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Lice

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1621. Head lice: scientific assessment of the nit sheath with clinical ramifications and therapeutic options. (Abstract)

Head lice: scientific assessment of the nit sheath with clinical ramifications and therapeutic options. Head lice, like many insects, produce a protective coating for their newly laid eggs that is essential to the survival of the species. Knowledge of the composition of the sheath, which is the glue by which the egg is attached to human hair, and the nit laying process could lead to production of agents that could be used to attack louse infestations by interfering with the normally protected (...) environment of nymph development within the egg. The physical removal of nits has become an important part of treatment of head louse infestations given the "no-nit" policy in schools. Biochemical analysis has revealed that the nit sheath of the head louse is composed of 4 bands of protein, possibly cross-linked to aliphatic components with a tertiary structure of beta sheeting. Nature has protected the louse by making the nit sheath similar in composition to the hair; thereby, agents designed to unravel

2005 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

1622. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences. Health authorities in the USA, Canada and Australia recommend a "no nit" policy, i.e. the immediate dismissal of all children who have head lice, eggs and/or nits on their hair from school, camp or child-care settings. These children would be readmitted to the institution only when all head lice, eggs and nits have been removed. The "no nit" policy assumes that all nits seen when examining the scalp are viable and therefore (...) the infested individual should be treated for lice, and all nits must be removed from the scalp. However, it has been repeatedly shown that only a small number of children who have nits on their scalp are also infested with living lice. Accordingly, in the USA alone 4-8 million children are treated unnecessarily for head lice annually, which amounts to 64% of all lice treatments. In addition, 12-24 million school days are lost annually. The annual economic loss owing to missed workdays by parents who have

2006 International Journal of Dermatology

1623. Efficacy and safety of spinosad and permethrin creme rinses for pediculosis capitis (head lice). (Abstract)

Efficacy and safety of spinosad and permethrin creme rinses for pediculosis capitis (head lice). Studies compared spinosad creme rinse and permethrin lice treatment under "actual-use" conditions for pediculosis capitis (head lice).Two phase-3, multicenter, randomized, evaluator/investigator-blinded studies compared 0.9% spinosad without nit-combing to 1% permethrin with combing (according to product instructions) in 1038 males and females aged > or =6 months. Spinosad-with-combing groups were (...) eye irritation (permethrin), ocular hyperemia, and application-site erythema/irritation (both medications). No laboratory measure changed significantly.Spinosad, which did not require nit combing, was significantly more effective than permethrin in 2 studies reflecting actual-use conditions, and most spinosad-treated participants required only 1 application. Spinosad is a more convenient and effective treatment for pediculosis capitis.

2009 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1624. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4-8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO (...) monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more

2009 Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology

1625. A comparison of botanical and synthetic substances commonly used to prevent head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A comparison of botanical and synthetic substances commonly used to prevent head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation. Pediculosis, caused by head lice (Pediculidae: Pediculus humanus var. capitis), is experiencing a global resurgence, with the prevalence in primary schools averaging as high as 40% in some areas regardless of socioeconomic factors. Control efforts using chemical treatments are becoming increasingly ineffective, with insecticide resistance recorded in several (...) countries. Prevention using repellents and oils would be useful if they limited transmission. Many commercially available substances reputedly have effective repellent qualities, but remain untested.This study tested the preventative efficacy of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) against several commercially available botanicals to clarify their value as transmission inhibitors, irritants, repellents, and antifeedants.The transfer of head lice to treated hairs was limited by the slippery nature

2007 International Journal of Dermatology

1626. Quantification of blood intake of the head louse: Pediculus humanus capitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantification of blood intake of the head louse: Pediculus humanus capitis. Although head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are globally prevalent blood-sucking ectoparasites, the amount of blood imbibed by head lice has not been determined. This study investigated this parameter, as regular loss of a small quantity of blood may lead to an iron deficiency and anaemia. Adult female lice (66), adult males (46), and nymphs (152) were weighed before and after feeding in groups of 17-109 lice (...) . The average amounts of blood imbibed at a single feed were: adult female louse (0.0001579 ml), adult male (0.0000657 ml) and nymph (0.0000387 ml). Assuming three feeds per day by an average infection of 30 lice (10 females, 10 males, and 10 nymphs), the average child with active pediculosis would loose 0.008 ml of blood per day. This amount of blood loss is of no clinical significance even in iron-deficient children. The most heavily infected child observed with 2657 lice could be expected to loose 0.7 ml

2006 International Journal of Dermatology

1627. Pediculosis capitis (head lice) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pediculosis capitis (head lice) 4042056 1985 11 19 2018 11 13 0820-3946 133 8 1985 Oct 15 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Pediculosis capitis (head lice). Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. 741-2 eng Journal Article Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM IM Child Female Humans Lice Infestations diagnosis therapy Male 1985 10 15 1985 10 15 0 1 1985 10 15 0 0 ppublish 4042056 PMC1346460 JAMA. 1976

1985 Canadian Medical Association Journal

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