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Lice

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1441. Fossil Liposcelididae and the lice ages (Insecta: Psocodea) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fossil Liposcelididae and the lice ages (Insecta: Psocodea) Fossilized, winged adults belonging to the psocopteran family Liposcelididae are reported in amber from the mid-Cretaceous (ca 100 Myr) of Myanmar (described as Cretoscelis burmitica, gen. et sp. n.) and the Miocene (ca 20 Myr) of the Dominican Republic (Belaphopsocus dominicus sp. n.). Cretoscelis is an extinct sister group to all other Liposcelididae and the family is the free-living sister group to the true lice (order Phthiraptera (...) , all of which are ectoparasites of birds and mammals). A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among genera of Liposcelididae, including fossils, reveals perfect correspondence between the chronology of fossils and cladistic rank of taxa. Lice and Liposcelididae minimally diverged 100 Myr, perhaps even in the earliest Cretaceous 145 Myr or earlier, in which case the hosts of lice would have been early mammals, early birds and possibly other feathered theropod dinosaurs, as well as haired

2005 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1442. Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a dominating pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment and control of infections by sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish with an initial mean weight of 132 g were experimentally medicated by a standard seven-day EB treatment, and the concentrations of drug in liver, muscle and skin were examined

2008 BMC pharmacology

1443. Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry-a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus

2007 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1444. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm altered the natural transmission dynamics of sea lice to juvenile Pacific salmon. We studied infections of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (...) (Oncorhynchus keta) as they passed an isolated salmon farm during their seaward migration down two long and narrow corridors. Our calculations suggest the infection pressure imposed by the farm was four orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels, resulting in a maximum infection pressure near the farm that was 73 times greater than ambient levels and exceeded ambient levels for 30 km along the two wild salmon migration corridors. The farm-produced cohort of lice parasitizing the wild juvenile hosts

2005 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1445. Rats, Lice, and Zinsser Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rats, Lice, and Zinsser 15789497 2005 04 28 2018 12 01 1080-6040 11 3 2005 Mar Emerging infectious diseases Emerging Infect. Dis. Rats, lice, and Zinsser. 492-6 Weissmann Gerald G New York University, Medicine OB CD 686, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA. weissg01@endeavor.med.nyu.edu eng Biography Historical Article Journal Article Portrait United States Emerg Infect Dis 9508155 1080-6040 IM Animals History, 20th Century Phthiraptera Rats Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne epidemiology history

2005 Emerging Infectious Diseases

1446. Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish The ecological impact of parasite transmission from fish farms is probably mediated by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon and the parasitic sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, analysis of the exposure period may resolve conflicting observations of epizootic mortality in field studies and parasite rejection in experiments. This is because (...) exposure periods can differ by 2-3 orders of magnitude, ranging from months in the field to hours in experiments. We developed a mathematical model of salmon-louse population dynamics, parametrized by a study that monitored naturally infected juvenile salmon held in ocean enclosures. Analysis of replicated trials indicates that lice suffer high mortality, particularly during pre-adult stages. The model suggests louse populations rapidly decline following brief exposure of juvenile salmon, similar

2009 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1447. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere Full Text available with Trip Pro

a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources (...) How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million

2009 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1448. Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of 0.5% Ivermectin Cream to Placebo in Lice Infested Subjects

First Posted: April 4, 2012 Last Update Posted: April 6, 2012 Last Verified: April 2012 Keywords provided by Topaz Pharmaceuticals Inc: PEDICULUS HUMANUS CAPITIS Head Lice Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Ivermectin Antiparasitic Agents Anti-Infective Agents (...) about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 2 Years and older (Child, Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Subject must have an active head lice infestation defined as: At least 1 live louse (adult and/or nymph) present on the scalp and/or hair, as determined by a trained

2009 Clinical Trials

1449. A Pharmacokinetics (PK) Study in Lice Infested Children 6 Months to 3 Years of Age

: 30 participants Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: An Open-label Study to Assess the Bioavailability, Safety, Local Tolerance, and Efficacy of 0.5% Ivermectin Cream in Subjects 6 Months to 3 Years of Age With Pediculus Humanus Capitis (Head Lice) Infestation Study Start Date : September 2009 Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2009 Actual Study Completion Date : November 2009 Resource links provided (...) this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 6 Months to 3 Years (Child) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Subject must be 6 months to 3 years of age, inclusive, when informed consent is signed. Subject must be infested with head lice as demonstrated by the presence of at least 1 live louse prior

2009 Clinical Trials

1450. Clinical efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired infection of sucking lice (Linognathus setosus) in dogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired infection of sucking lice (Linognathus setosus) in dogs. A clinical study was performed in 21 dogs to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin for the treatment of naturally acquired infection of sucking lice (Linognathus setosus [L.setosus]) in dogs. Each dog was randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. One group was treated with selamectin applied topically at a mean dosage of 7.9 mg/kg. The other group was treated (...) with permethrin applied topically at a mean dosage of 85.7 mg/kg. At day 42 posttreatment, all animals remaining in the study (10 treated with selamectin and six with permethrin) were clear of lice. In both groups, the reduction in lice counts from pretreatment values to day 42 was statistically significant at P< or =0.0001. Selamectin applied topically appeared to be effective against L. setosus infection in dogs.

2005 Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1451. Randomized clinical trial to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron for treating sea lice on Atlantic salmon. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized clinical trial to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron for treating sea lice on Atlantic salmon. A double-blind, randomized control clinical trial was performed to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron in controlling sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. A total of 40 sea cages from 3 commercial cage sites in Atlantic Canada were used in this Good Clinical Practice (GCP) trial. The teflubenzuron was administered in the feed (...) at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) biomass d(-1) for 7 d. Medicated and control cages were matched by site, cage size, and pre-treatment mean lice counts using cages as the unit of concern. Post-treatment lice counts and staging of developmental stages were performed at 1 and 2 wk after the end of treatment. Chalimus stages in medicated cages were significantly lower than in control cages at 1 wk (79% reduction in mean lice counts, p < 0.001), and at 2 wk (53% reduction, p < 0.001). Mobile (pre-adult and adult

2006 Diseases of aquatic organisms Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1452. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice. The mainstays of treatment of body-louse infestation in humans in a community setting are insecticides and the removal of infested clothing. We report here the dramatic effect that 3 doses of oral ivermectin (12 mg each), administered at 7-day intervals, have in reducing the total number of body lice in a cohort of homeless men from a shelter in Marseilles, France. We identified a baseline total of 1898 lice in the cohort. Over a 14-day period (...) , this number fell to 6 lice; the prevalence of infested individuals fell from 84.9% to 18.5%. Although this effect was not sustained at day 45, it establishes that ivermectin plays a novel role in the control of body-louse infestation in humans.

2006 Journal of Infectious Diseases

1453. Excretion of living Borrelia recurrentis in feces of infected human body lice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excretion of living Borrelia recurrentis in feces of infected human body lice. Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), caused by Borrelia recurrentis, is 1 of the most dangerous arthropod-borne diseases. Infection is thought to occur through louse crushing. Lice feces have not been shown to contain living borreliae. We infected 800 body lice by feeding them on a rabbit made spirochetemic by the injection of 2 x 106 borreliae. The life span of infected lice was not shortened. Once infected, lice (...) remained infected for life but did not transmit borreliae to their progeny or to nurse rabbits. B. recurrentis infection was observed throughout lice and spread into hemolymph on day 5 after infection. We describe 2 unprecedented phenomena. In hemolymph, B. recurrentis formed clumps of aggregated borreliae. Using immunofluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy, and culture, we detected borreliae excreted in lice feces beginning on day 14 after infection. We conclude that, similar to epidemic

2005 Journal of Infectious Diseases

1454. Molecular Identification of Lice from Pre-Columbian Mummies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Identification of Lice from Pre-Columbian Mummies. Three distinctly different lineages of head and body lice are known to parasitize humans. One lineage includes head and body lice and is currently worldwide in distribution (type A). The other 2 (types B and C) include only head lice and are geographically restricted. It was hypothesized that head louse phylotypes were exchanged only recently, after European exploration and colonization (after Columbus).To determine which louse type (...) or types were found in the Americas before European colonization, we used polymerase chain reaction in 2 laboratories to amplify DNA from 2 genes (Cytb and Cox1) belonging to 1000-year-old lice collected from Peruvian mummies.Only the worldwide type (type A) was found. Therefore, this phylotype was worldwide before European colonization, as type A lice were common in Europe, Africa, and Asia.The findings of this study show that several phylotypes of head lice have coexisted for centuries in humans

2008 Journal of Infectious Diseases

1455. Quantitative analysis of proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana in body lice, Pediculus humanus L. (Abstract)

Quantitative analysis of proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana in body lice, Pediculus humanus L. Although body louse is a well-known vector of trench fever, the growth kinetics of Bartonella quintana in body lice has not been fully understood. We performed a quantitative analysis of bacterial multiplication rate. B. quintana started proliferation in body lice 4 days after ingestion and was constantly excreted in the feces for at least 3 weeks. The number of bacteria in feces (...) reached the maximum 10(7)/louse per day on Day 15. The doubling time of B. quintana estimated from logistic regression formula was 21.3 hours. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of bacterial masses in feces. Immunofluorescent study using specific monoclonal antibody confirmed identification of B. quintana. Such an explosive multiplication rate and active excretion of B. quintana from the body lice could be related to epidemics of trench fever in developed countries.

2007 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1456. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model. (Abstract)

Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model. The human body louse, the natural vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, is able to experimentally transmit the normally flea-borne rickettsia R. typhi, suggesting that the relationships between the body louse and rickettsiae are not specific. We used our experimental infection model to test the ability of body lice to transmit two prevalent tick-borne (...) rickettsiae. Each of two rabbits was made bacteremic by injecting intravenously 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of either R. rickettsii or R. conorii. Four hundred body lice were infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and were compared with 400 uninfected lice. Each louse group was fed once a day on a separate seronegative rabbit. The survival of infected lice was not different from that of uninfected controls. Lice remained infected for their lifespan, excreted R. rickettsii and R. conorii

2006 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1457. Experimental infection of human body lice with Acinetobacter baumannii. (Abstract)

Experimental infection of human body lice with Acinetobacter baumannii. The human body louse is currently recognized as a vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana. Previous studies have reported the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from the body lice of homeless patients. To study how the body louse acquires A. baumannii, we infected a rabbit by infusing 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units of the louse strain of A. baumannii. Two hundred body lice were (...) infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and compared with 200 uninfected lice and two groups of 200 lice feeding on rabbits infected either with another strain of A. baumannii or A. lwoffii. Each louse group received maintenance feedings once a day on another seronegative rabbit. Body lice that fed on rabbits infused with each Acinetobacter species demonstrated a generalized infection. The body lice did not transmit their infection to the nurse rabbit by bite while feeding or to their progeny

2006 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1458. Recommendations for the management of "febrile seizures" Ad hoc Task Force of LICE Guidelines Commission. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recommendations for the management of "febrile seizures" Ad hoc Task Force of LICE Guidelines Commission. Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in childhood, affecting 2-5% of children. Simple febrile seizure is defined as a short (<15 min) generalized seizure, not recurring within 24 h, that occurs during a febrile illness not resulting from an acute disease of the nervous system in a child aged between 6 months and 5 years, with no neurologic deficits and no previous afebrile

2009 Epilepsia

1459. Body Lice

1 mm in diameter and, when viable, are opalescent. The nits hatch 6-10 days after they have been laid, giving rise to nymphs that become adults in 10 days. Three species of lice have adapted to live on humans: Head louse ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) - see separate article. Crab (or pubic) louse ( Pthirus pubis ). Body louse ( Pediculus humanus ). Pubic lice [ ] The pubic louse ( Pthirus pubis ) is 'crab'-shaped, grey-brown in colour,and about 2 mm in length. The female lays eggs (smaller than (...) [ ] : seborrhoeic scales, small crusts of scratched dermatitis, hair muffs (secretions from the hair follicle that are wrapped round the hair shaft). These can all be brushed off but nits are firmly attached to the hair. Body (clothing) lice ( Pediculus humanus ), which are slightly larger than pubic lice and found only on clothes; head lice ( Pediculus humanus capitis - slightly larger than pubic lice and found only on the scalp). Itchy red papules: . Management [ ] Consider whether the pubic lice infestation

2008 Mentor

1460. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae) infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae) infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae), on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae), but the original report

2009 Parasites & vectors

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