% density (8000, 12,000 and 16,000, respectively) of lumpfish. The sea cages without lumpfish acted as controls. Sea lice infestation levels on the salmon were (...) monitored weekly and bi-weekly from 6 October to 17 May the subsequent year. Mortality of the lumpfish rose with decreasing sea temperatures to around 0.8% week-1 and did not vary between the lumpfish groups. There were clear signs of lumpfish grazing on sea lice, with significantly lower average levels of chalimus, pre-adult and adult female Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus sea lice per salmon. Lumpfish in the high density (8%) group reduced the mature female L. salmonis to levels equal

2018 Biology open

167. Gene Expression Response to Sea Lice in Atlantic Salmon Skin: RNA Sequencing Comparison Between Resistant and Susceptible Animals Full Text available with Trip Pro

to improvements in selective breeding, and potentially novel treatment targets. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to study the skin transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parasitized with sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi). The overall aims were to compare the transcriptomic profile of skin at louse attachment sites and "healthy" skin, and to assess differences in gene expression response between animals with varying levels of resistance to the parasite. Atlantic salmon pre-smolts were challenged (...) with C. rogercresseyi, growth and lice count measurements were taken for each fish. 21 animals were selected and RNA-Seq was performed on skin from a louse attachment site, and skin distal to attachment sites for each animal. These animals were classified into family-balanced groups according to the traits of resistance (high vs. low lice count), and growth during infestation. Overall comparison of skin from louse attachment sites vs. healthy skin showed that 4,355 genes were differentially expressed

2018 Frontiers in genetics

168. Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in ectoparasite populations: Coevolutionary patterns in Apodemus mice and their lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in ectoparasite populations: Coevolutionary patterns in Apodemus mice and their lice A degree of host specificity, manifested by the processes of host-parasite cospeciations and host switches, is assumed to be a major determinant of parasites' evolution. To understand these patterns and formulate appropriate ecological hypotheses, we need better insight into the coevolutionary processes at the intraspecific level, including (...) the maintenance of genetic diversity and population structure of parasites and their hosts. Here, we address these questions by analyzing large-scale molecular data on the louse Polyplax serrata and its hosts, mice of the genus Apodemus, across a broad range of European localities. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite data, we demonstrate the general genetic correspondence of the Apodemus/Polyplax system to the scenario of the postglacial recolonization of Europe, but we also show several

2018 Ecology and evolution

169. Derivation of the economic value of R0 for macroparasitic diseases and application to sea lice in salmon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Derivation of the economic value of R0 for macroparasitic diseases and application to sea lice in salmon Macroparasites, such as ticks, lice, and helminths, are a concern in livestock and aquaculture production, and can be controlled by genetic improvement of the host population. Genetic improvement should aim at reducing the rate at which parasites spread across the farmed population. This rate is determined by the basic reproduction ratio, i.e. [Formula: see text], which is the appropriate (...) depends on whether genetic improvement is used for reducing expenditures or losses. For sea lice in salmon, the economic value depends on a reduction in expenditures with constant losses, and is estimated to be 0.065€/unit [Formula: see text]/kg production.Response to selection for measures of disease prevalence cannot be predicted from quantitative genetic theory alone. Moreover, many studies fail to address the issue of whether genetic improvement results in reduced losses or expenditures. Using

2018 Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE

170. Ectoparasite communities of small-bodied Malagasy primates: seasonal and socioecological influences on tick, mite and lice infestation of Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis in northwestern Madagascar Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ectoparasite communities of small-bodied Malagasy primates: seasonal and socioecological influences on tick, mite and lice infestation of Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis in northwestern Madagascar Ectoparasitic infections are of particular interest for endangered wildlife, as ectoparasites are potential vectors for inter- and intraspecific pathogen transmission and may be indicators to assess the health status of endangered populations. Here, ectoparasite dynamics in sympatric (...) ), whereas M. ravelobensis sleeps in mixed-sex groups in more open vegetation.Both mouse lemur species hosted ticks (Haemaphysalis sp.), lice (Lemurpediculus sp.) and mites (Trombiculidae gen. sp. and Laelaptidae gen. sp.). Host species, as well as temporal variations (month and year), were identified as the main factors influencing infestation. Tick infestation peaked in the late dry season and was significantly more often observed in M. murinus (P = 0.011), while lice infestation was more likely in M

2018 Parasites & vectors

171. Complexin in ivermectin resistance in body lice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Complexin in ivermectin resistance in body lice Ivermectin has emerged as very promising pediculicide, particularly in cases of resistance to commonly used pediculicides. Recently, however, the first field-evolved ivermectin-resistance in lice was reported. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying ivermectin-resistance, we both looked for mutations in the ivermectin-target site (GluCl) and searched the entire proteome for potential new loci involved in resistance from laboratory (...) susceptible and ivermectin-selected resistant body lice. Polymorphism analysis of cDNA GluCl showed no non-silent mutations. Proteomic analysis identified 22 differentially regulated proteins, of which 13 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in the resistant strain. We evaluated the correlation between mRNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and found that the trend in transcriptional variation was consistent with the proteomic changes. Among differentially expressed proteins, a complexin i.e. a neuronal

2018 PLoS genetics

172. Characterisation of proteins in excretory/secretory products collected from salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterisation of proteins in excretory/secretory products collected from salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an ectoparasitic copepod which feeds on the mucus, skin and blood of salmonid fish species. The parasite can persist on the surface of the fish without any effective control being exerted by the host immune system. Other ectoparasitic invertebrates produce compounds in their saliva, excretions and/or secretions which modulate the host (...) lice and pre-adult sea lice. Fifty-three proteins, including 13 serine-type endopeptidases, 1 peroxidase and 5 vitellogenin-like proteins were common to both adult and pre-adult E/S products. One hundred and seven proteins were identified in the adult E/S but not in the pre-adult E/S and these included serine and cysteine-type endopeptidases, vitellogenins, sphingomyelinase and calreticulin. A total of 27 proteins were identified in pre-adult E/S products but not in adult E/S.The assigned functions

2018 Parasites & vectors

173. Association between sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on Atlantic salmon farms and wild Pacific salmon in Muchalat Inlet, Canada Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on Atlantic salmon farms and wild Pacific salmon in Muchalat Inlet, Canada Growth in salmon aquaculture over the past two decades has raised concerns regarding the potential impacts of the industry on neighboring ecosystems and wild fish productivity. Despite limited evidence, sea lice have been identified as a major cause for the decline in some wild Pacific salmon populations on the west coast of Canada. We used sea lice count (...) and management data from farmed and wild salmon, collected over 10 years (2007-2016) in the Muchalat Inlet region of Canada, to evaluate the association between sea lice recorded on salmon farms with the infestation levels on wild out-migrating Chum salmon. Our analyses indicated a significant positive association between the sea lice abundance on farms and the likelihood that wild fish would be infested. However, increased abundance of lice on farms was not significantly associated with the levels

2018 Scientific reports

174. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus (...) also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus. For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were

2018 Veterinary world

175. Correction: A selection study on a laboratory-designed population of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: A selection study on a laboratory-designed population of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178068.].

2017 PLoS ONE

176. Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil Full Text available with Trip Pro

Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil 29451593 2018 05 01 2018 11 13 1678-9946 60 2018 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil. e9 S0036-46652018005000700 10.1590/s1678-9946201860009 Gravinatti Mara Lucia ML Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Faccini-Martínez Álvaro A ÁA Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do (...) Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Ruys Sandro Ricardo SR Centro Social Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Timenetsky Jorge J Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Biondo Alexander Welker AW Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. eng Letter 2018 02 15 Brazil Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 7507484 0036-4665 IM Animals Brazil Homeless Persons Humans Lice Infestations parasitology prevention

2018 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

177. High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes Full Text available with Trip Pro

High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing (...) an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations. Benzoylureas disrupt chitin synthesis, formation, and deposition during all moulting events. However, the mechanism(s) of action are not yet fully understood and most research completed to date has focused on insects. We exposed the first parasitic stage of L. salmonis to 700 ppb lufenuron for three hours

2018 International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance

178. Lice, Humans, and Microbes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lice, Humans, and Microbes 29802698 2019 03 20 2008-823X 22 5 2018 09 Iranian biomedical journal Iran. Biomed. J. Study Break: Lice, Humans, and Microbes 292-3 Naddaf Saied Reza SR Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. eng Journal Article 2018 05 26 Iran Iran Biomed J 9814853 1028-852X 2018 5 27 6 0 2018 5 29 6 0 2018 5 29 6 0 ppublish 29802698 PMC6058184

2018 Iranian biomedical journal

179. Arsenophonus and Sodalis replacements shape evolution of symbiosis in louse flies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Arsenophonus and Sodalis replacements shape evolution of symbiosis in louse flies Symbiotic interactions between insects and bacteria are ubiquitous and form a continuum from loose facultative symbiosis to greatly intimate and stable obligate symbiosis. In blood-sucking insects living exclusively on vertebrate blood, obligate endosymbionts are essential for hosts and hypothesized to supplement B-vitamins and cofactors missing from their blood diet. The role and distribution of facultative (...) results prove the associations between Hippoboscoidea and their symbiotic bacteria to undergo surprisingly dynamic, yet selective, evolutionary processes strongly shaped by repeated endosymbiont replacements. Interestingly, obligate symbionts only originate from two endosymbiont genera, Arsenophonus and Sodalis, suggesting that the host is either highly selective about its future obligate symbionts or that these two lineages are the most competitive when establishing symbioses in louse flies.

2017 PeerJ

180. Short Report: Diagnosis of Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever despite Negative Microscopy in Two Asylum Seekers from Eastern Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short Report: Diagnosis of Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever despite Negative Microscopy in Two Asylum Seekers from Eastern Africa. We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever observed at our Institution in June 2016. Both patients were young asylum seekers from Africa who had recently arrived in Milan, Italy. Notably, direct microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears was repeatedly negative for the presence of spirochetes and the diagnosis, supported by clinical and epidemiologic

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

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