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21. Complexin in ivermectin resistance in body lice (PubMed)

Complexin in ivermectin resistance in body lice Ivermectin has emerged as very promising pediculicide, particularly in cases of resistance to commonly used pediculicides. Recently, however, the first field-evolved ivermectin-resistance in lice was reported. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying ivermectin-resistance, we both looked for mutations in the ivermectin-target site (GluCl) and searched the entire proteome for potential new loci involved in resistance from laboratory (...) susceptible and ivermectin-selected resistant body lice. Polymorphism analysis of cDNA GluCl showed no non-silent mutations. Proteomic analysis identified 22 differentially regulated proteins, of which 13 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in the resistant strain. We evaluated the correlation between mRNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and found that the trend in transcriptional variation was consistent with the proteomic changes. Among differentially expressed proteins, a complexin i.e. a neuronal

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2018 PLoS genetics

22. Ectoparasite communities of small-bodied Malagasy primates: seasonal and socioecological influences on tick, mite and lice infestation of Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis in northwestern Madagascar (PubMed)

Ectoparasite communities of small-bodied Malagasy primates: seasonal and socioecological influences on tick, mite and lice infestation of Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis in northwestern Madagascar Ectoparasitic infections are of particular interest for endangered wildlife, as ectoparasites are potential vectors for inter- and intraspecific pathogen transmission and may be indicators to assess the health status of endangered populations. Here, ectoparasite dynamics in sympatric (...) ), whereas M. ravelobensis sleeps in mixed-sex groups in more open vegetation.Both mouse lemur species hosted ticks (Haemaphysalis sp.), lice (Lemurpediculus sp.) and mites (Trombiculidae gen. sp. and Laelaptidae gen. sp.). Host species, as well as temporal variations (month and year), were identified as the main factors influencing infestation. Tick infestation peaked in the late dry season and was significantly more often observed in M. murinus (P = 0.011), while lice infestation was more likely in M

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2018 Parasites & vectors

23. It works! Lumpfish can significantly lower sea lice infestation in large-scale salmon farming (PubMed)

It works! Lumpfish can significantly lower sea lice infestation in large-scale salmon farming To assess the efficacy of lumpfish grazing on attached sea lice on Atlantic salmon, six large-scale sea cages, (130 m circumference, 37,688 m3 volume) each stocked with approximately 200,000 salmon 0+ smolts, were stocked with a 4, 6 and 8% density (8000, 12,000 and 16,000, respectively) of lumpfish. The sea cages without lumpfish acted as controls. Sea lice infestation levels on the salmon were (...) monitored weekly and bi-weekly from 6 October to 17 May the subsequent year. Mortality of the lumpfish rose with decreasing sea temperatures to around 0.8% week-1 and did not vary between the lumpfish groups. There were clear signs of lumpfish grazing on sea lice, with significantly lower average levels of chalimus, pre-adult and adult female Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus sea lice per salmon. Lumpfish in the high density (8%) group reduced the mature female L. salmonis to levels equal

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2018 Biology open

24. Lice, Humans, and Microbes (PubMed)

Lice, Humans, and Microbes 29802698 2019 03 20 2008-823X 22 5 2018 09 Iranian biomedical journal Iran. Biomed. J. Study Break: Lice, Humans, and Microbes 292-3 Naddaf Saied Reza SR Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. eng Journal Article 2018 05 26 Iran Iran Biomed J 9814853 1028-852X 2018 5 27 6 0 2018 5 29 6 0 2018 5 29 6 0 ppublish 29802698 PMC6058184

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2018 Iranian biomedical journal

25. Impact of ivermectin administered for scabies treatment on the prevalence of head lice in Atoifi, Solomon Islands (PubMed)

Impact of ivermectin administered for scabies treatment on the prevalence of head lice in Atoifi, Solomon Islands Scabies and head lice are ubiquitous ectoparasitic infestations that are common across the Pacific Islands. Ivermectin is an effective treatment for both conditions, although the doses used vary. At a community level, mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is an effective strategy to decrease prevalence of scabies. To what extent MDA with ivermectin will also reduce (...) prevalence of head lice is unknown.Head lice prevalence was assessed before and after MDA with oral ivermectin (at a dose of 200 micrograms per kilogram of body weight) administered on day 1 and day 8. The primary outcome was the change in prevalence of head louse infestation at two weeks compared to baseline. Longer term efficacy was assessed three months after MDA.118 participants were enrolled. Baseline prevalence of active head louse infestation was 25.4% (95% CI 18.4-34.0). At two-week follow-up

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

26. Derivation of the economic value of R0 for macroparasitic diseases and application to sea lice in salmon (PubMed)

Derivation of the economic value of R0 for macroparasitic diseases and application to sea lice in salmon Macroparasites, such as ticks, lice, and helminths, are a concern in livestock and aquaculture production, and can be controlled by genetic improvement of the host population. Genetic improvement should aim at reducing the rate at which parasites spread across the farmed population. This rate is determined by the basic reproduction ratio, i.e. [Formula: see text], which is the appropriate (...) depends on whether genetic improvement is used for reducing expenditures or losses. For sea lice in salmon, the economic value depends on a reduction in expenditures with constant losses, and is estimated to be 0.065€/unit [Formula: see text]/kg production.Response to selection for measures of disease prevalence cannot be predicted from quantitative genetic theory alone. Moreover, many studies fail to address the issue of whether genetic improvement results in reduced losses or expenditures. Using

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2018 Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE

27. Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in ectoparasite populations: Coevolutionary patterns in Apodemus mice and their lice (PubMed)

Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in ectoparasite populations: Coevolutionary patterns in Apodemus mice and their lice A degree of host specificity, manifested by the processes of host-parasite cospeciations and host switches, is assumed to be a major determinant of parasites' evolution. To understand these patterns and formulate appropriate ecological hypotheses, we need better insight into the coevolutionary processes at the intraspecific level, including

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2018 Ecology and evolution

28. New records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Egyptian pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), with description of one new species. (PubMed)

New records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Egyptian pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), with description of one new species. Little information is available about the chewing lice of wild birds of Egypt, including common groups such as pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Through this work, parasitic chewing lice of common columbiformes of Egypt were revised including new data. Three species of pigeons and doves (Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky 1838, Spilopelia (...) senegalensis Linnaeus 1766 and Columba livia Gmelin 1789) were examined for chewing lice at three different localities. A total of 124 specimens of lice were collected. Nine species were identified from these samples; one species (Columbicola joudiae n. sp.) was considered a new species to science, six species were recorded from Egypt for the first time, and two species have been identified in Egypt before. Taxonomic and ecological remarks for all identified chewing lice samples are provided along

2018 Acta Tropica

29. Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil (PubMed)

Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil 29451593 2018 05 01 2018 11 13 1678-9946 60 2018 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo Preliminary report of body lice infesting homeless people in Brazil. e9 S0036-46652018005000700 10.1590/s1678-9946201860009 Gravinatti Mara Lucia ML Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Faccini-Martínez Álvaro A ÁA Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do (...) Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Ruys Sandro Ricardo SR Centro Social Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Timenetsky Jorge J Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Biondo Alexander Welker AW Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. eng Letter 2018 02 15 Brazil Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 7507484 0036-4665 IM Animals Brazil Homeless Persons Humans Lice Infestations parasitology prevention

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2018 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

30. Association between sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on Atlantic salmon farms and wild Pacific salmon in Muchalat Inlet, Canada (PubMed)

Association between sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on Atlantic salmon farms and wild Pacific salmon in Muchalat Inlet, Canada Growth in salmon aquaculture over the past two decades has raised concerns regarding the potential impacts of the industry on neighboring ecosystems and wild fish productivity. Despite limited evidence, sea lice have been identified as a major cause for the decline in some wild Pacific salmon populations on the west coast of Canada. We used sea lice count (...) and management data from farmed and wild salmon, collected over 10 years (2007-2016) in the Muchalat Inlet region of Canada, to evaluate the association between sea lice recorded on salmon farms with the infestation levels on wild out-migrating Chum salmon. Our analyses indicated a significant positive association between the sea lice abundance on farms and the likelihood that wild fish would be infested. However, increased abundance of lice on farms was not significantly associated with the levels

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2018 Scientific reports

31. Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice? (PubMed)

Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice? Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods are used to control human lice. Attempts have been made to eradicate head lice Pediculus humanus capitis by hot air, soaking in various fluids or asphyxiation using occlusive treatments. In this study, we assessed the maximum time that head lice can survive anoxia (oxygen deprivation) and their ability to survive prolonged water immersion. We also observed the ingress of fluids across louse tracheae and spiracle (...) characteristics contrasting with those described in the literature. We showed that 100% of lice can withstand 8 h of anoxia and 12.2% survived 14 h of anoxia; survival was 48.9% in the untreated control group at 14 h. However, all lice had died following 16 h of anoxia. In contrast, the survival rate of water-immersed lice was significantly higher when compared with non-immersed lice after 6 h (100% vs. 76.6%, p = 0.0037), and 24 h (50.9% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.0003). Although water-immersed lice did not close

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2018 Parasite

32. High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes (PubMed)

High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing (...) an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations. Benzoylureas disrupt chitin synthesis, formation, and deposition during all moulting events. However, the mechanism(s) of action are not yet fully understood and most research completed to date has focused on insects. We exposed the first parasitic stage of L. salmonis to 700 ppb lufenuron for three hours

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2018 International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance

33. Head lice infestations in rural Honduras: the need for an integrated approach to control neglected tropical diseases. (PubMed)

Head lice infestations in rural Honduras: the need for an integrated approach to control neglected tropical diseases. Pediculosis capitis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that receives little attention in countries where it continues to be endemic. This study aimed to understand the impact of Pediculus humanus capitis infestations in the lives of Honduran children living in extreme poverty.A qualitative study on head lice infestation was conducted in June 2016 in a rural community (...) in Honduras. Parents were invited to bring their children for head lice inspection using a dry-combing technique with a stainless steel-toothed comb with suction power. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to participants. Questions were broadly grouped into knowledge about transmission, control practices, barriers to treatment, and the overall impact of these infestations in children's wellbeing. Responses were coded, categorized, and organized through a theme-based approach.In total, 52

2018 International Journal of Dermatology

34. Head lice

Head lice Head lice - NICE CKS Clinical Knowledge Summaries Share Head lice: Summary Head lice ( Pediculus humanus capitis) are parasitic insects that infest the hairs of the human head and feed on blood from the scalp. Head lice infestation is known as pediculosis capitis. The severity of infestation varies from a few lice (less than 10) to more than 1000 in severe cases, but a typical infestation might have about 30 lice per head. If left untreated, head lice infestation may persist for long (...) periods. Detection combing is the best way to confirm the presence of lice. This is the systematic combing of wet or dry hair using a fine-toothed (0.2–0.3 mm apart) head lice detection comb. A diagnosis of active head lice infestation should only be made if a live head louse is found. An itching scalp is not sufficient to diagnose active infestation. The presence of louse eggs alone, whether hatched (nits) or unhatched, is not proof of active infestation. A person should only be treated if a live

2016 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

35. Effectiveness of "No More" Anti-lice Medical Device to Kill Lice and Lice Eggs

Effectiveness of "No More" Anti-lice Medical Device to Kill Lice and Lice Eggs Effectiveness of "No More" Anti-lice Medical Device to Kill Lice and Lice Eggs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Effectiveness of "No More" Anti-lice Medical Device to Kill Lice and Lice Eggs The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569580 Recruitment Status : Unknown Verified October 2015 by Pharmayeda. Recruitment status was: Recruiting First Posted : October 7, 2015 Last Update Posted : October 7, 2015

2015 Clinical Trials

36. Efficacy and Safety of Topical 0.5% Ivermectin Lotion for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation in Filipinos

Efficacy and Safety of Topical 0.5% Ivermectin Lotion for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation in Filipinos Efficacy and Safety of Topical 0.5% Ivermectin Lotion for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation in Filipinos - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Efficacy and Safety of Topical 0.5% Ivermectin Lotion for the Treatment of Head Lice Infestation in Filipinos The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03286101 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : September 18, 2017 Last

2017 Clinical Trials

37. Changing Demographics and Prevalence of Body Lice among Homeless Persons, Marseille, France. (PubMed)

Changing Demographics and Prevalence of Body Lice among Homeless Persons, Marseille, France. The prevalence of body lice among 2,288 sheltered homeless persons in the city of Marseille during 2000-2017 was 12.2% and significantly decreased over time. We report a positive association between body lice infestations and older age, duration of stays in France for migrants, frequent consumption of alcohol, and tobacco smoking.

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

38. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran. (PubMed)

Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran. Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo (...) in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran.In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation

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2017 BMC Dermatology

39. Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - A review. (PubMed)

Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - A review. The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector (...) important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious

2017 Acta Tropica

40. The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene Occurs on a Minichromosome with Extensive Heteroplasmy in Two Species of Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor. (PubMed)

The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene Occurs on a Minichromosome with Extensive Heteroplasmy in Two Species of Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor.

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2016 PLoS ONE

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