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141. Head lice: the feelings people have. (PubMed)

Head lice: the feelings people have. Head lice are a source of amusement for outsiders and an embarrassing nuisance to those who have to deal with them. Our study collected the emotions experienced by people dealing with head lice. An area with extremely sparse literature, our purpose is to inform the development of more effective programs to control head lice.We asked "what were your feelings upon discovery of head lice?" as part of a study exploring the experience of those treating head lice (...) . A short questionnaire was available via the authors' head lice information internet site. A total of 294 eligible responses were collected over several months and analyzed, supported by QSR N6.The predominantly female (90 · 9%) respondents were residents of Australia (56 · 1%), USA (20 · 4%), Canada (7 · 2%), or UK (4 · 4%), and working full-time (43·0%) or part-time (34 · 2%). Reactions and feelings fell into three categories: strong (n = 320; 79% of all stated emotions), mediocre (n = 56; 20

2013 International Journal of Dermatology

142. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice (Full text)

Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where (...) host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems.The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape

2012 BMC biology PubMed

143. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential (Full text)

Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live (...) in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions

2012 BMC ecology PubMed

144. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans (Full text)

Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes (...) ) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement

2012 Genome biology and evolution PubMed

145. Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation (Full text)

Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation Host density thresholds are a fundamental component of the population dynamics of pathogens, but empirical evidence and estimates are lacking. We studied host density thresholds in the dynamics of ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on salmon farms. Empirical examples include a 1994 epidemic in Atlantic Canada and a 2001 epidemic in Pacific Canada. A mathematical model suggests dynamics (...) of lice are governed by a stable endemic equilibrium until the critical host density threshold drops owing to environmental change, or is exceeded by stocking, causing epidemics that require rapid harvest or treatment. Sensitivity analysis of the critical threshold suggests variation in dependence on biotic parameters and high sensitivity to temperature and salinity. We provide a method for estimating the critical threshold from parasite abundances at subcritical host densities and estimate

2012 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences PubMed

146. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming (Full text)

Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms (...) growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic

2012 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences PubMed

147. Lice

Lice Lice Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Lice Lice Aka: Lice , Pediculosis , Pediculus humanus capitis , Pediculus (...) humanus corpus , Phthirus pubis Infestation , Head Lice , Phthirus pubis , Body Louse Infestation , Pediculus Capitis Infestation , Body Lice , Genital Lice From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Head and Body Lice are interchangeable Head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) Female lays eggs at base of hair Egg adheres as hair grows Transmitted by fomites or head to head contact Body Lice (Pediculus humanus corpus) Live in seams of clothing or bedding which they briefly leave only to feed on human host

2015 FP Notebook

148. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and Tolerance Study of Natroba Topical Suspension in Pediatrics With an Active Head Lice Infestation

Pharmacokinetic (PK) and Tolerance Study of Natroba Topical Suspension in Pediatrics With an Active Head Lice Infestation Pharmacokinetic (PK) and Tolerance Study of Natroba Topical Suspension in Pediatrics With an Active Head Lice Infestation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and Tolerance Study of Natroba Topical Suspension in Pediatrics With an Active Head Lice Infestation The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01660321 Recruitment Status : Completed First

2012 Clinical Trials

149. Safety and efficacy of a non-pesticide-based head lice treatment: results of a randomised comparative trial in children. (PubMed)

Safety and efficacy of a non-pesticide-based head lice treatment: results of a randomised comparative trial in children. Increasing resistance to pesticide-based head lice treatments has resulted in the need for alternative products to treat head lice infestations, but there are few clinical studies that have adequately tested these products. This multicentre, randomised, assessor-blind, parallel-group phase IV trial compared the safety and efficacy of a non-pesticide-based head lice shampoo (...) with malathion foam in children.This trial used strict entry criteria, standardised treatment and assessment regimes, sibling control and a primary efficacy end-point defined as the absence of live head lice 21 days after initiating treatment. Repeat insult patch tests were performed to further assess the safety of the non-pesticide-based shampoo. In vitro tests were used to assess its ovicidal and pediculicidal efficacy.A total of 216 children were enrolled, of whom 172 were per-protocol. The non-pesticide

2012 The Australasian journal of dermatology

150. PURLs: Combatting lice in a single treatment. (Full text)

PURLs: Combatting lice in a single treatment. 22220295 2012 03 22 2018 11 13 1533-7294 61 1 2012 Jan The Journal of family practice J Fam Pract PURLs: combatting lice in a single treatment. 41-2 Brown Dionna D The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Rowland Kate K eng UL1 RR024999 RR NCRR NIH HHS United States Comment Journal Article United States J Fam Pract 7502590 0094-3509 Pediatrics. 2009 Sep;124(3):e389-95 19706558 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 0 2012 1 6 6 1 ppublish 22220295 jfp_6101h

2012 Journal of Family Practice PubMed

151. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. (PubMed)

Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful

2012 Veterinary parasitology

152. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. (Full text)

Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite (...) was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups.Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8

2012 Parasites & vectors PubMed

153. Taxonomy of lice and their endosymbiotic bacteria in the post-genomic era. (Full text)

Taxonomy of lice and their endosymbiotic bacteria in the post-genomic era. Recent studies of molecular and genomic data from the parasitic lice of birds and mammals, as well as their mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria, are changing the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of these organisms. Phylogenetic studies of lice suggest that vertebrate parasitism arose multiple times from free-living book and bark lice. Molecular clocks show that the major families of lice arose in the late Mesozoic (...) and radiated in the early Cenozoic, following the radiation of mammals and birds. The recent release of the human louse genome has provided new opportunities for research. The genome is being used to find new genetic markers for phylogenetics and population genetics, to understand the complex evolutionary relationships of mitochondrial genes, and to study genome evolution. Genomes are informing us not only about lice, but also about their obligate endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to lice and their hosts

2012 Clinical Microbiology and Infection PubMed

154. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) (Full text)

Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each (...) chromosome.Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show

2011 BMC genomics PubMed

155. Head lice (Full text)

Head lice Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group.We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other

2011 BMJ Clinical Evidence PubMed

156. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics (Full text)

Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households (...) , which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well

2011 Parasitology PubMed

157. An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation

An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. An Efficacy and Safety Study of Ha44 Gel Administered Topically for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01336647 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 18, 2011 Results First Posted

2011 Clinical Trials

158. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). (PubMed)

Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae). Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals (...) used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy

2011 Journal of medical entomology

159. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. (PubMed)

Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative.We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic (...) data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire.Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38

2011 International Journal of Dermatology

160. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. (Full text)

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia. To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases PubMed

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