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1541. Do head lice spread in swimming pools? (Abstract)

Do head lice spread in swimming pools? This study investigated the potential for head lice transmission in swimming pools using an in vitro experiment and a field trial. In the former study, head lice were submerged for 20 min in aqueous solutions at 25 +/- 1 degrees C: deionized water, sea water, salt solutions (30, 60, 120 and 240 g/l), and chlorinated water (0.2, 2 and 5 mg/l). In all trials, lice located on cut hairs became immobile and did not respond to physical prodding. After entering (...) stasis, no movement was observed until after rescue from submersion and a brief recovery period (0-1 min). Upon recovery, all lice fed and no mortality was observed within the next 4 h. In the field trial, four naturally infected individuals swam in a chlorinated pool for 30 min. No loss of lice or head to head transfer was observed. These results indicated that although head lice survive immersion, head lice transmission is unlikely to occur via the water of swimming pools.

2007 International Journal of Dermatology

1542. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. (Abstract)

Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. The timing of head lice maturation most favorable to their survival in the presence of anti-lice agents is the maximum time as an ovum (12 days) and the shortest possible time of maturing from newly hatched nymph to egg-laying adult (8.5 days). Pediculicides that are not reliably ovicidal (pyrethroids and lindane) require 2 to 3 treatment cycles to eradicate lice. Ovicidal therapies (malathion) require 1 to 2 (...) treatments. Treatment with an agent to which there is genetic resistance is unproductive. In the United States, lice have become increasingly resistant to pyrethroids and lindane but not to malathion. Treatment with malathion has favorable efficacy and safety profiles and enables the immediate, safe return to school. Nit combing can be performed adjunctively. No-nit policies should be rendered obsolete.

2007 Pediatrics

1543. An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are a major irritant to children and their parents around the world. Each year millions of children are infested with head lice, a condition known as pediculosis, which is responsible for tens of millions of lost school days. Head lice have evolved resistance to many of the currently used pediculicides; therefore, an effective new treatment for head lice is needed. In this study we examined (...) the effectiveness of several methods that use hot air to kill head lice and their eggs.We tested 6 different treatment methods on a total of 169 infested individuals. Each method delivers hot air to the scalp in a different way. We evaluated how well these methods kill lice and their eggs in situ. We also performed follow-up inspections to evaluate whether the sixth, most successful, method can cure head louse infestations.All 6 methods resulted in high egg mortality (> or = 88%), but they showed more-variable

2006 Pediatrics

1544. Surveillance of insecticide resistance in head lice using biochemical and molecular methods. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surveillance of insecticide resistance in head lice using biochemical and molecular methods. Treatment of head louse infection is primarily through topical insecticides. However, there is growing evidence of resistance. A representative population sample was tested using biochemical and molecular methods; it was shown that, in Wales, treatments containing pyrethroids are likely to be less effective in controlling head louse infection than those containing organophosphates.

2006 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1545. Efficacy of machine laundering to eradicate head lice: recommendations to decontaminate washable clothes, linens, and fomites. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of machine laundering to eradicate head lice: recommendations to decontaminate washable clothes, linens, and fomites. The efficacy of machine laundering to eradicate head lice should be determined. Viable lice and nits were machine laundered using 3 washing programs (with water temperatures of 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C), with and without detergent, and the results were compared with results for control lice and nits. A drying program was also used. Either washing (...) done with a water temperature of at least 50 degrees C or drying is necessary to kill head lice and nits.

2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1546. Survey assessment of parental perceptions regarding head lice. (Abstract)

Survey assessment of parental perceptions regarding head lice. Head lice constitute a problem in children. Each year, numerous cases of pediculosis occur worldwide. Little work has been performed to evaluate the understanding, opinions, and actions of populations regarding head lice. These areas are important as they enable clinicians and educators to alert parents on how to avoid treatments that are innocuous or of high risk to patients.A cross-sectional study was performed by interviewing (...) infestation, such as the use of inflammables and home insecticides, were common.The results showed that certain beliefs generated worry and confusion in parents, who blamed head lice as the cause of various health problems which were not due to this insect.

2008 International Journal of Dermatology

1547. Anti-head lice effect of Annona squamosa seeds. (Abstract)

Anti-head lice effect of Annona squamosa seeds. The present study focused on the separation and identification of the active compounds against head lice from the hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed. Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques revealed that two major compounds of the hexane seed extract were oleic acid and triglyceride with one oleate ester. The yields of these compounds were 13.25% and 7.74% dry weight, respectively. The compounds were tested in vitro against head lice (...) , comparing to the crude hexane extract of the seed. The triglyceride with one oleate ester and the crude hexane extract diluted with coconut oil 1:1. These compounds were found to kill all tested head lice in 49, 11 and 30 minutes, respectively. The triglyceride ester can be used as a marker for quantitative analysis of the active compound for quality control of the raw material A. squamosa seed and its extract. This first finding will be useful for quality assessment and the chemical stability

2006 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

1548. Prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. (Abstract)

Prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were (...) screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head

2006 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

1549. Fomite transmission in head lice. (Abstract)

Fomite transmission in head lice. Control of various infestations requires an accurate understanding of transmission. After thousands of years of lice infestation, scientific documentation of indirect contact transmission has been substantiated. Lice can be transferred in the egg, instar, and adult stages. Lice have now been shown in the laboratory to be readily dislodged by air movements such as blow-drying one's hair, combing, and toweling. Moreover, passive transfer to adjoining fabric (...) is also frequently observed. Louse transmission by fomites occurs more frequently than has been commonly believed. Close proximity suffices to increase the likeliness of a new infestation. Thus louse control measures should take account of fomite transmission and include screening of all individuals within an infested person's immediate circle of contact, laundering of everything within the infested individuals' bed or quarantining of such material for 10 days, thorough vacuuming of floors, carpets

2007 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

1550. Comparison of wet combing with malathion for treatment of head lice in the UK: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. (Abstract)

Comparison of wet combing with malathion for treatment of head lice in the UK: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Concern about the effectiveness and toxicity of insecticide lotions has led to promotion of mechanical methods to remove head lice. We compared the effectiveness of "bug-busting" (wet combing with a fine-toothed comb) and malathion lotion.We screened 4037 schoolchildren in two counties in Wales, UK (intermediate resistance to malathion). Of 167 found to have head lice, 81 (...) -busting and 78% (31 of 40) for malathion. Children assigned bug-busting were 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) times more likely than those assigned malathion to have lice at the end of treatment (p=0.0006).Malathion lotion was twice as effective as bug-busting, even in an area with intermediate resistance. Policies advocating bug-busting as first-line treatment for head lice in the general population are inappropriate. Assessment of the outcome of treatment 1-2 weeks after completion is essential for successful

2000 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1551. Head Lice

of our other . In this article In This Article Head Lice In this article See separate article. Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is caused by the parasitic insect Pediculus humanus capitis , which lives on and among the hair of the scalp and neck of humans. The adult louse feeds on blood. Life cycle of head lice [ , ] Image via Wikimedia Commons Louse eggs (ova or nits) are small, oval and yellowish white and are attached to the hair shafts. They usually take 7-10 days to hatch. Immature (...) infested and may persist for days to weeks after successful eradication of head lice. Nits alone are not sufficient to diagnose active head lice infestation because it is difficult to distinguish between dead and live eggs with the naked eye. A diagnosis of active head lice infestation can only be made if a live head louse is found. Detection combing (systematic combing of wet or dry hair with a detection comb) should be used to confirm the presence of lice: A fine-toothed (teeth 0.2-0.3 mm apart

2008 Mentor

1552. Are there any controlled trials comparing the efficacy of the coconut-based "Lice Attack" topical application for head lice with the usual chemical based treatments?

to prevent head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation.’ [2], included coconut based products and concluded: “Neither DEET nor any of the botanicals tested showed sufficient preventative efficacy to be endorsed.” References 1) 2) Answered 18 February 2008 Follow us: © 2019 Trip Database Ltd. company number 04316414. Trip is proud to be made in the UK. (...) Are there any controlled trials comparing the efficacy of the coconut-based "Lice Attack" topical application for head lice with the usual chemical based treatments? Are there any controlled trials comparing the efficacy of the coconut-based "Lice Attack" topical application for head lice with the usual chemical based treatments? - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only

2008 TRIP Answers

1553. Randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing 4% dimeticone lotion with 0.5% malathion liquid for head louse infestation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing 4% dimeticone lotion with 0.5% malathion liquid for head louse infestation. Malathion 0.5% has been the most prescribed pediculicide in the United Kingdom for around 10 years, and is widely used in Europe and North America. Anecdotal reports suggest malathion treatments are less effective than formerly, but this has not been confirmed clinically. This study was designed to determine whether malathion is still effective and if 4% dimeticone (...) lotion is a more effective treatment for head louse infestation.We designed this study as an assessor blinded, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial involving 58 children and 15 adults with active head louse infestation. Each participant received two applications 7 days apart of either 4% dimeticone lotion, applied for 8 hours or overnight, or 0.5% malathion liquid applied for 12 hours or overnight. All treatment and check-up visits were conducted in participants' homes. Cure of infestation

2007 PloS one Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1554. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pediculosis capitis (head lice) in children and adults 2008.

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pediculosis capitis (head lice) in children and adults 2008. Guidelines and Measures | Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality HHS.gov Search ahrq.gov Search ahrq.gov Menu Topics A - Z Healthcare Delivery Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care Searchable database of AHRQ Grants, Working Papers & HHS Recovery Act Projects AHRQ Projects funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund You are here Guidelines

2008 University of Texas at Austin School of Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner Program

1555. The hatching of nits as a predictor of treatment failure with lindane and pyrethrin shampoos. (Abstract)

Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Switzerland Can J Public Health 0372714 0008-4263 0 Pyrethrins 59NEE7PCAB Hexachlorocyclohexane IM Administration, Topical Adolescent Adult Animals Child Child, Preschool Drug Administration Schedule Female Hexachlorocyclohexane administration & dosage therapeutic use Humans Lice Infestations drug therapy physiopathology Male Phthiraptera growth & development Pyrethrins administration & dosage therapeutic use Recurrence 1990 (...) The hatching of nits as a predictor of treatment failure with lindane and pyrethrin shampoos. 1694468 1990 08 06 2018 11 30 0008-4263 81 3 1990 May-Jun Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique Can J Public Health The hatching of nits as a predictor of treatment failure with lindane and pyrethrin shampoos. 237-9 Mathias R G RG Department of Health Care & Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Wallace J F JF eng Clinical Trial

1990 Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1556. Quantitative transfer of the molybdenum cofactor from xanthine oxidase and from sulphite oxidase to the deficient enzyme of the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa to yield active nitrate reductase. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantitative transfer of the molybdenum cofactor from xanthine oxidase and from sulphite oxidase to the deficient enzyme of the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa to yield active nitrate reductase. An assay method is described for measurement of absolute concentrations of the molybdenum cofactor, based on complementation of the defective nitrate reductase ('apo nitrate reductase') in extracts of the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa. A number of alternative methods are described for preparing (...) , anaerobically, molybdenum-cofactor-containing solutions from sulphite oxidase, xanthine oxidase and desulpho xanthine oxidase. For assay, these were mixed with an excess of extract of the nit-1 mutant, incubated for 24 h at 3.5 degrees C then assayed for NADPH:nitrate reductase activity. In all cases, the specific activity of the molybdenum cofactor, expressed as mumol of NO2-formed/min per ng-atom of Mo added from the denatured molybdoenzyme , was 25 +/- 4, a value that agrees with the known catalytic

1984 Biochemical Journal

1557. Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production. A hybrid gene consisting of the insulin gene enhancer/promoter region, the signal sequence, the insulin B- and C-chains, and the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene was constructed. This hybrid gene was transfected together with the pSV2-neo construct into the insulin-producing cell (...) lines HIT-T15 and NIT-1. One of the geneticin-selected clones, HITra2, expressed a 1.4-kb mRNA, which hybridized both to insulin and IL-1ra-cDNA in Northern blot analysis. Three proteins, with the mol wt 23, 17, and 14 kD, were immunoprecipitated with anti-IL-1ra antibodies from [35S]methionine-labeled HITra2 cells. Both at a low and at a high glucose concentration, 4-5 ng of IL-1ra/10(6) cells (ELISA) was released from these cells. On the other hand, a high glucose concentration evoked a three-fold

1995 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1558. A comparative study of seven pediculicides and their packaged nit removal combs. (Abstract)

A comparative study of seven pediculicides and their packaged nit removal combs. The incidence of pediculosis infestation is greater than that for all childhood communicable diseases combined. Each year approximately 6 to 12 million persons become infested, resulting in an estimated cost of $367 million to manage the problem. Pediatric health care providers are often confused regarding proper management of head lice because of the multitude of manufacturer claims in the competitive advertising (...) market. This comparative study was designed to evaluate the combined efficacy of seven pediculicidal agents with their supplied nit removal combs in the treatment of head lice. A sample of children (n = 223) was studied from 4271 children screened at various elementary schools throughout Florida. The results of this study can assist school health care providers and pediatric nurse practitioners in identifying the most effective nit removal comb and those children at risk for head lice infestations.

1993 Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1559. Percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molars after conventional root-canal instrumentation and after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT). (Abstract)

Percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molars after conventional root-canal instrumentation and after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT). To compare the percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molar roots after using conventional root-canal hand instrumentation or after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT).Forty mandibular molars were used shortly after extraction. The root canals of 20 molars in the manual group were conventionally prepared using hand instruments and then filled (...) with warm vertical compaction of gutta-percha. The 20 teeth in the second group were cleaned and obturated by NIT. In each case, the entire molar, including the crown and the roots, was embedded in an acrylic resin cylinder before NIT. Horizontal sections were cut at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the apex. Images of the sections were taken using a microscope at x40 magnification and a digital camera; the images were scanned as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) images into a PC. The cross-sectional area

2003 International endodontic journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1560. Fas ligand down-regulates cytokine-induced Fas receptor expression on insulinoma (NIT-1), but not islet cells, from autoimmune nonobese diabetic mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fas ligand down-regulates cytokine-induced Fas receptor expression on insulinoma (NIT-1), but not islet cells, from autoimmune nonobese diabetic mice. In the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes, the apoptosis receptor Fas appears de novo on the surface of insulin-producing beta-cells. Fas expression is thought to be induced by proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), and TNFalpha, released by islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells. To determine whether beta (...) -cells can modulate their sensitivity to apoptosis at the level of Fas, we investigated the effect of Fas ligand (FasL) on surface expression of Fas in NIT-1 insulinoma cells from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice prone to autoimmune diabetes and islet cells from NOD and nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. In NIT-1 insulinoma cells, Fas expression induced by the cytokine combination IL-1beta and IFNgamma was reduced in the presence of FasL, whereas in islet cells Fas expression was unaffected by FasL. The effect

2004 Endocrinology

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