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41. The efficacy of Australian essential oils for the treatment of head lice infestation in children: A randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

The efficacy of Australian essential oils for the treatment of head lice infestation in children: A randomised controlled trial. The increase in resistance of head lice to neurotoxic pediculicides and public concern over their safety has led to an increase in alternative treatments, many of which are poorly researched or even untested.A multicentre, randomised, assessor-blind, parallel-group trial (Trial 1) was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of a head lice treatment containing (...) . In vitro tests were performed to further assess the ovicidal and pediculicidal efficacy of EO/LP solution.EO/LP solution was found to be more than twice as effective in curing head lice infestation as P/PB mousse in per-protocol participants (Trial 1; 83% vs 36%, P < 0.0001), and was also found to be 100% pediculicidal following a single application (Trial 2). Adverse events were limited to transient itching, burning or stinging. Further skin testing with the EO/LP solution reported no irritation

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2017 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

42. Efficacy of Peer Education for Adopting Preventive Behaviors against Head Lice Infestation in Female Elementary School Students: A Randomised Controlled Trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Peer Education for Adopting Preventive Behaviors against Head Lice Infestation in Female Elementary School Students: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Pediculosis is a common parasitic infestation in students worldwide, including Iran. This condition is more prevalent in populous and deprived communities with poor personal hygiene. This study sought to assess the efficacy of peer education for adopting preventive behaviors against pediculosis in female elementary school students based

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2017 PloS one

43. Management and Treatment of Human Lice. (PubMed)

Management and Treatment of Human Lice. Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words (...) of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable

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2017 BioMed research international

44. The unusual reproductive system of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus) (PubMed)

The unusual reproductive system of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus) Insect reproduction is extremely variable, but the implications of alternative genetic systems are often overlooked in studies on the evolution of insecticide resistance. Both ecotypes of Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), the human head and body lice, are human ectoparasites, the control of which is challenged by the recent spread of resistance alleles. The present study conclusively establishes for the first (...) time that both head and body lice reproduce through paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual genetic system in which males transmit only their maternally derived chromosomes. Here, we investigate inheritance patterns of parental genomes using a genotyping approach across families of both ecotypes and show that heterozygous males exclusively or preferentially pass on one allele only, whereas females transmit both in a Mendelian fashion. We do however observe occasional transmission of paternal

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2017 Medical and veterinary entomology

45. Impact of Community Scabies Treatment on Head Lice Prevalence in the Solomon Islands

Impact of Community Scabies Treatment on Head Lice Prevalence in the Solomon Islands Impact of Community Scabies Treatment on Head Lice Prevalence in the Solomon Islands - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before (...) adding more. Impact of Community Scabies Treatment on Head Lice Prevalence in the Solomon Islands The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03236168 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : August 1, 2017 Last Update Posted : March 6, 2018 Sponsor: London School of Hygiene and Tropical

2017 Clinical Trials

46. The Phe362Tyr mutation conveying resistance to organophosphates occurs in high frequencies in salmon lice collected from wild salmon and trout (PubMed)

The Phe362Tyr mutation conveying resistance to organophosphates occurs in high frequencies in salmon lice collected from wild salmon and trout The parasitic salmon louse, and its resistance to chemical delousing agents, represents one of the largest challenges to the salmon aquaculture industry. We genotyped lice sampled from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway with the recently identified Phe362Tyr mutation that conveys resistance to organophosphates. These results were compared (...) to data from lice sampled on farmed salmon in the same regions. The resistant (R) allele was observed in salmon lice from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway, although its frequency was highest in farming-intense regions. In most regions, the frequency of the R allele was higher in lice collected from wild sea trout than wild Atlantic salmon, and in all regions, the frequency of the R allele was similar in lice collected from wild sea trout and farmed Atlantic salmon. The R allele is only

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2017 Scientific reports

47. Head Lice: An Under-Recognized Tropical Problem (PubMed)

Head Lice: An Under-Recognized Tropical Problem 29187278 2018 11 13 1476-1645 97 6 2017 Dec The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. Head Lice: An Under-Recognized Tropical Problem. 1636-1637 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0656 Coscione Suny S Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Kositz Christian C Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical

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2017 The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

48. Coinfection takes its toll: Sea lice override the protective effects of vaccination against a bacterial pathogen in Atlantic salmon (PubMed)

Coinfection takes its toll: Sea lice override the protective effects of vaccination against a bacterial pathogen in Atlantic salmon Vaccination is considered crucial for disease prevention and fish health in the global salmon farming industry. Nevertheless, some aspects, such as the efficacy of vaccines, can be largely circumvented during natural coinfections. Sea lice are ectoparasitic copepods that can occur with a high prevalence in the field, are frequently found in co-infection with other

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2017 Scientific reports

49. A Clinical Endpoint Bioequivalence Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin 0.5% Lotion in the Treatment of Head Lice

A Clinical Endpoint Bioequivalence Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin 0.5% Lotion in the Treatment of Head Lice A Clinical Endpoint Bioequivalence Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin 0.5% Lotion in the Treatment of Head Lice - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Clinical Endpoint Bioequivalence Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin 0.5% Lotion in the Treatment of Head Lice The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03337490 Recruitment Status

2017 Clinical Trials

50. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta) (PubMed)

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta) Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes (...) in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2-5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other

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2017 Genome biology and evolution

51. Phylogenomics using Target-Restricted Assembly Resolves Intrageneric Relationships of Parasitic Lice (Phthiraptera: Columbicola) (PubMed)

Phylogenomics using Target-Restricted Assembly Resolves Intrageneric Relationships of Parasitic Lice (Phthiraptera: Columbicola) Parasitic "wing lice" (Phthiraptera: Columbicola) and their dove and pigeon hosts are a well-recognized model system for coevolutionary studies at the intersection of micro- and macroevolution. Selection on lice in microevolutionary time occurs as pigeons and doves defend themselves against lice by preening. In turn, behavioral and morphological adaptations (...) of the lice improve their ability to evade host defense. Over macroevolutionary time wing lice tend to cospeciate with their hosts; yet, some species of Columbicola have switched to new host species. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that influence coadaptation and codiversification in this system will substantially improve our understanding of coevolution in general. However, further work is hampered by the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Columbicola spp. and their hosts

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2017 Systematic biology

52. Case report: a new method for treatment of permethrin – resistant head lice (PubMed)

Case report: a new method for treatment of permethrin – resistant head lice Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation is an important disease worldwide, especially in children under 11 years old. Permethrin is the most common insecticide for treatment of human pediculosis, but nowadays resistance to permethrin and other pyrethroids has caused many treatment failures. The second treatment of choice is malathion.

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2017 Clinical Case Reports

53. Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee (PubMed)

Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee 28366167 2018 04 30 2018 11 13 1466-609X 21 1 2017 Apr 03 Critical care (London, England) Crit Care Lice, rodents, and many hopes: a rare disease in a young refugee. 81 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 Cutuli Salvatore L SL Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8 00168, Rome, Italy. De Pascale Gennaro G Department of Anesthesiology (...) Hypotension etiology Italy Jaundice etiology Leptospira pathogenicity Leptospirosis psychology therapy Lice Infestations psychology therapy Refugees psychology Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult ethnology psychology therapy Treatment Refusal ethnology psychology Borrelia recurrentis Borreliosis Leptospira Leptospirosis Migrants 2017 4 4 6 0 2017 4 4 6 0 2018 5 1 6 0 epublish 28366167 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 10.1186/s13054-017-1666-5 PMC5376700 PLoS One. 2009 Sep 18;4(9):e7093 19763264 Intensive Care

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2017 Critical Care

54. Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control (PubMed)

Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control Essential oil components (EOCs) are molecules with interesting application in pest control, these have been evaluated against different insect pest from more than 100 years, but their practical use is rather limited. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective (...) activity of these micellar systems was tested on head lice using an ex vivo immersion test.The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%), 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407). These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30

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2017 PeerJ

55. Control of lice infestation in horses using a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin topical application (PubMed)

Control of lice infestation in horses using a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin topical application Two open-controlled studies evaluated the tolerance and the efficacy of a 10 mg/mL deltamethrin-based pour-on solution (Deltanil®; Virbac, France) in treating (study 1) and preventing (study 2) natural Damalinia equi infestations in horses. In study 1, seven adult horses received 10 mL of the solution from mane to tail head on day 0 (D0). Four adult horses, living separately, served as non-treated controls (...) . All were naturally infected. Lice burden was recorded by counting the number of live parasites, bilaterally, over seven anatomic regions. Lesional score was based on alopecia, crusts, papules/pustules, nodules/plaques, scales and wounds, each assessed on a 0-3 scale. Evaluation was performed on D0 and subsequently weekly until D56 in treated horses and on D0 and D56 in control horses. In study 2, six adult horses free of parasites were similarly treated on D-2 and D30. Two adult horses, naturally

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2017 Irish veterinary journal

56. Lousy chicks: Chewing lice from the Imperial Shag, Leucocarbo atriceps (PubMed)

Lousy chicks: Chewing lice from the Imperial Shag, Leucocarbo atriceps Forty-one imperial shag chicks were sampled for lice during the breeding season of 2014 in Punta León, Argentina. We found 2 lice species, Pectinopygus turbinatus infesting the body and Piagetiella caputincisum present in the oral cavity of the birds. This constitutes the first host record for P. turbinatus and the first record for the continental Argentina for P. caputincisum. Ninety-three percent of the chicks were (...) infested by at least one lice species. P. turbinatus was present in all of the lousy chicks, while P. caputincisum infested 84.2% of them. The mean intensity was 29.5 and the range 1-129. There was no difference in prevalence, mean intensity or mean abundance between louse species. However, we found differences among the pattern of infestation of each species. Imperial shag chicks were infested by their parents during their first days of life by P. turbinatus, mainly in nymphal stage and by P

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2017 International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife

57. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (PubMed)

Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi (...) immunomodulation were up to 8-fold underexpressed in the F. margolisi infected copepodids treated with EMB compared with controls or either stressor alone. Additionally, these infected lice treated with EMB also overexpressed 101 transcripts involved in stress resistance and signalling compared to the other groups. In contrast, infected pre-adult lice did not display a stress response, suggesting a decrease in microsporidian virulence associated with lice maturity. Furthermore, copepodid infectivity

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2017 BMC genomics

58. Comparison of the Proliferation and Excretion of Bartonella quintana between Body and Head Lice Following Oral Challenge (PubMed)

Comparison of the Proliferation and Excretion of Bartonella quintana between Body and Head Lice Following Oral Challenge Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 (...) days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice. Nevertheless, the viability of B. quintana was significantly higher in body louse faeces. Comparison of immune responses in alimentary tract tissues revealed that basal transcription levels of peptidoglycan recognition protein and defensins were lower in body lice

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2017 Insect molecular biology

59. Head lice treatments

Head lice treatments USE OF HEAD LICE TREATMENTS IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF HEAD LICE TREATMENTS IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: February 2018 , Version: 2 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis (...) ) are parasitic insects that infest the hairs of the human head and feed on blood from the scalp. Head lice can be treated by ‘wet combing’ or with medicated lotions or sprays consisting of either silicone- or fatty acid ester-based preparations, or chemical insecticides. Crème rinses and shampoos are not considered effective and are therefore not recommended in the treatment of head lice. There are very limited human data on safety during pregnancy of any of the medicinal products used in the treatment

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

60. Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon (PubMed)

Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon The use of phytochemicals is a promising solution in biological control against salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant (...) and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate if Atlantic salmon fed two different doses of glucosinolate-enriched feeds would be protected against lice infection. The effects of feeding high dose of glucosinolates before the infection, and of high and low doses five weeks into the infection were studied.Skin was screened by 15 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR.A 25 % reduction (P < 0.05) in lice counts was obtained in the low dose

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2016 Parasites & vectors

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