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Lice

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1501. The effect of antibody against TNF alpha on cytokine response in Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions of louse-borne relapsing fever. (Abstract)

The effect of antibody against TNF alpha on cytokine response in Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions of louse-borne relapsing fever. Severe Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (J-HR) precipitated by antibiotic treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is associated with a transient, marked rise in circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Ovine polyclonal anti-TNF alpha antibody fragments (Fab) were used in a randomized double blind placebo

1997 QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1502. Efficacy of a topical spot-on containing 65% permethrin against the dog louse, Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga:Trichodectidae). (Abstract)

or to an untreated control group. Louse counts were performed for each dog by gently back-combing the hair at six designated anatomic sites (head, tail, belly, each side, and an 8-cm strip the length of the body on the back), and lice were counted without removal on Days 0 (pretreatment), 7, 14, 21, and 28. Lice were eliminated from all dogs treated with the 65% permethrin spot-on within 7 days after treatment, and no subsequent reinfestations due to hatching of eggs were observed during the 28-day evaluation (...) Efficacy of a topical spot-on containing 65% permethrin against the dog louse, Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga:Trichodectidae). The efficacy of a 65% permethrin spot-on formulation (Defend EXspot, Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Union, NJ) against the dog louse, Trichodectes canis de Greer 1778, was studied. Fourteen dogs naturally infested with T. canis were evenly and randomly allocated to treatment with 65% permethrin administered at the label dose rate of 1 or 2 ml per dog

2001 Veterinary therapeutics : research in applied veterinary medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1503. Treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever with low dose penicillin or tetracycline: a clinical trial. (Abstract)

Treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever with low dose penicillin or tetracycline: a clinical trial. A clinical trial was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of procaine penicillin and tetracycline, respectively, in the treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever. 184 patients (160 men, 24 women) admitted to the Gondar hospital during the rainy season 1992 were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: procaine penicillin 100,000 (PP100), 200,000 (PP200) or 400,000 (PP400) international units

1995 Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases

1504. Pathophysiology and immunology of the Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction in louse-borne relapsing fever: comparison of tetracycline and slow-release penicillin. (Abstract)

Pathophysiology and immunology of the Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction in louse-borne relapsing fever: comparison of tetracycline and slow-release penicillin. Twelve men with louse-borne relapsing fever were treated with single doses of procaine penicillin plus aluminum monostearate (PAM) intramuscularly or of tetracycline intravenously. All patients experienced a definite Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction. Fever and spirochetemia were significantly prolonged and peak temperature was lower

1983 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1505. Persistent activity of moxidectin pour-on and injectable against sucking and biting louse infestations of cattle. (Abstract)

Persistent activity of moxidectin pour-on and injectable against sucking and biting louse infestations of cattle. To evaluate the persistent activity of pour-on and injectable moxidectin against natural challenge by sucking (predominantly Linognathus vituli) and chewing (Bovicola bovis) cattle lice, 96 mixed-breed calves that had been treated to remove all lice were blocked by body weight and randomly allocated to three treatments: untreated control, moxidectin at 500 microg/kg by topical (...) application and moxidectin at 200 microg/kg by subcutaneous injection. Twelve pens were blocked into groups of four and randomly allocated to four challenge times: 14, 21, 28 and 35 days post-treatment. Treatment groups were assigned to challenge pens randomly. Two donor calves, with demonstrated infestations of both sucking and chewing lice, were introduced into each pen containing eight principal calves at the start of each challenge time. Donors remained in the challenge pen for 7 days. Principal

2002 Veterinary parasitology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1506. An experimental model of human body louse infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An experimental model of human body louse infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Rickettsia prowazekii is transmitted to humans by the body louse. A new experimental model of body louse infection with R. prowazekii is reported here. Eight hundred human lice were infected by feeding on a rabbit that was made bacteremic by injecting 2x106 plaque-forming units of R. prowazekii. The bacterium invaded the stomach cells and was released in feces, in which it was detected 5 days after infection. At day (...) 6 after infection, as a result of the cell burst and the spread of erythrocytes in the hemolymph, the louse became bright red and died within 4 h. The life span of infected lice was shortened by 20-23 days, compared with that of uninfected control lice. Infected lice did not transmit R. prowazekii to their progeny. Through cell culture, rickettsiae were cultivated from fecal samples up to 10 days after their emission. The administration of doxycycline to the rabbit during louse feeding did

2002 Journal of Infectious Diseases

1507. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse. While we were isolating Bartonella quintana from body lice, 40 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were also isolated and genotyped. One clone was unique and the other was ampicillin susceptible. A. baumannii DNA was later detected in 21% of 622 lice collected worldwide. These findings show an A. baumannii epidemic in human body lice.

2004 Emerging Infectious Diseases

1508. Characteristics of louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopian children and adults. (Abstract)

Characteristics of louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopian children and adults. Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is endemic in Ethiopia. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of LBRF and the differences between the infection in children and that in adults were investigated in a rural hospital in Ethiopia. During the 5-year study (1997-2002), 197 patients had a confirmed diagnosis of LBRF. Most (62.1%) of the cases were children under 15 years of age. The adult cases (i.e. those aged

2004 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology

1509. Factors associated with pediculosis pubis and scabies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors associated with pediculosis pubis and scabies. To ascertain factors associated with genital pediculosis and scabies infestations among attenders at an STD clinic.Cross sectional assessment of potential risk factors by multiple logistic regression.A central city sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Adelaide, South Australia.All men and women patients attending from 1988 to 1991.Pediculosis pubis was diagnosed in 205 of 12,170 (1.7%) men and 65 (1.1%) of 6125 women, and scabies (...) in 56 (0.5%) men and 6 (0.1%) women attending an STD clinic from 1988-1991. Independent risk factors by multivariate analysis for pediculosis pubis in women were pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3), sex outside the state (OR = 2.2) and age under 25 (OR = 2.0). Many factors were associated with pediculosis pubis in men, including no steady partner (OR = 1.4), multiple partners (OR = 1.6), being unmarried (OR = 2.0) and homosexual behaviour (OR = 1.6). None of these factors was associated with scabies

1992 Genitourinary Medicine

1510. Treatment of pediculosis pubis. Clinical comparison of efficacy and tolerance of 1% lindane shampoo vs 1% permethrin creme rinse. (Abstract)

Treatment of pediculosis pubis. Clinical comparison of efficacy and tolerance of 1% lindane shampoo vs 1% permethrin creme rinse. Pediculosis pubis (PP) is a common sexually transmitted disease. Current therapy with 1% lindane or various synergized pyrethrins as a single dose has been accepted as adequate by the medical community. We treated 53 men with the diagnosis of PP with either 1% lindane (Kwell) shampoo for four minutes or 1% permethrin (Nix) creme rinse for ten minutes, according

1987 Archives of Dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1511. Scabies and pediculosis pubis: an update of treatment regimens and general review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

be of particular use in institutional outbreaks and in communities in which scabies is endemic. Combination treatment with topical agents and oral ivermectin may be necessary for crusted scabies. Treatment of pediculosis pubis is best accomplished with topical permethrin, lindane, or pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide. Although resistance to these topical agents has been reported in head lice, decreased efficacy in the treatment of pediculosis pubis has not been reported. (...) Scabies and pediculosis pubis: an update of treatment regimens and general review. The ectoparasites scabies and pediculosis pubis are common causes of skin rash and pruritus worldwide. They are transmitted primarily by person-to-person spread and are generally associated with low morbidity. The preferred treatment for scabies has generally been topical agents such as lindane and permethrin. Recently, ivermectin has demonstrated good efficacy in the treatment of scabies, and it may

2002 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1512. Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice

Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice Vander Stichele R H, Dezeure E M, Bogaert M G Authors' objectives To evaluate all trials on clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to March 1995 using the keywords 'Pediculosis', 'Lice', 'Pediculus'. International (...) treatments for killing lice. Most trials evaluated single applications of the treatments. Compounds (in lotion and/or shampoo form) included in trials were: carbaryl; lindane; malathion; permethrin; pyrethrines (bioresmethrin, chlorphenamide, pyrethrin). Participants included in the review People infested with head lice in the community or schools were included. Outcomes assessed in the review The outcome assessed was the absence of live lice and viable nits on day 14 after treatment (determined

1995 DARE.

1513. Should we still be treating family members/ close contacts of children with headlice?

including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Should we still be treating family members/ close contacts of children with headlice? Prodigy hold a guidance on headlice (1). They state: Contact tracing of family and friends who may have had close head to head contact is vital (...) to prevent re-infestation. Contacts should only be treated if a living, moving louse is found. Detection combing should be used to identify living, moving lice. See the patient information leaflets for detection combing method. For large families, detection combing is very time-consuming. Involvement of the health visitor or practice nurse may be useful in this situation. The Public Health Laboratory Service has released guidelines on the management of communicable diseases in schools and nurseries

2003 TRIP Answers

1514. Is wet combing effective in children with pediculosis capitis infestation?

Last Modified: 31st August 2007 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [a child with pediculosis capitis infestation] is [wet combing alone] effective in [eradicating the parasites] ? Clinical Scenario A 6-year-old boy presents to the paediatric emergency department complaining of pruritus affecting his scalp. On examination you notice several nits attached to his hair as well as a few adult head lice. You are considering treatment with pediculocides, but his mother is rather reluctant (...) P, Nyguyen LN, Moulia-Pelat JP, et al. Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis). Trop Med Parasitol 1994; 45 (3): 253–4. Namazi MR. Treatment of pediculosis capitis with thiabendazole: a pilot study. Int J Dermatol 2003; 42 (12): 973–6. Namazi MR. Levamisole: a safe and economical weapon against pediculosis. Int J Dermatol 2001; 40 (4): 292–4. Burgess IF, Brown CM, Lee PN. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled

2007 BestBETS

1515. Treating head lice and scabies

Treating head lice and scabies Treating head lice and scabies Treating head lice and scabies NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Treating head lice and scabies. University of York. Effectiveness Matters 4(1). 1999 Authors' objectives (...) To summarise the available evidence on the treatment of head lice and scabies. Authors' conclusions Head Lice Infestation with head lice is widespread and most commonly occurs in children. Physical evidence of living lice is necessary prior to the commencement of treatment. Close contacts should be traced and if found to be infested treated at the same time. There is no evidence that any one insecticide currently in use in the UK has a greater effect than another. Best choice will depend on local

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1516. Phenothrin lotion, the latest recruit in the battle against headlice: the results of two controlled comparative studies. (Abstract)

Phenothrin lotion, the latest recruit in the battle against headlice: the results of two controlled comparative studies. One hundred and one subjects with head louse infestation were entered into two separate studies, in which a phenothrin aqueous/alcoholic lotion was compared to a carbaryl lotion and a malathion lotion. Fifty subjects were treated with a single application of the phenothrin lotion, 28 with the carbaryl lotion and 23 with the malathion lotion. In the comparative study (...) of the phenothrin and malathion lotions an inspection on the day following treatment showed no live lice remained, but that six of the subjects treated with malathion lotion still had evidence of viable eggs (p less than 0.05). In one subject viable eggs were still evident at two weeks post-treatment. There were no cases, however, of live lice or viable eggs at four weeks post-treatment. Mild cutaneous side-effects were reported in five subjects, the incidence of which was not significantly different

1991 Journal of the Royal Society of Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1517. Single blind, randomised, comparative study of the Bug Buster kit and over the counter pediculicide treatments against head lice in the United Kingdom. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single blind, randomised, comparative study of the Bug Buster kit and over the counter pediculicide treatments against head lice in the United Kingdom. To compare the effectiveness of the Bug Buster kit with a single treatment of over the counter pediculicides for eliminating head lice.Single blind, multicentre, randomised, comparative clinical study.Four counties in England and one county in Scotland.133 young people aged 2-15 years with head louse infestation: 56 were allocated to the Bug (...) Buster kit and 70 to pediculicide treatment.Home use of proprietary pediculicides (organophosphate or pyrethroid) or the Bug Buster kit.Presence of head lice 2-4 days after end of treatment: day 5 for the pediculicides and day 15 for the Bug Buster kit.The cure rate using the Bug Buster kit was significantly greater than that for the pediculicides (57% v 13%; relative risk 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 8.5). Number needed to treat for the Bug Buster kit compared with the pediculicides was 2.26

2005 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1518. How do you deal with head lice that are unresponsive to treatment?

How do you deal with head lice that are unresponsive to treatment? How do you deal with head lice that are unresponsive to treatment? - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Liberating the literature ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top (...) information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com How do you deal with head lice that are unresponsive to treatment? CKS (formerly PRODIGY) have recently updated their head lice guideline [1] and this includes a section on reinfestation [2], this gives the following summary: “ How should I manage someone with head

2007 TRIP Answers

1519. What are the current recommendations regarding head lice infestations?

What are the current recommendations regarding head lice infestations? What are the current recommendations regarding head lice infestations? - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Liberating the literature ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers (...) , patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com What are the current recommendations regarding head lice infestations? CKS (formerly PRODIGY) have issued a guideline on head lice and this contains information on diagnosing the condition. Concerning the management of head lice, the guideline contains two

2008 TRIP Answers

1520. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with dimeticone (3/127, 2%) than with phenothrin (11/125, 9%; difference -6%, -12% to -1%). Per protocol this was 3 of 121 (3%) participants treated with dimeticone and 10 of 116 (9%) treated with phenothrin (difference -6%, -12% to -0.3%).Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. (...) Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4% dimeticone lotion for treatment of head louse infestation.Randomised controlled equivalence trial.Community, with home visits.214 young people aged 4 to 18 years and 39 adults with active head louse infestation.Two applications seven days apart of either 4.0% dimeticone lotion, applied for eight hours or overnight, or 0.5% phenothrin liquid, applied

2005 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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